Abstract

Optical interconnections made using two-dimensional arrays of top-surface-emitting microlasers and integrated free-space optics are discussed for use in chip-to-chip communications. A demonstration setup with a 2 × 2 array of lasers is presented. System parameters, such as light efficiency, the number of data channels, thermal effects, power requirements, and the issue of hybrid integration of laser chips with passive optics, are considered.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1990 (9)

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2kbit array of symmetric self-electro optic effect devices,” IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Fang, K. Adomi, S. Iyer, H. Morkoç, H. Zabel, C. Choi, N. Otsuka, “Gallium arsenide and other compound semiconductors in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, R31–R58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210–214 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Hove, “Top-surface emitting four-quantum-well lasers at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26710–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

See the feature issue on optical interconnects, Appl. Opt. 29, 1067–1177 (1990).
[PubMed]

A. Dickinson, M. E. Prise, “Free-space optical interconnection scheme.”Appl. Opt. 29, 2001–2005 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of diffractive microlenses fabricated by thin-film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, “Integrated optical imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1998 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (7)

1988 (1)

H. S. Hinton, “Architectural considerations for photonic switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

K. Iga, S. Kinoshita, F. Koyame, “Microcavity GaAlAs/GaAs surface emitting lasers with Ith = 6 mA,” Electron. Lett. 23, 134–136 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Pearsall, J. Bevk, L. C. Feldman, J. M. Bonar, J. P. Mannaerts, A. Ourmazd, “Structurally induced optical transitions in Ge–Si superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 729–732 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, “Rectangular-apertured micro-Fresnel lens arrays fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 26, 587–591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

A. Huang, “Architectural considerations in the design of an optical digital computer,” Proc. IEEE 72, 780–786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72850–865 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adomi, K.

S. F. Fang, K. Adomi, S. Iyer, H. Morkoç, H. Zabel, C. Choi, N. Otsuka, “Gallium arsenide and other compound semiconductors in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, R31–R58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Asom, M. T.

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72850–865 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bevk, J.

T. P. Pearsall, J. Bevk, L. C. Feldman, J. M. Bonar, J. P. Mannaerts, A. Ourmazd, “Structurally induced optical transitions in Ge–Si superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 729–732 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonar, J. M.

T. P. Pearsall, J. Bevk, L. C. Feldman, J. M. Bonar, J. P. Mannaerts, A. Ourmazd, “Structurally induced optical transitions in Ge–Si superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 729–732 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, G. D.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2kbit array of symmetric self-electro optic effect devices,” IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown-Goebeler, K. F.

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Hove, “Top-surface emitting four-quantum-well lasers at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26710–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2kbit array of symmetric self-electro optic effect devices,” IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.

S. F. Fang, K. Adomi, S. Iyer, H. Morkoç, H. Zabel, C. Choi, N. Otsuka, “Gallium arsenide and other compound semiconductors in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, R31–R58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam interconnections using microlens arrays for free space photonic systems,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 48–51.

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2kbit array of symmetric self-electro optic effect devices,” IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Däschner, W.

J. Jahns, W. Däschner, “Integrated free-space optical permutation network,” in Optical Computing, 1991, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 29–31.

Dickinson, A.

Drabik, T. J.

Esener, S. C.

Fang, S. F.

S. F. Fang, K. Adomi, S. Iyer, H. Morkoç, H. Zabel, C. Choi, N. Otsuka, “Gallium arsenide and other compound semiconductors in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, R31–R58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, L. C.

T. P. Pearsall, J. Bevk, L. C. Feldman, J. M. Bonar, J. P. Mannaerts, A. Ourmazd, “Structurally induced optical transitions in Ge–Si superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 729–732 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, M. R.

Florez, L. T.

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210–214 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, L. Hesselink, “Optical imaging applied to microelectronic chip-to-chip interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2851–2858 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72850–865 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Guest, C. C.

Harbison, J. P.

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210–214 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

Hinton, H. S.

H. S. Hinton, “Architectural considerations for photonic switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam interconnections using microlens arrays for free space photonic systems,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 48–51.

Hove, J. V.

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Hove, “Top-surface emitting four-quantum-well lasers at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26710–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huang, A.

J. Jahns, A. Huang, “Planar integration of free-space optical components,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1602–1605 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Huang, “Architectural considerations in the design of an optical digital computer,” Proc. IEEE 72, 780–786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. T.

