Abstract

The thermal stability of Mo–Si multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering is studied. It is found that degradation of x-ray reflectivity of Mo–Si multilayers under heat loading is connected with the roughening of Mo–Si interfaces and the formation of compounds MoxSiy. To avoid these degradation mechanisms we fabricated and tested MoSi2–Si multilayers under heat loading. The MoSi2–Si multilayer appeared to be much more stable both in period and x-ray reflectivity because of thermodynamic equilibrium of the components MoSi2 and Si at the interface. The working temperature of MoSi2–Si multilayers reaches 1000 K.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Benattar, ed., X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140 (1989).
  2. E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayer for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196–200 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Kortright, St. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-ray radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 168–174 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. C. Chang, B. C. Giessen, eds., Synthetic Modulated Structures (Academic, New York, 1988).
  7. K. Hooloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Rines, Diagrams of Phase Equilibrium in Metallurgy (Metallurgizdat, Moscow, 1960).
  9. M. Hansen, K. Anderko, Structure of Binary Alloys (Metallurgizdat, Moscow, 1962), Vol. 2.
  10. S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).
  11. A. V. Vinogradov, I. V. Kozhenikov, V. E. Levashov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. V. Kondratenko, I. F. Mikhailov, A. I. Fedorenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Reflectivity measurements of multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140, 530–532 (1989).
  12. A. K. Pefford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High-resolution electron microscopy study of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. E. Cook, J. E. Hilliard, “Effect of gradient energy of diffusion in gold-silver alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2191–2198 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. I. Fedorenko, S. D. Fanchenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, “Development of x-ray multilayer mirrors with enhanced thermal and radiation stability,” presented at the Fourth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Chester, UK, 15–19 July 1991, paper C7.
  15. I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Basic formulae of XUV multilayer optics,” Phys. Scr. 17, 137–147 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1991

J. B. Kortright, St. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-ray radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 168–174 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

K. Hooloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196–200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Basic formulae of XUV multilayer optics,” Phys. Scr. 17, 137–147 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Pefford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High-resolution electron microscopy study of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayer for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. E. Cook, J. E. Hilliard, “Effect of gradient energy of diffusion in gold-silver alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2191–2198 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Anderko, K.

M. Hansen, K. Anderko, Structure of Binary Alloys (Metallurgizdat, Moscow, 1962), Vol. 2.

Borisova, S. S.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

Ceglio, N. M.

A. K. Pefford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High-resolution electron microscopy study of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

A. K. Pefford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High-resolution electron microscopy study of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chirkov, V. A.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

A. V. Vinogradov, I. V. Kozhenikov, V. E. Levashov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. V. Kondratenko, I. F. Mikhailov, A. I. Fedorenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Reflectivity measurements of multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140, 530–532 (1989).

Cook, H. E.

H. E. Cook, J. E. Hilliard, “Effect of gradient energy of diffusion in gold-silver alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2191–2198 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Do, K. B.

K. Hooloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fanchenko, S. D.

A. I. Fedorenko, S. D. Fanchenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, “Development of x-ray multilayer mirrors with enhanced thermal and radiation stability,” presented at the Fourth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Chester, UK, 15–19 July 1991, paper C7.

Fedorenko, A. I.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

A. I. Fedorenko, S. D. Fanchenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, “Development of x-ray multilayer mirrors with enhanced thermal and radiation stability,” presented at the Fourth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Chester, UK, 15–19 July 1991, paper C7.

A. V. Vinogradov, I. V. Kozhenikov, V. E. Levashov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. V. Kondratenko, I. F. Mikhailov, A. I. Fedorenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Reflectivity measurements of multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140, 530–532 (1989).

Fujimori, H.

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M.

M. Hansen, K. Anderko, Structure of Binary Alloys (Metallurgizdat, Moscow, 1962), Vol. 2.

Hawryluk, A. M.

A. K. Pefford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High-resolution electron microscopy study of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hilliard, J. E.

H. E. Cook, J. E. Hilliard, “Effect of gradient energy of diffusion in gold-silver alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2191–2198 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hooloway, K.

K. Hooloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196–200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196–200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Joksch, St.

J. B. Kortright, St. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-ray radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 168–174 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koiwa, M.

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenko, V. V.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

A. I. Fedorenko, S. D. Fanchenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, “Development of x-ray multilayer mirrors with enhanced thermal and radiation stability,” presented at the Fourth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Chester, UK, 15–19 July 1991, paper C7.

A. V. Vinogradov, I. V. Kozhenikov, V. E. Levashov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. V. Kondratenko, I. F. Mikhailov, A. I. Fedorenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Reflectivity measurements of multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140, 530–532 (1989).

Kortright, J. B.

J. B. Kortright, St. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-ray radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 168–174 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kozhenikov, I. V.

A. V. Vinogradov, I. V. Kozhenikov, V. E. Levashov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. V. Kondratenko, I. F. Mikhailov, A. I. Fedorenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Reflectivity measurements of multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140, 530–532 (1989).

Kozhevnikov, I. V.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Basic formulae of XUV multilayer optics,” Phys. Scr. 17, 137–147 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lepetre, Y.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayer for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Levashov, V. E.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

A. V. Vinogradov, I. V. Kozhenikov, V. E. Levashov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. V. Kondratenko, I. F. Mikhailov, A. I. Fedorenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Reflectivity measurements of multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140, 530–532 (1989).

