Abstract

Phase-retrieval algorithms have been developed that handle a complicated optical system that requires multiple Fresnellike transforms to propagate from one end of the system to the other including the absorption by apertures in more than one plane and allowance for bad detector pixels. Gradient-search algorithms and generalizations of the iterative-transform phase-retrieval algorithms are derived. Analytic expressions for the gradient of an error metric, with respect to polynomial coefficients and with respect to point-by-point phase descriptions, are given. The entire gradient can be computed with the number of transforms required to propagate a wave front from one end of the optical system to the other and back again, independent of the number of coefficients or phase points. This greatly speeds the computation. The reconstruction of pupil amplitude is also given. A convergence proof of the generalized iterative transform algorithm is given. These improved algorithms permit a more accurate characterization of complicated optical systems from their point spread functions.

© 1993 Optical Society of America

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