Iga, K.

K. Iga, S. Kinoshita, F. Koyame, “Microcavity GaAlAs/GaAs surface emitting lasers with Ith = 6 mA,” Electron. Lett. 23, 134–136 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, S.

S. F. Fang, K. Adomi, S. Iyer, H. Morkoç, H. Zabel, C. Choi, N. Otsuka, “Gallium arsenide and other compound semiconductors in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, R31–R58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Jewell, J. L.

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Hove, “Top-surface emitting four-quantum-well lasers at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26710–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210–214 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

Kinoshita, S.

K. Iga, S. Kinoshita, F. Koyame, “Microcavity GaAlAs/GaAs surface emitting lasers with Ith = 6 mA,” Electron. Lett. 23, 134–136 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, R. F.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2kbit array of symmetric self-electro optic effect devices,” IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

Koyame, F.

K. Iga, S. Kinoshita, F. Koyame, “Microcavity GaAlAs/GaAs surface emitting lasers with Ith = 6 mA,” Electron. Lett. 23, 134–136 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kung, S.-Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72850–865 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J. M.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2kbit array of symmetric self-electro optic effect devices,” IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210–214 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Hove, “Top-surface emitting four-quantum-well lasers at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26710–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2kbit array of symmetric self-electro optic effect devices,” IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72850–865 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Livescu, G.

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Luther, L.

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mannaerts, J. P.

T. P. Pearsall, J. Bevk, L. C. Feldman, J. M. Bonar, J. P. Mannaerts, A. Ourmazd, “Structurally induced optical transitions in Ge–Si superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 729–732 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattera, V. D.

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210–214 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2kbit array of symmetric self-electro optic effect devices,” IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam interconnections using microlens arrays for free space photonic systems,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 48–51.

Miller, D. A. B.

Morkoç, H.

S. F. Fang, K. Adomi, S. Iyer, H. Morkoç, H. Zabel, C. Choi, N. Otsuka, “Gallium arsenide and other compound semiconductors in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, R31–R58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2kbit array of symmetric self-electro optic effect devices,” IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210–214 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, N.

S. F. Fang, K. Adomi, S. Iyer, H. Morkoç, H. Zabel, C. Choi, N. Otsuka, “Gallium arsenide and other compound semiconductors in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, R31–R58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ourmazd, A.

T. P. Pearsall, J. Bevk, L. C. Feldman, J. M. Bonar, J. P. Mannaerts, A. Ourmazd, “Structurally induced optical transitions in Ge–Si superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 729–732 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, J. W.

J. W. Parker, “ESPIRIT II OLIVES—a European collaborative programme in optical interconnections,” in Digest of International Optical Computing Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kobe, Japan, 1990).

Pearsall, T. P.

T. P. Pearsall, J. Bevk, L. C. Feldman, J. M. Bonar, J. P. Mannaerts, A. Ourmazd, “Structurally induced optical transitions in Ge–Si superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 729–732 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prise, M. E.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam interconnections using microlens arrays for free space photonic systems,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 48–51.

Sauer, F.

Scherer, A.

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210–214 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Setsune, K.

Shiono, T.

Spangler, L. J.

L. J. Spangler, K. D. Wise, “A new silicon-on-glass process for integrated sensors,” in Technical Digest of the IEEE Solid State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tell, B.

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Hove, “Top-surface emitting four-quantum-well lasers at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26710–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam interconnections using microlens arrays for free space photonic systems,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 48–51.

Veldkamp, W. B.

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S.

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

Wasa, K.

Wise, K. D.

L. J. Spangler, K. D. Wise, “A new silicon-on-glass process for integrated sensors,” in Technical Digest of the IEEE Solid State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, O.

Zabel, H.

