Abstract

The performance of soft-x-ray multilayer mirrors of Mo/Si, Rh/Si, and Ru/Si has been tested in situ during ~15-h exposure to white synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet of the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan) ring. The power density on the sample surface was ~0.14 W/mm2. The tests were made by measuring the intensity of the reflected beam from the test mirrors with a detector unit consisting of a carbon filter and an aluminum cathode. The detector unit served as an effective narrow-band detector for the intense radiation of 85–105 eV reflected from the test mirrors. The Mo/Si and Rh/Si multilayer mirrors were found to be quite stable against continuous irradiation, whereas the Ru/Si multilayer mirror showed a definite decrease in the reflected-beam intensity.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Namioka, “Multilayer reflection filters for soft x-rays,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.984, 228–231 (1988).
  4. T. Mizuide, T. Maehara, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Reflection measurements for soft x-ray multilayers in intense synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet” (in Japanese),” in Proceedings of the 37th Spring Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990).
  5. J. B. Kortright, S. Joksch, E. Ziegler, Radiation Damage of Multilayer Structures, HASYLAB Jahresbericht HAYSLAB, Hamburg, 1989), pp. 563–564.
  6. J. B. Kortright, S. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/carbon and tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).
  7. Ref. 5 and Refs. 12–20 therein.
  8. H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “InterdifFusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser-produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 228–231.
  11. H. Kitamura, Y. Kamiya, H. Kobayakawa, T. Koide, M. Kihara, M. Kobayashi, Insertion Device Handbook, 1990, Photon Factory (in Japanese), KEK Rep. 89–24 (National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics, Tsukuba; Japan, 1990), pp. 70–71.
  12. L. R. Canfield, R. G. Johnston, R. P. Madden, “NBS detector standards for the far ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1611–1617 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser-produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “InterdifFusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Arai, A.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Namioka, “Multilayer reflection filters for soft x-rays,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.984, 228–231 (1988).

Canfield, L. R.

Cao, J.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Namioka, “Multilayer reflection filters for soft x-rays,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.984, 228–231 (1988).

Fujimori, H.

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “InterdifFusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, R. G.

Joksch, S.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, S. Joksch, E. Ziegler, Radiation Damage of Multilayer Structures, HASYLAB Jahresbericht HAYSLAB, Hamburg, 1989), pp. 563–564.

J. B. Kortright, S. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/carbon and tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Kamiya, Y.

H. Kitamura, Y. Kamiya, H. Kobayakawa, T. Koide, M. Kihara, M. Kobayashi, Insertion Device Handbook, 1990, Photon Factory (in Japanese), KEK Rep. 89–24 (National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics, Tsukuba; Japan, 1990), pp. 70–71.

Kihara, M.

H. Kitamura, Y. Kamiya, H. Kobayakawa, T. Koide, M. Kihara, M. Kobayashi, Insertion Device Handbook, 1990, Photon Factory (in Japanese), KEK Rep. 89–24 (National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics, Tsukuba; Japan, 1990), pp. 70–71.

Kimura, H.

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser-produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, H.

H. Kitamura, Y. Kamiya, H. Kobayakawa, T. Koide, M. Kihara, M. Kobayashi, Insertion Device Handbook, 1990, Photon Factory (in Japanese), KEK Rep. 89–24 (National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics, Tsukuba; Japan, 1990), pp. 70–71.

Kobayakawa, H.

H. Kitamura, Y. Kamiya, H. Kobayakawa, T. Koide, M. Kihara, M. Kobayashi, Insertion Device Handbook, 1990, Photon Factory (in Japanese), KEK Rep. 89–24 (National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics, Tsukuba; Japan, 1990), pp. 70–71.

Kobayashi, M.

H. Kitamura, Y. Kamiya, H. Kobayakawa, T. Koide, M. Kihara, M. Kobayashi, Insertion Device Handbook, 1990, Photon Factory (in Japanese), KEK Rep. 89–24 (National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics, Tsukuba; Japan, 1990), pp. 70–71.

Koide, T.

H. Kitamura, Y. Kamiya, H. Kobayakawa, T. Koide, M. Kihara, M. Kobayashi, Insertion Device Handbook, 1990, Photon Factory (in Japanese), KEK Rep. 89–24 (National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics, Tsukuba; Japan, 1990), pp. 70–71.

Koiwa, M.

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “InterdifFusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kortright, J. B.

