Abstract

Kodak 101-01 and 101-07 x-ray film was calibrated by using the soft x rays at λ ≳ 10 Å emitted by a laser-produced plasma. The results for films fabricated in different batches are presented.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser and Particle Beams 4, 521–530 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).
  3. P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. L. Henke, S. L. Kwok, J. Y. Uejio, H. T. Yamada, G. C. Young, “Low-energy response of photographic films. I. Mathematical models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 818–827 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. L. Henke, F. G. Fujiwara, M. A. Tester, C. H. Dittmore, M. A. Palmer, “Low-energy x-ray response of photographic films. II. Experimental characterization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 828–849 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Kishimoto, “Absolute measurement of spectra emitted by laser-produced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ludwig-Maximil-ians-Universität, München, 1986).
  7. K. Eidmann, W. Schwanda, “Conversion of laser light into soft x-rays with 3-ns and 30-ps laser pulses,” Lasers Part. Beams 9, 551–562 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Woodlief, ed., Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering, (Wiley, New York, 1973), pp. 953–955.
  9. B. Dohne, U. Feldman, W. Neupert, “Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 589–596 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. J. Einighammer, H. H. Fink, “Sensitometry of a film for soft x-ray radiation with wavelengths from 2.1 Å till 21.6 Å,” Optik 47, 87–104 (1977).

1991 (1)

K. Eidmann, W. Schwanda, “Conversion of laser light into soft x-rays with 3-ns and 30-ps laser pulses,” Lasers Part. Beams 9, 551–562 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser and Particle Beams 4, 521–530 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

1977 (1)

H. J. Einighammer, H. H. Fink, “Sensitometry of a film for soft x-ray radiation with wavelengths from 2.1 Å till 21.6 Å,” Optik 47, 87–104 (1977).

Azechi, H.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Barnouin, O.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boehly, T.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Cobble, J. A.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, R. H.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dittmore, C. H.

Dohne, B.

Eidmann, K.

K. Eidmann, W. Schwanda, “Conversion of laser light into soft x-rays with 3-ns and 30-ps laser pulses,” Lasers Part. Beams 9, 551–562 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser and Particle Beams 4, 521–530 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Einighammer, H. J.

H. J. Einighammer, H. H. Fink, “Sensitometry of a film for soft x-ray radiation with wavelengths from 2.1 Å till 21.6 Å,” Optik 47, 87–104 (1977).

Feldman, U.

Fink, H. H.

H. J. Einighammer, H. H. Fink, “Sensitometry of a film for soft x-ray radiation with wavelengths from 2.1 Å till 21.6 Å,” Optik 47, 87–104 (1977).

Fujiwara, F. G.

Goldman, S. R.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstone, P. D.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauer, A.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henke, B. L.

Herrmann, P.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser and Particle Beams 4, 521–530 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ido, S.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Jaanimagi, P. A.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jitsuno, T.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Keck, R. L.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kishimoto, T.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser and Particle Beams 4, 521–530 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Kishimoto, “Absolute measurement of spectra emitted by laser-produced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ludwig-Maximil-ians-Universität, München, 1986).

Kwok, S. L.

Letzring, S. A.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marjoribanks, R. S.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, F. J.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mead, W. C.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mima, K.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Miyanaga, N.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Mizui, J.

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser and Particle Beams 4, 521–530 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, T.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Nakai, S.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Nakatsuka, M.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Neupert, W.

Nishihara, K.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Nishimura, H.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Norimatsu, T.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Pakula, R.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser and Particle Beams 4, 521–530 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, M. A.

Richardson, M. C.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sachsenmaier, P.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Sakabe, S.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Schwanda, W.

K. Eidmann, W. Schwanda, “Conversion of laser light into soft x-rays with 3-ns and 30-ps laser pulses,” Lasers Part. Beams 9, 551–562 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seka, W.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigel, R.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser and Particle Beams 4, 521–530 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stradling, G.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K. A.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Tester, M. A.

Tsakiris, G. D.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Uejio, J. Y.

Witkowski, S.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser and Particle Beams 4, 521–530 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yaakobi, B.

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yabe, T.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Yamada, H. T.

Yamanaka, C.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Yamanaka, M.