S. F. Fang, K. Adomi, S. Iyer, H. Morkoç, H. Zabel, C. Choi, N. Otsuka, “Gallium arsenide and other compound semiconductors in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, R31–R58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

R. K. Kostuk, J. W. Goodman, L. Hesselink, “Optical imaging applied to microelectronic chip-to-chip interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2851–2858 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shiono, K. Setsune, O. Yamazaki, K. Wasa, “Rectangular-apertured micro-Fresnel lens arrays fabricated by electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 26, 587–591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sauer, “Fabrication of diffractive-reflective optical interconnects for infrared operation based on total internal reflection,” Appl. Opt. 28, 386–388 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Feldman, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, S. C. Esener, “Comparison between electrical and free space optical interconnects for fine grain processor arrays based on interconnect density capabilities,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3820–3829 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Kostuk, M. Kato, Y. T. Huang, “Reducing alignment and chromatic sensitivity of holographic optical interconnects with substrate-mode holograms,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4939–4944 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See the feature issue on optical interconnects, Appl. Opt. 29, 1067–1177 (1990).
[PubMed]

A. Dickinson, M. E. Prise, “Free-space optical interconnection scheme.”Appl. Opt. 29, 2001–2005 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, S. J. Walker, “Two-dimensional array of diffractive microlenses fabricated by thin-film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 29, 931–936 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, A. Huang, “Planar integration of free-space optical components,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1602–1605 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jahns, “Integrated optical imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1998 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Tell, Y. H. Lee, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, R. E. Leibenguth, M. T. Asom, G. Livescu, L. Luther, V. D. Mattera, “High efficiency, high power cw top surface emitting GaAs quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1855–1857 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

Y. H. Lee, B. Tell, K. F. Brown-Goebeler, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Hove, “Top-surface emitting four-quantum-well lasers at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26710–711 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Iga, S. Kinoshita, F. Koyame, “Microcavity GaAlAs/GaAs surface emitting lasers with Ith = 6 mA,” Electron. Lett. 23, 134–136 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, S. Walker, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Low-threshold electrically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting microlasers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1123–1124 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

H. S. Hinton, “Architectural considerations for photonic switching,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. (1)

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2kbit array of symmetric self-electro optic effect devices,” IEEE Phot. Techn. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. F. Fang, K. Adomi, S. Iyer, H. Morkoç, H. Zabel, C. Choi, N. Otsuka, “Gallium arsenide and other compound semiconductors in silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, R31–R58 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. L. Jewell, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, S. L. McCall, N. A. Olsson, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, “Surface-emitting microlasers for photonic switching and interchip connections,” Opt. Eng. 29, 210–214 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Swanson, W. B. Veldkamp, “Diffractive optical elements for use in infrared systems,” Opt. Eng. 28, 605–608 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. P. Pearsall, J. Bevk, L. C. Feldman, J. M. Bonar, J. P. Mannaerts, A. Ourmazd, “Structurally induced optical transitions in Ge–Si superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 729–732 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (2)

A. Huang, “Architectural considerations in the design of an optical digital computer,” Proc. IEEE 72, 780–786 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S.-Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72850–865 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. W. Parker, “ESPIRIT II OLIVES—a European collaborative programme in optical interconnections,” in Digest of International Optical Computing Conference (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Kobe, Japan, 1990).

L. J. Spangler, K. D. Wise, “A new silicon-on-glass process for integrated sensors,” in Technical Digest of the IEEE Solid State Sensor and Actuator Workshop (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, W. Däschner, “Integrated free-space optical permutation network,” in Optical Computing, 1991, Vol. 6 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 29–31.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. M. Sasian, H. S. Hinton, “Microbeam interconnections using microlens arrays for free space photonic systems,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 48–51.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical interconnects using microlasers and an integrated imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) 2 × 2 array of packaged microlasers, (b) schematic of top-surface-emitting microlasers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental result (left: input, right: output).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spot diagram for an integrated imaging system with an f-number of 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Bulk-optical system equivalent to the integrated system of Fig. 1. The off-axis lenses are shown as a superposition of a lens and a grating. The effect of a varying wavelength is indicated by showing two different light paths. The solid lines indicate the light rays for wavelength λ0, the dashed lines for λ1. (b) Wavelength dependence of the intensity at the detector; the results of a computer simulation are shown. For this particular case, the following values were chosen: detector size ds = 20 μm, f/# = 5, focal length f = 3000 μm, center wavelength λ0 = 1 μm, and beam radius w = 150 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Thermal effects on diffractive lenses and gratings.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Flip-chip solder bumping for hybrid integration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Hybrid integration of an integrated optical system on a silicon substrate.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

sin ( α ) = λ / ( n d ) ,
s / T = [ β ( β + γ ) / cos 2 ( α ) ] s .
f = n R 2 / 2 λ .
f / T = ( 2 β + γ ) f .
h / T = β h .
( f h ) / T = ( β + γ ) h .

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