J. B. Kortright, S. Joksch, E. Ziegler, Radiation Damage of Multilayer Structures, HASYLAB Jahresbericht HAYSLAB, Hamburg, 1989), pp. 563–564.

J. B. Kortright, S. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/carbon and tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Laugier, F.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lepêtre, Y.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Madden, R. P.

Maehara, T.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuide, T. Maehara, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Reflection measurements for soft x-ray multilayers in intense synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet” (in Japanese),” in Proceedings of the 37th Spring Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990).

Mizuide, T.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuide, T. Maehara, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Reflection measurements for soft x-ray multilayers in intense synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet” (in Japanese),” in Proceedings of the 37th Spring Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990).

Mourikis, S.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “InterdifFusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, S.

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser-produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser-produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizuide, T. Maehara, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Reflection measurements for soft x-ray multilayers in intense synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet” (in Japanese),” in Proceedings of the 37th Spring Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990).

M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Namioka, “Multilayer reflection filters for soft x-rays,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.984, 228–231 (1988).

Rolland, G.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Saile, V.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Samson, J. A. R.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 228–231.

Viccaro, P. J.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser-produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Namioka, “Multilayer reflection filters for soft x-rays,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.984, 228–231 (1988).

T. Mizuide, T. Maehara, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Reflection measurements for soft x-ray multilayers in intense synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet” (in Japanese),” in Proceedings of the 37th Spring Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990).

Yanagihara, M.

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser-produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Namioka, “Multilayer reflection filters for soft x-rays,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.984, 228–231 (1988).

T. Mizuide, T. Maehara, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Reflection measurements for soft x-ray multilayers in intense synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet” (in Japanese),” in Proceedings of the 37th Spring Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990).

Ziegler, E.

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kortright, S. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/carbon and tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

J. B. Kortright, S. Joksch, E. Ziegler, Radiation Damage of Multilayer Structures, HASYLAB Jahresbericht HAYSLAB, Hamburg, 1989), pp. 563–564.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Nakajima, H. Fujimori, M. Koiwa, “InterdifFusion and structural relaxation in Mo/Si multilayer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1046–1051 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (2)

S. Nakayama, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, H. Kimura, T. Namioka, “Soft x-ray reflectometer with a laser-produced plasma source,” Phys. Scr. 41, 754–757 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamamoto, M. Yanagihara, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Mizuide, H. Kimura, T. Maehara, T. Namioka, “Reflectance degradation of soft x-ray multilayer filters upon exposure to synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Scr. 41, 21–24 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. Ziegler, Y. Lepêtre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Mourikis, P. J. Viccaro, G. Rolland, F. Laugier, “Performance of multilayers in intense synchrotron x-ray beams,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 1999–2002 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, A. Arai, J. Cao, T. Namioka, “Multilayer reflection filters for soft x-rays,” in X-Ray Multilayers in Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers, F. E. Christensen, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.984, 228–231 (1988).

T. Mizuide, T. Maehara, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, T. Namioka, “Reflection measurements for soft x-ray multilayers in intense synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet” (in Japanese),” in Proceedings of the 37th Spring Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics and Related Societies (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1990).

J. B. Kortright, S. Joksch, E. Ziegler, Radiation Damage of Multilayer Structures, HASYLAB Jahresbericht HAYSLAB, Hamburg, 1989), pp. 563–564.

J. B. Kortright, S. Joksch, E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/carbon and tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Ref. 5 and Refs. 12–20 therein.

J. A. R. Samson, Techniques of Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 228–231.

H. Kitamura, Y. Kamiya, H. Kobayakawa, T. Koide, M. Kihara, M. Kobayashi, Insertion Device Handbook, 1990, Photon Factory (in Japanese), KEK Rep. 89–24 (National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics, Tsukuba; Japan, 1990), pp. 70–71.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calorimetric device to measure the power of the incident beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup for measuring the intensity reflected from a multilayer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflected intensity versus exposure time for the 27-layer Mo/Si multilayer prepared by IBS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflected intensity versus exposure time for the 27-layer Mo/Si multilayer prepared by MS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflected intensity versus exposure time for the 21-layer Rh/Si multilayer prepared by IBS.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflected intensity versus exposure time for the 21-layer Ru/Si multilayer prepared by MS.

Tables (1)

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Table I Summary of Multilayer Samples Prepared for the Irradiation Test

Equations (1)

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Q = k a ( Δ T / l ) ,

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