Abstract

A method for digital image processing that uses optical array logic (OAL) is presented. Parallel thresholding and digital filtering are demonstrated. OAL is a promising computational paradigm for digital optical computing based on parallel neighborhood operations for two two-dimensional binary images. In the proposed method, virtual processing elements are assumed on an image plane and a gray pixel in an original gray image is stored in each processing element. Efficient gray-image processing can be achieved by data manipulation in the virtual processing elements and in the data communication among them by using OAL. Several simulation results are presented. Finally, hardware requirements for the developed algorithms and their capabilities are discussed.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1990

1989

G. Stucke, “Parallel architecture for a digital optical computer,” Appl. Opt. 28, 363–370 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kiamilev, Sadik C. Esener, R. Paturi, Y. Fainman, P. Mercier, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Programmable optoelectronic multiprocessors and their comparison with symbolic substitution for digital optical computing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 396–408 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1986

1985

1984

A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, “Digital optical computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 758–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Huang, “Architectural considerations involved in the design of an optical digital computer,” Proc. IEEE 72, 780–786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1961

A. Avizienis, “Signed-digit number representations for fast parallel arithmetic,” IRE Trans. Electron. Comput. EC-10, 389–398 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Avizienis, A.

A. Avizienis, “Signed-digit number representations for fast parallel arithmetic,” IRE Trans. Electron. Comput. EC-10, 389–398 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, K.-H.

K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, N. Streibl, “Digital optical computing with symbolic substitution,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3054–3060 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Brenner, G. Stuke, “Architectures for digital optical image processing using morphological filters,” in Optical Computing ’88, P. Chavel, J. W. Goodman, G. Roblin, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.963, 657–662 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chavel, P.

K. S. Huaung, A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, P. Chavel, J. M. Wang, I. Glaser, “Implementation of a prototype digital optical cellular image processor (DOCIP),” in Optical Computing ’88, P. Chavel, J. W. Goodman, G. Roblin, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.963, 687–695 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ekstrom, M. P.

M. P. Ekstrom, Digital Image Processing Techniques (Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1984).

Esener, Sadik C.

F. Kiamilev, Sadik C. Esener, R. Paturi, Y. Fainman, P. Mercier, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Programmable optoelectronic multiprocessors and their comparison with symbolic substitution for digital optical computing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 396–408 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

F. Kiamilev, Sadik C. Esener, R. Paturi, Y. Fainman, P. Mercier, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Programmable optoelectronic multiprocessors and their comparison with symbolic substitution for digital optical computing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 396–408 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

Glaser, I.

K. S. Huaung, A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, P. Chavel, J. M. Wang, I. Glaser, “Implementation of a prototype digital optical cellular image processor (DOCIP),” in Optical Computing ’88, P. Chavel, J. W. Goodman, G. Roblin, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.963, 687–695 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Guest, C. C.

F. Kiamilev, Sadik C. Esener, R. Paturi, Y. Fainman, P. Mercier, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Programmable optoelectronic multiprocessors and their comparison with symbolic substitution for digital optical computing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 396–408 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Heuring, V. P.

V. P. Heuring, H. F. Jordan, J. P. Pratt, “A bit serial architecture for optical computing,” Tech. Rep. 88-01a (Opto-electronic Computing System Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1988).

Huang, A.

M. J. Murdocca, A. Huang, J. Jahns, N. Streibl, “Optical design of programmable logic arrays”Appl. Opt. 27, 1651–1660 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Brenner, A. Huang, N. Streibl, “Digital optical computing with symbolic substitution,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3054–3060 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Huang, “Architectural considerations involved in the design of an optical digital computer,” Proc. IEEE 72, 780–786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Huang, “Computational origami—the folding of circuits and systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of OSA 1991 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 132–135.

Huaung, K. S.

K. S. Huaung, A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, P. Chavel, J. M. Wang, I. Glaser, “Implementation of a prototype digital optical cellular image processor (DOCIP),” in Optical Computing ’88, P. Chavel, J. W. Goodman, G. Roblin, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.963, 687–695 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ichioka, Y.

Jahns, J.

Jenkins, B. K.

K. S. Huaung, A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, P. Chavel, J. M. Wang, I. Glaser, “Implementation of a prototype digital optical cellular image processor (DOCIP),” in Optical Computing ’88, P. Chavel, J. W. Goodman, G. Roblin, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.963, 687–695 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, H. F.

V. P. Heuring, H. F. Jordan, J. P. Pratt, “A bit serial architecture for optical computing,” Tech. Rep. 88-01a (Opto-electronic Computing System Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1988).

Kiamilev, F.

F. Kiamilev, Sadik C. Esener, R. Paturi, Y. Fainman, P. Mercier, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Programmable optoelectronic multiprocessors and their comparison with symbolic substitution for digital optical computing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 396–408 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

F. Kiamilev, Sadik C. Esener, R. Paturi, Y. Fainman, P. Mercier, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Programmable optoelectronic multiprocessors and their comparison with symbolic substitution for digital optical computing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 396–408 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mercier, P.

F. Kiamilev, Sadik C. Esener, R. Paturi, Y. Fainman, P. Mercier, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Programmable optoelectronic multiprocessors and their comparison with symbolic substitution for digital optical computing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 396–408 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Murdocca, M. J.

Nakagawa, J.

Paturi, R.

F. Kiamilev, Sadik C. Esener, R. Paturi, Y. Fainman, P. Mercier, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Programmable optoelectronic multiprocessors and their comparison with symbolic substitution for digital optical computing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 396–408 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, J. P.

