Abstract

Raman-scattering activity in clear ocean waters is further documented from Monte Carlo simulations and optical data that are collected in the Sargasso Sea. A method is proposed, based on the anomalous absorption coefficient for a nonconservative irradiance field, to assess the percentile composition of internal radiant emission for the irradiance field at any depth.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  2. R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4010 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. R. Marshall, “Raman scattering in ocean water,” M.S. thesis. Department of Geography, University of California (Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1989).
  4. B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. J. 40, 397–404 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Aas, “The absorption coefficient of clear ocean water,” Rep. 67 (December Institutt for Geofysikk, University of Oslo, 1987).
  7. L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In situ measurements of absorption spectra in the sea,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 165–174 (1981).
  9. D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, G. C. Cadée, “Optical measurements in the Gulf of Guinea. Some aspects of remote sensing,” Oceanol. Acta 5, 41–47 (1982).
  10. D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Observations of the vertical structure of the diffuse attenuation coefficient spectrum,” Deep Sea Res. 34A, 547–563 (1987).
  11. J. C. Kitchen, H. Pak, “Observations of natural fluorescence with an underwater radiometer,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 43, 356–362 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. J. Topliss, “Optical measurements in the Sargasso Sea: solar stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence,” Oceanol. Acta 8, 263–270 (1985).
  13. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “On the parameterization of irradiance for open ocean photoprocesses,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14,648–14,662 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Spitzer, R. W. J. Dirks, “Contamination of the reflectance of natural waters by solar-induced fluorescence of dissolved organic matter,” Appl. Opt. 24, 444–445 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of water Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475–495 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. D. Traganza, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of dissolved organic matter in sea water,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 19, 897–904 (1969).
  20. K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, “Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22, 55–98 (1984).
  22. B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Determination of absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for phytoplankton,” in Fixation and Cycling of Carbon in the Marine Environment, O. Holm-Hansen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).
  23. H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: the theory of its augmentation of chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1161–1166 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer (STAR): preliminary results,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 68, 1683 (1987).
  25. K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. Peck, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer: design and initial results,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 189–195 (1988).
  26. A. Gershun, “The light field,” J. Math. Phys. 18, 51–151 (1939).
  27. N. K. Højerslev, “A spectral light absorption meter for measurements in the sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 1024–1034 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. H. Stavn, “The three-parameter model of the submarine light field: radiant energy absorption and trapping in nepheloid layers recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934–1936 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. Schellenberger, “Über Zusammenhänge zwischen optischen Parametern von Gerässern,” Acta Hydrophys. 10, 79–105 (1965).
  30. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1983).
  31. R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  32. R. H. Stavn, “Light attenuation in natural waters: Gershun’s law. Lambert-Beer law, and the mean light path,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2326–2327 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: 1. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “Irradiance reflectivity of a flat ocean as a function of its optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1549–1551 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo procedure for simulating the penetration of light into natural waters,” Division of Plant Industry Tech. Paper 36 (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia, 1981).
  36. A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, “Optical absorption of light and heavy water by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3348–3358 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).
  38. A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Steemann Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974).
  39. G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso Sea water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).
  40. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater temperature measurement from Raman spectra,” Research Note 920, N62269-72-0204, ARPA Order 1911 (Advanced Research Projects Agency, Washington, D.C., July1972).
  42. M. Iqbal, Solar Radiation (Academic, New York, 1984).
  43. A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  44. J. T. O. Kirk, “Yellow substance (gelbstoff) and its contribution to the attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation in some inland and coastal south-eastern Australian waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 27, 61–71 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  45. O. V. Kopelevich, V. I. Burenkov, “Relation between the spectral values of the light absorption coefficients of sea water, phytoplanktonic pigments, and the yellow substance,” Oceanology 17, 278–282 (1977).
  46. B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient of aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique (QFT),” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 137–148 (1990).
  47. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. M. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results, in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).
  48. C. C. Trees, K. J. Voss, “Optoacoustic spectroscopy and its application to molecular and particle absorption,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 149–156 (1990).
  49. J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, J. C. Kitchen, “Calibration and error correction for a reflective tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 124–136 (1990).
  50. J. S. Cleveland, “Spectral absorption coefficients measured with an integrating cavity absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 176–186 (1990).
  51. S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, “Fluorescence quantum yields of marine humic and fulvic acids: application for in situ determination,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 136 (1990).
  52. C. H. Mazel, “Spectral transformation of downwelling radiation by autofluorescent organisms in the sea,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 302–327 (1990).
  53. L. P. Shapiro, E. M. Haugen, E. J. Carpenter, “Occurrence and abundance of green-fluorescing dinoflagellates in surface waters of the Northwest Atlantic and Northeast Pacific Oceans,” J. Phycol. 25, 189–191 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (2)

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, “Fluorescence quantum yields of marine humic and fulvic acids: application for in situ determination,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 136 (1990).

