Abstract

Conical continuum Stokes and anti-Stokes emissions are observed when intense 100-fs/620-nm ultrafast laser pulses propagate through an ethylene glycol medium. The angle of the anti-Stokes conical emission is modeled by class-II Raman and four-photon parametric generations in a small-scale filament with a nonlinear index change.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Q. Z. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Supercontinuum generation in condensed matter,” in The Supercontinuum Laser Source, R. R. Alfano, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989), Chap. 2, pp. 33–90.
  2. R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970); “Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filament in crystal and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592–594 (1970); “Direct distortion of electronic clouds of rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217–1220 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. R. Alfano, L. L. Hope, S. L. Shapiro, “Electronic mechanism for production of self-phase modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 433–438 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, C. Hirlimann, R. Yen, W. J. Tomlinson, “Femtosecond white-light continuum pulses” Opt. Lett. 8, 1–3 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. L. Smith, P. Liu, N. Bloembergen, “Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAG:Nd laser,” Phys. Rev. A. 15, 2396–2403 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. Cheung, D. M. Rank, R. Y. Chaio, C. H. Townes, “Phase modulation of Q-switched laser beam in small-scale filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 786–789 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Shimoda, “Angular distribution of stimulated Raman radiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 86–92 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. A. Saachi, C. H. Townes, “Anti-Stokes generation in trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. 174, 439–447 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Harter, R. Boyd, “Four-wave mixing resonantly enhanced by ac-Stark split levels in self-trapped filament of light,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 739–748 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Golub, “Optical characteristics of supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 15, 305–307 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Golub, R. Shuker, G. Erez, “On the optical characteristics of the conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 57, 143–145 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Golub, G. Erez, R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. J. Campillo, S. L. Shapiro, B. R. Suydam, “Periodic breakup of optical beam due to self-focusing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 628–630 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, “Stimulated four-photon interaction and its influence on stimulated Rayleigh-wing scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158–1161 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1986 (3)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Golub, R. Shuker, G. Erez, “On the optical characteristics of the conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 57, 143–145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Golub, G. Erez, R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. J. Harter, R. Boyd, “Four-wave mixing resonantly enhanced by ac-Stark split levels in self-trapped filament of light,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 739–748 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1977 (1)

W. L. Smith, P. Liu, N. Bloembergen, “Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAG:Nd laser,” Phys. Rev. A. 15, 2396–2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. J. Campillo, S. L. Shapiro, B. R. Suydam, “Periodic breakup of optical beam due to self-focusing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 628–630 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. R. Alfano, L. L. Hope, S. L. Shapiro, “Electronic mechanism for production of self-phase modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 433–438 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970); “Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filament in crystal and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592–594 (1970); “Direct distortion of electronic clouds of rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217–1220 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

C. A. Saachi, C. H. Townes, “Anti-Stokes generation in trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. 174, 439–447 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Cheung, D. M. Rank, R. Y. Chaio, C. H. Townes, “Phase modulation of Q-switched laser beam in small-scale filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 786–789 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

K. Shimoda, “Angular distribution of stimulated Raman radiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 86–92 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, “Stimulated four-photon interaction and its influence on stimulated Rayleigh-wing scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158–1161 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, L. L. Hope, S. L. Shapiro, “Electronic mechanism for production of self-phase modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 433–438 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970); “Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filament in crystal and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592–594 (1970); “Direct distortion of electronic clouds of rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217–1220 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Q. Z. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Supercontinuum generation in condensed matter,” in The Supercontinuum Laser Source, R. R. Alfano, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989), Chap. 2, pp. 33–90.

Bloembergen, N.

W. L. Smith, P. Liu, N. Bloembergen, “Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAG:Nd laser,” Phys. Rev. A. 15, 2396–2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R.

D. J. Harter, R. Boyd, “Four-wave mixing resonantly enhanced by ac-Stark split levels in self-trapped filament of light,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 739–748 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. J.

A. J. Campillo, S. L. Shapiro, B. R. Suydam, “Periodic breakup of optical beam due to self-focusing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 628–630 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chaio, R. Y.

A. C. Cheung, D. M. Rank, R. Y. Chaio, C. H. Townes, “Phase modulation of Q-switched laser beam in small-scale filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 786–789 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, A. C.

A. C. Cheung, D. M. Rank, R. Y. Chaio, C. H. Townes, “Phase modulation of Q-switched laser beam in small-scale filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 786–789 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, “Stimulated four-photon interaction and its influence on stimulated Rayleigh-wing scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158–1161 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erez, G.

I. Golub, G. Erez, R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Golub, R. Shuker, G. Erez, “On the optical characteristics of the conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 57, 143–145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, “Stimulated four-photon interaction and its influence on stimulated Rayleigh-wing scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158–1161 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Golub, I.

I. Golub, “Optical characteristics of supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 15, 305–307 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Golub, R. Shuker, G. Erez, “On the optical characteristics of the conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 57, 143–145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Golub, G. Erez, R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Harter, D. J.

D. J. Harter, R. Boyd, “Four-wave mixing resonantly enhanced by ac-Stark split levels in self-trapped filament of light,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 739–748 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C.

Ho, P. P.