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Young, G. C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser and Particle Beams (1)

K. Eidmann, T. Kishimoto, P. Herrmann, J. Mizui, R. Pakula, R. Sigel, S. Witkowski, “Absolute soft x-ray measurements with a transmission grating spectrometer,” Laser and Particle Beams 4, 521–530 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Part. Beams (1)

K. Eidmann, W. Schwanda, “Conversion of laser light into soft x-rays with 3-ns and 30-ps laser pulses,” Lasers Part. Beams 9, 551–562 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

H. J. Einighammer, H. H. Fink, “Sensitometry of a film for soft x-ray radiation with wavelengths from 2.1 Å till 21.6 Å,” Optik 47, 87–104 (1977).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. D. Goldstone, S. R. Goldman, W. C. Mead, J. A. Cobble, G. Stradling, R. H. Day, A. Hauer, M. C. Richardson, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Jaanimagi, R. L. Keck, F. J. Marshall, W. Seka, O. Barnouin, B. Yaakobi, S. A. Letzring,, “Dynamics of high-Z plasmas produced by a short wavelength laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 56–59 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (1)

T. Mochizuki, T. Yabe, H. Azechi, K. A. Tanaka, T. Boehly, N. Miyanaga, H. Nishimura, S. Ido, M. Yamanaka, K. Nishihara, T. Norimatsu, T. Jitsuno, M. Nakatsuka, K. Mima, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, R. Sigel, G. D. Tsakiris, K. Eidmann, P. Herrmann, R. Pakula, P. Sachsenmaier, S. Sakabe, S. Witkowski, “X-ray confinement in a laser-heated cavity,” in Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Nucl. Fusion Suppl. 3, 25–31 (1987).

Other (2)

T. Kishimoto, “Absolute measurement of spectra emitted by laser-produced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ludwig-Maximil-ians-Universität, München, 1986).

T. Woodlief, ed., Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering, (Wiley, New York, 1973), pp. 953–955.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for calibration of x-ray films by using the filtered emission from a Cu target at λ ≈ 11 Å. The density on the film is compared with the energy measured by a bolometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Original spectra of a filtered (1.6-μm Al + 8-μm Be) Cu-plasma source (laser energy 7.3 J, pulse duration 3 ns) showing the strong x-ray emission in first order at 11 Å. The microdensitometer trace shows small contributions of higher orders (±2, ±3). A pinhole transmission grating was used with 1000 lines/mm and a diameter of 50 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Exposure of the 101 film in the setup of Fig. 1 with two types of Al filters: (a) a single 5-μm Al foil and (b) a 4.8-μm filter composed of six 0.8-μm Al foils. (The Al foils were fabricated by the company Goodfellow, England.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Densitometer traces across five density steps on a film strip. The density above the fog level is taken for the γ curves shown in Figs. 57.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

γ curve (at 11 Å) of 101-01 film, bn 0650-019-011, delivered January 1984. ×, calibration September 1987; filled circles, calibration November 1988. The solid curve is a fit by eye. The dotted curve shows a calibration performed shortly after delivery.6

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of the storing temperature on the γ curve. Solid curve (identical with the solid curve in Fig. 5), normal storing at −20°C. Triangles, film was stored for 8 weeks at room temperature.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

γ curves of Kodak 101 films fabricated in different batches. Solid curve, taken from Fig. 5,101-01 film, bn 0650-019-011; filled circles, 101-01 film, bn 0650-028-111, delivered 1987; filled squares, 101-07 film, bn 0652-033-0111, delivered 1988. The dashed–dotted curve shows data of Henke et al.5 adapted to λ = 11 Å and to the numerical aperture of 0.25 of our microdensitometer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two Al spectra exposed with 101-01 films of different batches (bn 0650-019-011 and bn 650-028-111). The peak at 50 Å is caused by Al L-shell line emission (individual lines are not resolved because of the limited resolution of the transmission-grating spectrometer of ≈ 3.3 Å). The weak peaks at 100 and 150 Å are caused by higher diffraction orders.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The ratio of the film sensitivities of two 101-01 films of different batches (same as in Fig. 8) versus the wavelength. The × are taken from the Al spectra of Fig. 8; the filled circles, from corresponding Au spectra. The filled square at λ = 11 Å is obtained from the corresponding γ curves in Fig. 7.

Tables (1)

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Table I Development Procedurea

Equations (3)

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n = ( S , λ ) C ( λ ) .
= n ( S ) C ( λ ) .
n , 1 ( S 1 ) C 1 ( λ ) = n , 2 ( S 2 ) C 2 ( λ ) ,

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