1989 (2)

L. P. Shapiro, E. M. Haugen, E. J. Carpenter, “Occurrence and abundance of green-fluorescing dinoflagellates in surface waters of the Northwest Atlantic and Northeast Pacific Oceans,” J. Phycol. 25, 189–191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4010 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (5)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer (STAR): preliminary results,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 68, 1683 (1987).

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “On the parameterization of irradiance for open ocean photoprocesses,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14,648–14,662 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, “The three-parameter model of the submarine light field: radiant energy absorption and trapping in nepheloid layers recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934–1936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Observations of the vertical structure of the diffuse attenuation coefficient spectrum,” Deep Sea Res. 34A, 547–563 (1987).

J. C. Kitchen, H. Pak, “Observations of natural fluorescence with an underwater radiometer,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 43, 356–362 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

B. J. Topliss, “Optical measurements in the Sargasso Sea: solar stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence,” Oceanol. Acta 8, 263–270 (1985).

D. Spitzer, R. W. J. Dirks, “Contamination of the reflectance of natural waters by solar-induced fluorescence of dissolved organic matter,” Appl. Opt. 24, 444–445 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, “Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22, 55–98 (1984).

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. J. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475–495 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, G. C. Cadée, “Optical measurements in the Gulf of Guinea. Some aspects of remote sensing,” Oceanol. Acta 5, 41–47 (1982).

1981 (5)

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of water Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In situ measurements of absorption spectra in the sea,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 165–174 (1981).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stavn, “Light attenuation in natural waters: Gershun’s law. Lambert-Beer law, and the mean light path,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2326–2327 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1977 (1)

O. V. Kopelevich, V. I. Burenkov, “Relation between the spectral values of the light absorption coefficients of sea water, phytoplanktonic pigments, and the yellow substance,” Oceanology 17, 278–282 (1977).

1976 (1)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Yellow substance (gelbstoff) and its contribution to the attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation in some inland and coastal south-eastern Australian waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 27, 61–71 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: 1. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. D. Traganza, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of dissolved organic matter in sea water,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 19, 897–904 (1969).

1968 (1)

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso Sea water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

1965 (1)

G. Schellenberger, “Über Zusammenhänge zwischen optischen Parametern von Gerässern,” Acta Hydrophys. 10, 79–105 (1965).

1939 (1)

A. Gershun, “The light field,” J. Math. Phys. 18, 51–151 (1939).

Aas, E.

E. Aas, “The absorption coefficient of clear ocean water,” Rep. 67 (December Institutt for Geofysikk, University of Oslo, 1987).

Baker, K. S.

Bartz, R.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, J. C. Kitchen, “Calibration and error correction for a reflective tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 124–136 (1990).

Bristow, M.

Brown, O. B.

Bundy, D.

Burenkov, V. I.

O. V. Kopelevich, V. I. Burenkov, “Relation between the spectral values of the light absorption coefficients of sea water, phytoplanktonic pigments, and the yellow substance,” Oceanology 17, 278–282 (1977).

Cadée, G. C.

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, G. C. Cadée, “Optical measurements in the Gulf of Guinea. Some aspects of remote sensing,” Oceanol. Acta 5, 41–47 (1982).

Carder, K.

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, “Fluorescence quantum yields of marine humic and fulvic acids: application for in situ determination,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 136 (1990).

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer (STAR): preliminary results,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 68, 1683 (1987).

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. Peck, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer: design and initial results,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 189–195 (1988).

T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).

Carpenter, E. J.

L. P. Shapiro, E. M. Haugen, E. J. Carpenter, “Occurrence and abundance of green-fluorescing dinoflagellates in surface waters of the Northwest Atlantic and Northeast Pacific Oceans,” J. Phycol. 25, 189–191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater temperature measurement from Raman spectra,” Research Note 920, N62269-72-0204, ARPA Order 1911 (Advanced Research Projects Agency, Washington, D.C., July1972).