V. P. Heuring, H. F. Jordan, J. P. Pratt, “A bit serial architecture for optical computing,” Tech. Rep. 88-01a (Opto-electronic Computing System Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1988).

Sawchuk, A. A.

A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, “Digital optical computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 758–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Huaung, A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, P. Chavel, J. M. Wang, I. Glaser, “Implementation of a prototype digital optical cellular image processor (DOCIP),” in Optical Computing ’88, P. Chavel, J. W. Goodman, G. Roblin, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.963, 687–695 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Strand, T. C.

A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, “Digital optical computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 758–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Streibl, N.

Stucke, G.

Stuke, G.

K.-H. Brenner, G. Stuke, “Architectures for digital optical image processing using morphological filters,” in Optical Computing ’88, P. Chavel, J. W. Goodman, G. Roblin, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.963, 657–662 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, E.

Tanida, J.

Wang, J. M.

K. S. Huaung, A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, P. Chavel, J. M. Wang, I. Glaser, “Implementation of a prototype digital optical cellular image processor (DOCIP),” in Optical Computing ’88, P. Chavel, J. W. Goodman, G. Roblin, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.963, 687–695 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yagyuu, E.

Appl. Opt.

IRE Trans. Electron. Comput.

A. Avizienis, “Signed-digit number representations for fast parallel arithmetic,” IRE Trans. Electron. Comput. EC-10, 389–398 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

F. Kiamilev, Sadik C. Esener, R. Paturi, Y. Fainman, P. Mercier, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, “Programmable optoelectronic multiprocessors and their comparison with symbolic substitution for digital optical computing,” Opt. Eng. 28, 396–408 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, “Digital optical computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 758–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Huang, “Architectural considerations involved in the design of an optical digital computer,” Proc. IEEE 72, 780–786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other

K.-H. Brenner, G. Stuke, “Architectures for digital optical image processing using morphological filters,” in Optical Computing ’88, P. Chavel, J. W. Goodman, G. Roblin, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.963, 657–662 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Huang, “Computational origami—the folding of circuits and systems,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 6 of OSA 1991 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 132–135.

K. S. Huaung, A. A. Sawchuk, B. K. Jenkins, P. Chavel, J. M. Wang, I. Glaser, “Implementation of a prototype digital optical cellular image processor (DOCIP),” in Optical Computing ’88, P. Chavel, J. W. Goodman, G. Roblin, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.963, 687–695 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Heuring, H. F. Jordan, J. P. Pratt, “A bit serial architecture for optical computing,” Tech. Rep. 88-01a (Opto-electronic Computing System Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., 1988).

M. P. Ekstrom, Digital Image Processing Techniques (Academic Press, Orlando, Fla., 1984).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Processing of optical array logic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Assignment of gray-image data for virtual elements constructed in an image plane of OAL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two input images of OAL in gray-image processing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Data flow in OAL. The algorithms presented in this paper are to be processed according to this data flow.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two input images of OAL used in addition between registers C and D and between registers A and B.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation result of thresholding: 1A–5A, attribute planes; 1B–5B, data planes; 1B′–4B′, decimal expressions of stored data in data planes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Identifiers of registers around one resister block.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation result of data transmission: (a) attribute plane, (b) data plane, (c) the resultant image.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Kernels of the digital filter: Robert’s gradient operator.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Simulation result of digital filtering with Robert’s gradient operator: 1A–4A, attribute planes; 1B–4B, data planes; 1B′–4B′, decimal expressions of stored data in the corresponding data planes.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Arrangement of attribute plane and data plane in the experiment.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Data flow of successive steps in gray-image processing: (a)–(i); the input and output data in four stages, i.e., gradient operation, setting threshold value, thresholding, and skeletonization.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Simulation results of the processing: (a)–(i), images corresponding to (a)–(i) in Fig. 12: (a), (e), (g), attribute planes; (c) binary image-storing threshold values; (b), (d), (f), (h), (i) data planes storing image data.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Gray images converted from binary images (b), (d), (h), and (i) in Fig. 13.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Required cells of data shift in digital filtering: N, number of bits; R, number of the register; M, size of the neighborhood area.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Kernel Units Corresponding to a Two-Variable Binary Logic Functiona

Tables Icon

Table II Processing Capabilities of the Developed Programsa

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a i , j n a i , j n b i , j n + a i , j n b i , j n
b i , j n + 1 a i , j n b i , j n
[ 01 00 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ 00 01 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ .. 01 .. 01 .. 0 . .. 0 . .. 1 . ] ,
[ 01 10 ] + [ 00 11 ] + [ .. 01 .. 11 ] .
[ 01 0 . 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ 0 . 00 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . ] ,
[ 01 0 . 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ 0 . 01 00 0 . 1 . ] + [ 0 . 00 01 0 . 1 . ] + [ .. 0 . .. 01 .. 01 .. 0 . .. 1 . ] ,
[ 0 1 00 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ 00 01 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ .. 01 .. 01 .. 0 . .. 0 . .. 1 . ] .
[ . 1 .. .. .. .. 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 1 . ] + [ 0 . .. .. .. .. . 1 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 1 . .. .. .. .. .. ] ,
[ 01 0 . 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ . 0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 0 . .. .. .. .. .. 1 . ] + [ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . ] ,
[ 01 0 . 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ 0 . 01 00 0 . 1 . ] + [ 0 . 00 01 0 . 1 . ] + [ .. 0 . .. 01 .. 01 .. 0 . .. 1 . ] ,
[ 01 00 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ 00 01 0 . 0 . 1 . ] + [ .. 01 .. 01 .. 0 . .. 0 . .. 1 . ] .

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