Abstract

High-frequency gratings with rectangular-groove profiles are used to generate high-efficiency beam splitters and beam deflectors. The effects of the grating design parameters, i.e., period, groove depth, duty cycle, number of phase levels, and polarization state (TE and TM) of the incoming signal, are considered. The case of the binary beam splitter grating is analyzed by using rigorous electromagnetic grating analysis. Fabrication techniques are presented in which three different lithographic techniques are considered (optical contact, deep-UV stepper reduction, and electron-beam direct write). Experimental results of 97% efficiency for the beam splitter grating and up to 80% for the beam deflector grating are reported.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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