Cleveland, J. S.

J. S. Cleveland, “Spectral absorption coefficients measured with an integrating cavity absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 176–186 (1990).

Coombes, C. A.

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).

Dickey, T. D.

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “On the parameterization of irradiance for open ocean photoprocesses,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14,648–14,662 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Observations of the vertical structure of the diffuse attenuation coefficient spectrum,” Deep Sea Res. 34A, 547–563 (1987).

Dirks, R. W. J.

Fry, E. S.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. M. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results, in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Furtek, R.

Gershun, A.

A. Gershun, “The light field,” J. Math. Phys. 18, 51–151 (1939).

Gordon, H. R.

Harrison, A. W.

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, G. R.

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, E. M.

L. P. Shapiro, E. M. Haugen, E. J. Carpenter, “Occurrence and abundance of green-fluorescing dinoflagellates in surface waters of the Northwest Atlantic and Northeast Pacific Oceans,” J. Phycol. 25, 189–191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S. K.

S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, “Fluorescence quantum yields of marine humic and fulvic acids: application for in situ determination,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 136 (1990).

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475–495 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Højerslev, N. K.

N. K. Højerslev, “A spectral light absorption meter for measurements in the sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 1024–1034 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, Solar Radiation (Academic, New York, 1984).

Jacobs, M. M.

Kattawar, G. W.

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: 1. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Determination of absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for phytoplankton,” in Fixation and Cycling of Carbon in the Marine Environment, O. Holm-Hansen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, “Yellow substance (gelbstoff) and its contribution to the attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation in some inland and coastal south-eastern Australian waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 27, 61–71 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo procedure for simulating the penetration of light into natural waters,” Division of Plant Industry Tech. Paper 36 (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia, 1981).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1983).

Kishino, M.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. J. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kitchen, J. C.

J. C. Kitchen, H. Pak, “Observations of natural fluorescence with an underwater radiometer,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 43, 356–362 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, J. C. Kitchen, “Calibration and error correction for a reflective tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 124–136 (1990).

Kopelevich, O. V.

O. V. Kopelevich, V. I. Burenkov, “Relation between the spectral values of the light absorption coefficients of sea water, phytoplanktonic pigments, and the yellow substance,” Oceanology 17, 278–282 (1977).

Kullenberg, G.

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso Sea water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

Marshall, B. R.

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Marshall, “Raman scattering in ocean water,” M.S. thesis. Department of Geography, University of California (Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1989).

Mazel, C. H.

C. H. Mazel, “Spectral transformation of downwelling radiation by autofluorescent organisms in the sea,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 302–327 (1990).

Mitchell, B. G.

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient of aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique (QFT),” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 137–148 (1990).

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Determination of absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for phytoplankton,” in Fixation and Cycling of Carbon in the Marine Environment, O. Holm-Hansen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).

Montgomery, R. L.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. M. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results, in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Steemann Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974).

Nielsen, D.

Okami, M.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. J. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ortner, P. B.

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pak, H.

J. C. Kitchen, H. Pak, “Observations of natural fluorescence with an underwater radiometer,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 43, 356–362 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

Payne, P. R.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. Peck, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer: design and initial results,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 189–195 (1988).

Peacock, T. G.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer (STAR): preliminary results,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 68, 1683 (1987).

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. Peck, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer: design and initial results,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 189–195 (1988).

T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).

Peck, W.

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. Peck, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer: design and initial results,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 189–195 (1988).

Plass, G. N.

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: 1. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. M. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results, in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schellenberger, G.

G. Schellenberger, “Über Zusammenhänge zwischen optischen Parametern von Gerässern,” Acta Hydrophys. 10, 79–105 (1965).

Shapiro, L. P.

L. P. Shapiro, E. M. Haugen, E. J. Carpenter, “Occurrence and abundance of green-fluorescing dinoflagellates in surface waters of the Northwest Atlantic and Northeast Pacific Oceans,” J. Phycol. 25, 189–191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Observations of the vertical structure of the diffuse attenuation coefficient spectrum,” Deep Sea Res. 34A, 547–563 (1987).

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “On the parameterization of irradiance for open ocean photoprocesses,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14,648–14,662 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Sogandares, F. M.

