Abstract

We flew specimens of eight different optical coating materials in low earth orbit as part of the Long Duration Exposure Facility manifest to determine their ability to withstand exposure to the residual atomic O and other environmental effects at those altitudes. We included samples of Al, Au, Ir, Os, Pt, Al + MgF2, Al + SiOx, and chemical-vapor-deposited SiC, representing reflective optical applications from the vacuum ultraviolet through the visible portions of the spectrum. We found that the majority of the materials suffered sufficient reflectance degradation to warrant careful consideration in the design of future space-flight instrumentation.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, A. R. Toft, “Low earth orbit environmental effects on osmium and related optical thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2660–2665 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Samples were provided by W. J. Choyke, Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.,through W. D. Partlow, Westinghouse Research and Development Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.
  3. W. R. Hunter, “On the cause of errors in reflectance vs angle of incidence measurements and the design of reflectometers to eliminate the errors,” Appl. Opt. 6, 2140–2150 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. N. Peters, J. C. Gregory, J. T. Swann, “Effects on optical systems from interactions with oxygen atoms in low earth orbits,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1290–1298 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Visentine, “Excerpt from internal correspondence at NASA/Johnson Space Center,” in LDEF Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, W. Kinard, ed. LDEF Corp., Silver Spring, Md., 1990), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 8–9.
  6. J. F. Osantowski, “Contamination sensitivity of typical mirror coatings—a parametric study,” in Spacecraft Contamination Environment, C. R. Maag, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.338, 80–86 (1983).
  7. J. L. Stanford, H. E. Bennett, “Enhancement of surface plasma resonance absorption in mirrors by overcoating with dielectrics,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2556–2557 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, “Increasing the far-ultraviolet reflectance of silicon-oxide-protected aluminum mirrors by ultraviolet irradiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1096–1100 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Herzig, R. S. Spencer, J. J. Zaniewski, “Effect of UV irradiation on the reflectance of silicon-oxide-protected aluminum in the Far UV,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3031–3032 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. B. Heaney, J. J. Triolo, “Solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of aluminum coated with silicon oxide films prepared by evaporation of silicon monoxide,” Appl. Opt. 9, 339–344 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Ritter, G. Phillips, S. King, P. Haskins, “Beryllium 7 discovered in LEO atmosphere,” in LDEF Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, W. Kinard, ed. (LDEF Corp., Silver Spring, Md., 1990), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 7–8.
  12. J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of atomic oxygen on paint and optical coatings,” presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 October–2 November 1983.

1986

1985

1978

1970

1969

1967

1963

Bennett, H. E.

Bradford, A. P.

Choyke, W. J.

Samples were provided by W. J. Choyke, Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.,through W. D. Partlow, Westinghouse Research and Development Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Gregory, J. C.

Gull, T. R.

T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, A. R. Toft, “Low earth orbit environmental effects on osmium and related optical thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2660–2665 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of atomic oxygen on paint and optical coatings,” presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 October–2 November 1983.

Haskins, P.

J. Ritter, G. Phillips, S. King, P. Haskins, “Beryllium 7 discovered in LEO atmosphere,” in LDEF Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, W. Kinard, ed. (LDEF Corp., Silver Spring, Md., 1990), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 7–8.

Hass, G.

Heaney, J. B.

Herzig, H.

T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, A. R. Toft, “Low earth orbit environmental effects on osmium and related optical thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2660–2665 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Herzig, R. S. Spencer, J. J. Zaniewski, “Effect of UV irradiation on the reflectance of silicon-oxide-protected aluminum in the Far UV,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3031–3032 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of atomic oxygen on paint and optical coatings,” presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 October–2 November 1983.

Hunter, W. R.

King, S.

J. Ritter, G. Phillips, S. King, P. Haskins, “Beryllium 7 discovered in LEO atmosphere,” in LDEF Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, W. Kinard, ed. (LDEF Corp., Silver Spring, Md., 1990), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 7–8.

Osantowski, J. F.

T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, A. R. Toft, “Low earth orbit environmental effects on osmium and related optical thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2660–2665 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Osantowski, “Contamination sensitivity of typical mirror coatings—a parametric study,” in Spacecraft Contamination Environment, C. R. Maag, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.338, 80–86 (1983).

Park, J. J.

J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of atomic oxygen on paint and optical coatings,” presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 October–2 November 1983.

Peters, P. N.

Phillips, G.

J. Ritter, G. Phillips, S. King, P. Haskins, “Beryllium 7 discovered in LEO atmosphere,” in LDEF Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, W. Kinard, ed. (LDEF Corp., Silver Spring, Md., 1990), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 7–8.

Ritter, J.

J. Ritter, G. Phillips, S. King, P. Haskins, “Beryllium 7 discovered in LEO atmosphere,” in LDEF Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, W. Kinard, ed. (LDEF Corp., Silver Spring, Md., 1990), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 7–8.

Spencer, R. S.

Stanford, J. L.

Swann, J. T.

Toft, A. R.

T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, A. R. Toft, “Low earth orbit environmental effects on osmium and related optical thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2660–2665 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of atomic oxygen on paint and optical coatings,” presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 October–2 November 1983.

Triolo, J. J.

Visentine, J.

J. Visentine, “Excerpt from internal correspondence at NASA/Johnson Space Center,” in LDEF Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, W. Kinard, ed. LDEF Corp., Silver Spring, Md., 1990), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 8–9.

Zaniewski, J. J.

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Other

Samples were provided by W. J. Choyke, Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.,through W. D. Partlow, Westinghouse Research and Development Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

J. Visentine, “Excerpt from internal correspondence at NASA/Johnson Space Center,” in LDEF Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, W. Kinard, ed. LDEF Corp., Silver Spring, Md., 1990), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 8–9.

J. F. Osantowski, “Contamination sensitivity of typical mirror coatings—a parametric study,” in Spacecraft Contamination Environment, C. R. Maag, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.338, 80–86 (1983).

J. Ritter, G. Phillips, S. King, P. Haskins, “Beryllium 7 discovered in LEO atmosphere,” in LDEF Spaceflight Environmental Effects Newsletter, W. Kinard, ed. (LDEF Corp., Silver Spring, Md., 1990), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 7–8.

J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of atomic oxygen on paint and optical coatings,” presented at the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 October–2 November 1983.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effect of long-duration, low-earth-orbit exposure on the VUV reflectance spectrum of an Os film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of long-duration, low-earth-orbit exposure on the VUV reflectance spectrum of a Au film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of visible wavelength spectra of the flight sample and a nonflight control sample of a Au film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of long-duration, low-earth-orbit exposure on the VUV reflectance spectrum of a Pt film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of long-duration, low-earth-orbit exposure on the VUV reflectance spectrum of an Ir film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of VUV-through-visible spectra of the flight sample and a nonflight control sample of an Al film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of long-duration, low-earth-orbit exposure on the VUV reflectance spectrum of a MgF2-overcoated Al film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of VUV-through-visible spectra of the flight sample and a nonflight control sample of an Al film overcoated with reactively deposited SiOx.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of IR reflectance spectra of the flight sample and a nonflight control sample of an Al film overcoated with reactively deposited SiOx.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effect of long-duration, low-earth-orbit exposure on the VUV reflectance spectrum of the exposed and masked portions of a CVD SiC sample mounted on the leading edge of the LDEF spacecraft.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Effect of long-duration, low-earth-orbit exposure on the VUV reflectance spectrum of the exposed and masked portions of the CVD SiC sample mounted on the trailing edge of the LDEF spacecraft.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Thin-Film Samples for the LDEF/EECC Experiment

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