Q. Z. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Supercontinuum generation in condensed matter,” in The Supercontinuum Laser Source, R. R. Alfano, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989), Chap. 2, pp. 33–90.

Hope, L. L.

R. R. Alfano, L. L. Hope, S. L. Shapiro, “Electronic mechanism for production of self-phase modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 433–438 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, P. L.

R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, “Stimulated four-photon interaction and its influence on stimulated Rayleigh-wing scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158–1161 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P.

W. L. Smith, P. Liu, N. Bloembergen, “Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAG:Nd laser,” Phys. Rev. A. 15, 2396–2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rank, D. M.

A. C. Cheung, D. M. Rank, R. Y. Chaio, C. H. Townes, “Phase modulation of Q-switched laser beam in small-scale filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 786–789 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saachi, C. A.

C. A. Saachi, C. H. Townes, “Anti-Stokes generation in trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. 174, 439–447 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

Shapiro, S. L.

A. J. Campillo, S. L. Shapiro, B. R. Suydam, “Periodic breakup of optical beam due to self-focusing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 628–630 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, L. L. Hope, S. L. Shapiro, “Electronic mechanism for production of self-phase modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 433–438 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970); “Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filament in crystal and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592–594 (1970); “Direct distortion of electronic clouds of rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217–1220 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, K.

K. Shimoda, “Angular distribution of stimulated Raman radiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 86–92 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Shuker, R.

I. Golub, R. Shuker, G. Erez, “On the optical characteristics of the conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 57, 143–145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Golub, G. Erez, R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, P. Liu, N. Bloembergen, “Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAG:Nd laser,” Phys. Rev. A. 15, 2396–2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suydam, B. R.

A. J. Campillo, S. L. Shapiro, B. R. Suydam, “Periodic breakup of optical beam due to self-focusing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 628–630 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Townes, C. H.

A. C. Cheung, D. M. Rank, R. Y. Chaio, C. H. Townes, “Phase modulation of Q-switched laser beam in small-scale filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 786–789 (1968).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Saachi, C. H. Townes, “Anti-Stokes generation in trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. 174, 439–447 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Z.

Q. Z. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Supercontinuum generation in condensed matter,” in The Supercontinuum Laser Source, R. R. Alfano, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989), Chap. 2, pp. 33–90.

Yen, R.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. J. Campillo, S. L. Shapiro, B. R. Suydam, “Periodic breakup of optical beam due to self-focusing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 628–630 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

I. Golub, G. Erez, R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Shimoda, “Angular distribution of stimulated Raman radiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 86–92 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Golub, R. Shuker, G. Erez, “On the optical characteristics of the conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 57, 143–145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. A. Saachi, C. H. Townes, “Anti-Stokes generation in trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. 174, 439–447 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. J. Harter, R. Boyd, “Four-wave mixing resonantly enhanced by ac-Stark split levels in self-trapped filament of light,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 739–748 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, L. L. Hope, S. L. Shapiro, “Electronic mechanism for production of self-phase modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 433–438 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

W. L. Smith, P. Liu, N. Bloembergen, “Superbroadening in H2O and D2O by self-focused picosecond pulses from a YAG:Nd laser,” Phys. Rev. A. 15, 2396–2403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. C. Cheung, D. M. Rank, R. Y. Chaio, C. H. Townes, “Phase modulation of Q-switched laser beam in small-scale filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 786–789 (1968).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano, S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970); “Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filament in crystal and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592–594 (1970); “Direct distortion of electronic clouds of rare-gas atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 1217–1220 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, “Stimulated four-photon interaction and its influence on stimulated Rayleigh-wing scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158–1161 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Q. Z. Wang, P. P. Ho, R. R. Alfano, “Supercontinuum generation in condensed matter,” in The Supercontinuum Laser Source, R. R. Alfano, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989), Chap. 2, pp. 33–90.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup in which the amplified 100-fs/620-nm laser pulses were focused into a ethylene glycol jet. A narrow-band filter was used to select portions of the supercontinuum emission. The spatial distribution of the emission is observed on the screen where the angle measurement and photograph are taken. CPM, colliding-pulse mode-locked laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured phase refractive indices of the ethylene glycol are plotted by the squares. The solid curve is the best fit to the square points from Eq. (1), which gives the values for the phase refractive indices. The computed group refractive index is plotted as a dashed curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed spatial distribution of the emission on the screen when a 530-nm narrow-band filter was used. Photographs (a) and (b) are for incident laser power of 3 × 1012 and 3 × 1013 W cm−2 respectively. The angle subtend by the ring is 0.09 rad.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular distribution as a function of the first-order anti-Stokes emission outside the ethylene glycol jet when the laser power is 3 × 1012 W cm−2. The squares correspond to the experimental data, the dashed curve is calculated from a class-II omission, and the solid curve is calculated for a class-II emission plus a nonlinear index change.

Equations (3)

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n 2 ( λ ) = A 0 + A 1 λ 2 + A 2 λ 2 + A 3 λ 4 + A 4 λ 6 + A 5 λ 8 ,
φ A 2 = 2 Δ K A K A a 2 2 l 2 ,
φ A 2 = 2 Δ K A K A + 4 Δ K K A a 2 2 l 2 ,

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