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. M. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results, in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

Spitzer, D.

D. Spitzer, R. W. J. Dirks, “Contamination of the reflectance of natural waters by solar-induced fluorescence of dissolved organic matter,” Appl. Opt. 24, 444–445 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, G. C. Cadée, “Optical measurements in the Gulf of Guinea. Some aspects of remote sensing,” Oceanol. Acta 5, 41–47 (1982).

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In situ measurements of absorption spectra in the sea,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 165–174 (1981).

Stavn, R. H.

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4010 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stavn, “The three-parameter model of the submarine light field: radiant energy absorption and trapping in nepheloid layers recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934–1936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, “Light attenuation in natural waters: Gershun’s law. Lambert-Beer law, and the mean light path,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2326–2327 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Raman scattering effects in ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 131–139 (1988).

Steward, R. G.

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer (STAR): preliminary results,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 68, 1683 (1987).

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. Peck, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer: design and initial results,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 189–195 (1988).

T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).

Sugihara, S.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. J. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475–495 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tam, A. C.

Topliss, B. J.

B. J. Topliss, “Optical measurements in the Sargasso Sea: solar stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence,” Oceanol. Acta 8, 263–270 (1985).

Traganza, E. D.

E. D. Traganza, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of dissolved organic matter in sea water,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 19, 897–904 (1969).

Trees, C. C.

C. C. Trees, K. J. Voss, “Optoacoustic spectroscopy and its application to molecular and particle absorption,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 149–156 (1990).

Voss, K. J.

C. C. Trees, K. J. Voss, “Optoacoustic spectroscopy and its application to molecular and particle absorption,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 149–156 (1990).

Weidemann, A. D.

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4010 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Raman scattering effects in ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 131–139 (1988).

Wernand, M. R.

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, G. C. Cadée, “Optical measurements in the Gulf of Guinea. Some aspects of remote sensing,” Oceanol. Acta 5, 41–47 (1982).

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In situ measurements of absorption spectra in the sea,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 165–174 (1981).

Yentsch, C. M.

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, “Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22, 55–98 (1984).

Yentsch, C. S.

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, “Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22, 55–98 (1984).

Young, L. A.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater temperature measurement from Raman spectra,” Research Note 920, N62269-72-0204, ARPA Order 1911 (Advanced Research Projects Agency, Washington, D.C., July1972).

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, J. C. Kitchen, “Calibration and error correction for a reflective tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 124–136 (1990).

Acta Hydrophys. (1)

G. Schellenberger, “Über Zusammenhänge zwischen optischen Parametern von Gerässern,” Acta Hydrophys. 10, 79–105 (1965).

Appl. Opt. (10)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, “Irradiance reflectivity of a flat ocean as a function of its optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1549–1551 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, M. M. Jacobs, “Computed relationships between the inherent and apparent optical properties of a flat homogeneous ocean,” Appl. Opt. 14, 417–427 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Diffuse reflectance of the ocean: the theory of its augmentation of chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1161–1166 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, “Optical absorption of light and heavy water by laser optoacoustic spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3348–3358 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stavn, “Light attenuation in natural waters: Gershun’s law. Lambert-Beer law, and the mean light path,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2326–2327 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, “Use of water Raman emission to correct airborne laser fluorosensor data for effects of water optical attenuation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2889–2906 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Spitzer, R. W. J. Dirks, “Contamination of the reflectance of natural waters by solar-induced fluorescence of dissolved organic matter,” Appl. Opt. 24, 444–445 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Optical modeling of clear ocean light fields: Raman scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4002–4010 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. (1)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Yellow substance (gelbstoff) and its contribution to the attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation in some inland and coastal south-eastern Australian waters,” Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 27, 61–71 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Mar. Sci. (1)

E. D. Traganza, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of dissolved organic matter in sea water,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 19, 897–904 (1969).

Deep Sea Res. (3)

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, “In situ measurements of absorption spectra in the sea,” Deep Sea Res. 28A, 165–174 (1981).

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Observations of the vertical structure of the diffuse attenuation coefficient spectrum,” Deep Sea Res. 34A, 547–563 (1987).

G. Kullenberg, “Scattering of light by Sargasso Sea water,” Deep Sea Res. 15, 423–432 (1968).

Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (2)

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer (STAR): preliminary results,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 68, 1683 (1987).