Liu, W.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196–200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lyakhovskaya, I. I.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

A. V. Vinogradov, I. V. Kozhenikov, V. E. Levashov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. V. Kondratenko, I. F. Mikhailov, A. I. Fedorenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Reflectivity measurements of multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140, 530–532 (1989).

Mikhailov, I. F.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

A. V. Vinogradov, I. V. Kozhenikov, V. E. Levashov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. V. Kondratenko, I. F. Mikhailov, A. I. Fedorenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Reflectivity measurements of multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140, 530–532 (1989).

Nakajima, H.

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nutt, S. R.

A. K. Pefford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High-resolution electron microscopy study of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pefford-Long, A. K.

A. K. Pefford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High-resolution electron microscopy study of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pershin, Yu. P.

A. I. Fedorenko, S. D. Fanchenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, “Development of x-ray multilayer mirrors with enhanced thermal and radiation stability,” presented at the Fourth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Chester, UK, 15–19 July 1991, paper C7.

Ponomarenko, A. G.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

A. I. Fedorenko, S. D. Fanchenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, “Development of x-ray multilayer mirrors with enhanced thermal and radiation stability,” presented at the Fourth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Chester, UK, 15–19 July 1991, paper C7.

Rines, S.

S. Rines, Diagrams of Phase Equilibrium in Metallurgy (Metallurgizdat, Moscow, 1960).

Sagitov, S. I.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

A. V. Vinogradov, I. V. Kozhenikov, V. E. Levashov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. V. Kondratenko, I. F. Mikhailov, A. I. Fedorenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Reflectivity measurements of multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140, 530–532 (1989).

Schuller, I. K.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayer for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shulakov, A. S.

S. S. Borisova, I. V. Kozhevnikov, V. V. Kondratenko, V. E. Levashov, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, I. F. Mikhailov, A. G. Ponomarenko, S. I. Sagitov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. A. Chirkov, A. S. Shulakov, “Investigation of reflectivity of Ti–Si multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 59, 78–83 (1989).

Sinclair, R.

K. Hooloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayer for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

A. K. Pefford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High-resolution electron microscopy study of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, M. B.

A. K. Pefford-Long, M. B. Stearns, C.-H. Chang, S. R. Nutt, D. G. Stearns, N. M. Ceglio, A. M. Hawryluk, “High-resolution electron microscopy study of x-ray multilayer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1422–1428 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

I. V. Kozhevnikov, A. V. Vinogradov, “Basic formulae of XUV multilayer optics,” Phys. Scr. 17, 137–147 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vinogradov, I. V. Kozhenikov, V. E. Levashov, S. I. Sagitov, V. A. Chirkov, V. V. Kondratenko, I. F. Mikhailov, A. I. Fedorenko, I. I. Lyakhovskaya, “Reflectivity measurements of multilayer x-ray mirrors at normal incidence,” in X-Ray Instrumentation in Medicine and Biology, Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, and Synchrotron Radiation, R. Benattar, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1140, 530–532 (1989).

Wu, Z.

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196–200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yulin, S. A.

A. I. Fedorenko, S. D. Fanchenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, “Development of x-ray multilayer mirrors with enhanced thermal and radiation stability,” presented at the Fourth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Chester, UK, 15–19 July 1991, paper C7.

Ziegler, E.

J. B. Kortright, St. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-ray radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 168–174 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayer for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zubarev, E. N.

A. I. Fedorenko, S. D. Fanchenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, E. N. Zubarev, S. A. Yulin, “Development of x-ray multilayer mirrors with enhanced thermal and radiation stability,” presented at the Fourth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Chester, UK, 15–19 July 1991, paper C7.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, I. K. Schuller, E. Spiller, “Stability of multilayer for synchrotron optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1354–1356 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “Interdiffusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, X. Jiang, W. Liu, Z. Wu, “Thermal stability of multilayer films Pt/Si, W/Si, Mo/Si, and W/C,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 196–200 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, St. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-ray radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 168–174 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Hooloway, K. B. Do, R. Sinclair, “Interfacial reactions on annealing molybdenum–silicon multilayers,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 474–480 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative reflectivity in the first Bragg peak of Mo–Si (curves 1, 2, 3) and MoSi2–Si (curve 4) multilayers with an ∼8-nm period as functions of annealing time τ at different temperatures: curve 1, 570 K; curve 2, 670 K; curve 3 and 4, 770 K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative decrease of Mo–Si (curves 1, 2, 3) and MoSi2–Si (curve 4) multilayer periods as functions of annealing time τ at different temperatures: curve 1, 570 K; curve 2, 670 K; curves 3 and 4, 770 K. All the multilayers have 20 periods with H ∼ 8 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electron microscopy cross-sectional images and electron diffraction patterns of Mo–Si [(a), (b), (c)] and MoSi2–Si [(d), (e), (f)] multilayers in an as-deposited state [(a), (d)] and after annealing at different temperatures: (b), (e) 770 K; (f) 970 K; (c) 1170 K

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative reflectivity of 20-period Mo–Si (circles) and MoSi2–Si (triangles) multilayers with an ∼8-nm period as functions of annealing temperature T (annealing time 1 h.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maximum reflectivity R(λ) (solid curves) and effective number of periods Neff (dashed curves) of Mo–Si (curves 1) and MoSi2–Si (curves 2) x-ray mirrors as functions of soft x-ray wavelength λ.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Experimental Reflectivities of Spherical Mo–Si and MoSi2–Si Focusing Mirrors at Normal Incidence of Soft X-Rays

Equations (1)

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Mo ; Mo 3 Si ; Mo 5 Si 3 ; MoSi 2 ; Si .

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