S. K. Hawes, K. L. Carder, “Fluorescence quantum yields of marine humic and fulvic acids: application for in situ determination,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 71, 136 (1990).

Int. J. Remote Sensing (1)

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents,” Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475–495 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

R. H. Stavn, “The three-parameter model of the submarine light field: radiant energy absorption and trapping in nepheloid layers recalculated,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1934–1936 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “On the parameterization of irradiance for open ocean photoprocesses,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14,648–14,662 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, “The spectral irradiance field at the surface and in the interior of the ocean: a model for applications in oceanography and remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 9270–9280 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Math. Phys. (1)

A. Gershun, “The light field,” J. Math. Phys. 18, 51–151 (1939).

J. Oceanogr. Soc. J. (1)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, M. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. J. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. (1)

J. C. Kitchen, H. Pak, “Observations of natural fluorescence with an underwater radiometer,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 43, 356–362 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phycol. (1)

L. P. Shapiro, E. M. Haugen, E. J. Carpenter, “Occurrence and abundance of green-fluorescing dinoflagellates in surface waters of the Northwest Atlantic and Northeast Pacific Oceans,” J. Phycol. 25, 189–191 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (1)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Monte Carlo calculations of radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere–ocean system: 1. Flux in the atmosphere and ocean,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 2, 139–145 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

N. K. Højerslev, “A spectral light absorption meter for measurements in the sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 1024–1034 (1975).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Carder, R. G. Steward, G. R. Harvey, P. B. Ortner, “Marine humic and fulvic acids: their effects on remote sensing of ocean chlorophyll,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 68–81 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. (1)

C. M. Yentsch, C. S. Yentsch, “Emergence of optical instrumentation for measuring biological properties,” Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 22, 55–98 (1984).

Oceanol. Acta (2)

B. J. Topliss, “Optical measurements in the Sargasso Sea: solar stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence,” Oceanol. Acta 8, 263–270 (1985).

D. Spitzer, M. R. Wernand, G. C. Cadée, “Optical measurements in the Gulf of Guinea. Some aspects of remote sensing,” Oceanol. Acta 5, 41–47 (1982).

Oceanology (1)

O. V. Kopelevich, V. I. Burenkov, “Relation between the spectral values of the light absorption coefficients of sea water, phytoplanktonic pigments, and the yellow substance,” Oceanology 17, 278–282 (1977).

Sol. Energy (1)

A. W. Harrison, C. A. Coombes, “Angular distribution of clear sky short wavelength radiance,” Sol. Energy 40, 57–63 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater temperature measurement from Raman spectra,” Research Note 920, N62269-72-0204, ARPA Order 1911 (Advanced Research Projects Agency, Washington, D.C., July1972).

M. Iqbal, Solar Radiation (Academic, New York, 1984).

B. G. Mitchell, “Algorithms for determining the absorption coefficient of aquatic particulates using the quantitative filter technique (QFT),” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 137–148 (1990).

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, R. L. Montgomery, F. M. Sogandares, “Integrating cavity absorption meter: measurement results, in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 165–175 (1990).

C. C. Trees, K. J. Voss, “Optoacoustic spectroscopy and its application to molecular and particle absorption,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 149–156 (1990).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, J. C. Kitchen, “Calibration and error correction for a reflective tube absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 124–136 (1990).

J. S. Cleveland, “Spectral absorption coefficients measured with an integrating cavity absorption meter,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 176–186 (1990).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1983).

R. W. Preisendorfer, Hydrologic Optics (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1976).

T. G. Peacock, K. L. Carder, C. O. Davis, R. G. Steward, “Effects of fluorescence and water Raman scattering on models of remote sensing reflectance,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 303–319 (1990).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Steemann Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974).

E. Aas, “The absorption coefficient of clear ocean water,” Rep. 67 (December Institutt for Geofysikk, University of Oslo, 1987).

R. H. Stavn, A. D. Weidemann, “Raman scattering effects in ocean optics,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 131–139 (1988).

B. R. Marshall, “Raman scattering in ocean water,” M.S. thesis. Department of Geography, University of California (Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1989).

B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Kiefer, “Determination of absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for phytoplankton,” in Fixation and Cycling of Carbon in the Marine Environment, O. Holm-Hansen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).

K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, P. R. Payne, W. Peck, “Spectral transmissometer and radiometer: design and initial results,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.925, 189–195 (1988).

J. T. O. Kirk, “Monte Carlo procedure for simulating the penetration of light into natural waters,” Division of Plant Industry Tech. Paper 36 (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Canberra, Australia, 1981).

C. H. Mazel, “Spectral transformation of downwelling radiation by autofluorescent organisms in the sea,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1302, 302–327 (1990).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Average cosine of the separate photon streams: directly transmitted solar photons and Raman emission photons at various wavelengths. The standard errors of the estimates are indicated by either vertical bars or the width of the dot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average cosine of the combined solar and Raman photon streams as would be measured in the ocean. The standard errors are indicated by either vertical bars or the width of the dot.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption coefficients at 520 nm. The inherent absorption coefficient for water molecules is indicated by a straight line, and the nonconservative absorption coefficient is indicated by the curve and data points. The standard errors are indicated by either vertical bars or the width of the dot.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption coefficients at 550 nm. The inherent absorption coefficient for the water molecules is indicated by a straight line, and the nonconservative absorption coefficient is indicated by a curve and data points. The standard errors are indicated by either vertical bars or the width of the dot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption coefficients at 589 nm. The inherent absorption coefficient for water molecules is indicated by a straight line, and the nonconservative absorption coefficient is indicated by a curve and data points. Standard errors are indicated by either vertical bars or the width of the dot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fraction of Raman emission photons in total scalar irradiance at 520 nm compared to the relative absorption anomaly from the NOARL Blue Water model output.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fraction of Raman emission photons in total scalar irradiance at 550 nm compared to the relative absorption anomaly from the NOARL Blue Water model output.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fraction of Raman emission photons in the total scalar irradiance at 589 nm compared to the relative absorption anomaly from NOARL Blue Water model output.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average cosine at 520 nm for Station 4, Endeavor cruise EN-166 and from the output of the NOARL Blue Water model.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Irradiance ratio at 550 nm for Station 6, Endeavor cruise EN-166, and from the output of NOAEL Blue Water model.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Natural logarithm of the downwelling irradiance at 589 nm. The solid curves with a low variance represent the output from the NOARL Blue Water model normalized to the mean irradiance measured at Station 6 at the surface. The solid curve with a relatively high variance is a natural logarithm of measured down-welling irradiance in μW/cm2/nm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Absorption coefficients for two stations. The straight lines represent inherent absorption coefficients of hydrosol collected at depths that are indicated by black dots. The experimental errors of inherent absorption coefficients are indicated by error bars. The curves represent the nonconservative absorption coefficient calculated from the ambient irradiance field.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Optical Coefficients Determined for the R/V Endeavor Cruise

Tables Icon

Table II Optical Coefficients Used in Monte Carlo Simulation

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ ¯ = E z E o .
· E ( z ) = a ( z ) E 0 ( z ) ,
d E z ( z ) d z = a ( z ) E 0 ( z ) .
E 0 ( z ) = E 0 ( 0 ) μ ¯ ( 0 ) μ ¯ ( z ) exp [ 0 z a ( z ) μ ¯ ( z ) d z ] .
a ( z ) = ln [ Ε z ( z 2 ) ln E z ( z 1 ) ] z 1 z 2 1 μ ¯ ( z ) d z .
a ˜ ( z ) = 1 [ E 0 ( z ) + E 0 * ( z ) ] d [ E z ( z ) + E z * ( z ) ] d z ,
[ E 0 ( z ) + E 0 * ( z ) ] a ˜ ( z ) + d E z * ( z ) d z = d E z ( z ) d z , E 0 ( z ) a ( z ) = [ E 0 ( z ) + E 0 * ( z ) ] a ˜ ( z ) + d E z * ( z ) d z , Δ a ( z ) = a ( z ) a ˜ ( z ) ,
Δ a ( z ) = a ( z ) { E 0 ( z ) [ E 0 ( z ) + E 0 * ( z ) ] a ( z ) + 1 [ E 0 ( z ) + E 0 * ( z ) ] d E z * ( z ) d z } .
Δ a ( z ) a ( z ) 1 E 0 ( z ) [ E 0 ( z ) + E 0 * ( z ) ] , Δ a ( z ) a ( z ) E 0 * ( z ) [ E 0 ( z ) + E 0 * ( z ) ] .

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