Abstract

A method is described for facilitating the estimation of the background current that is generated by an infrared photodetector, based on the development of an idealized rectangular photon-responsivity spectrum that incorporates the detailed influence of the actual responsivity spectrum within the values of its predetermined parameters. Background currents may then be calculated algebraically without undue loss of precision by use of standard blackbody radiation formulas. Values of the parameters defining the idealized spectrum are derived for the majority of photodetectors in common use today, including silicide Schottky-barrier devices, and are applied within several examples of background-current estimation.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. D. Hudson, Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1969).
  2. J. M. Lloyd, Thermal Imaging Systems (Plenum, New York, 1975).
  3. T. Limperis, J. Mudar, “Detectors,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 11.
  4. J. M. Mooney, E. L. Dereniak, “Comparison on the performance limit of Schottky-barrier and standard infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 26, 223–227 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Bluzer, “Sensitivity limitations on IRFPA’s imposed by detector nonuniformities,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 64–75 (1988).
  6. D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, J. C. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 56–63 (1988).
  7. F. D. Shepherd, “Silicide infrared staring sensors,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 2–10 (1988).
  8. W. F. Kosonocky, G. W. Hughes, “High fill factor silicide monolithic arrays,” in Infrared Sensors and Sensor Fusion, R. G. Buser, F. B. Warren, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.782, 114–120 (1987).
  9. W. F. Kosonocky, “Infrared image sensors with Schottky-barrier detectors,” in Technologies for Optoelectronics, J. M. Bulabois, R. F. Potter, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.869, 90–106 (1987).
  10. W. F. Kosonocky, F. V. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, J. V. Groppe, “160 × 244 element PtSi Schottky-barrier IR-CCD image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1564–1573 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. M. Mooney, J. Silverman, “The theory of hot-electron photoemission in Schottky-barrier detectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 33–39 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. L. Wolfe, “Radiometry,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 8, R. R. Shannon, J. C. Wyant, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980) Chap. 5, pp. 117–170.
  13. W. L. Wolfe, “Radiation theory,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 1.
  14. O. M. Williams, “Photon parameter characterization of infrared photodetectors,” Infrared Phys. 26, 155–166 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. M. Williams, “Infrared photodetector photon formalism: extension and application,” Infrared Phys. 27, 167–179 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. L. Dereniak, D. G. Crowe, Optical Radiation Detectors (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  17. F. E. Nicodemus, “Normalization in radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 12, 73–86 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. J. Zissis, “Radiometry,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 20.
  19. O. M. Williams, “A critique on the application of infrared photodetector theory,” Infrared Phys. 26, 141–153 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. N. Colwell, ed., Manual of Remote Sensing, 2nd ed. (American Society of Photogrammetry Falls Church, Va., Vol. 1. 1983).
  21. G. H. Suits, “Natural sources,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 3.
  22. Note that ΔeqbBB was formerly14,19 denoted by ϕB and sometimes appears within the literature expressed as QB. The parameter is the same as that appearing, for example, within the conventional background-limited infrared photoconductor expression1,16,19DBLIP*=λ2hc(η0ϕB)1/2.

1987 (2)

J. M. Mooney, E. L. Dereniak, “Comparison on the performance limit of Schottky-barrier and standard infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 26, 223–227 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Williams, “Infrared photodetector photon formalism: extension and application,” Infrared Phys. 27, 167–179 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

O. M. Williams, “Photon parameter characterization of infrared photodetectors,” Infrared Phys. 26, 155–166 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Williams, “A critique on the application of infrared photodetector theory,” Infrared Phys. 26, 141–153 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

W. F. Kosonocky, F. V. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, J. V. Groppe, “160 × 244 element PtSi Schottky-barrier IR-CCD image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1564–1573 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Mooney, J. Silverman, “The theory of hot-electron photoemission in Schottky-barrier detectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 33–39 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

F. E. Nicodemus, “Normalization in radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 12, 73–86 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bluzer, N.

N. Bluzer, “Sensitivity limitations on IRFPA’s imposed by detector nonuniformities,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 64–75 (1988).

Crowe, D. G.

E. L. Dereniak, D. G. Crowe, Optical Radiation Detectors (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Dereniak, E. L.

J. M. Mooney, E. L. Dereniak, “Comparison on the performance limit of Schottky-barrier and standard infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 26, 223–227 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Dereniak, D. G. Crowe, Optical Radiation Detectors (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Gridley, J. C.

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, J. C. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 56–63 (1988).

Groppe, J. V.

W. F. Kosonocky, F. V. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, J. V. Groppe, “160 × 244 element PtSi Schottky-barrier IR-CCD image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1564–1573 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, R. D.

R. D. Hudson, Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1969).

Hughes, G. W.

W. F. Kosonocky, G. W. Hughes, “High fill factor silicide monolithic arrays,” in Infrared Sensors and Sensor Fusion, R. G. Buser, F. B. Warren, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.782, 114–120 (1987).

Kosonocky, W. F.

W. F. Kosonocky, F. V. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, J. V. Groppe, “160 × 244 element PtSi Schottky-barrier IR-CCD image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1564–1573 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Kosonocky, “Infrared image sensors with Schottky-barrier detectors,” in Technologies for Optoelectronics, J. M. Bulabois, R. F. Potter, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.869, 90–106 (1987).

W. F. Kosonocky, G. W. Hughes, “High fill factor silicide monolithic arrays,” in Infrared Sensors and Sensor Fusion, R. G. Buser, F. B. Warren, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.782, 114–120 (1987).

Kruer, M. R.

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, J. C. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 56–63 (1988).

Limperis, T.

T. Limperis, J. Mudar, “Detectors,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 11.

Lloyd, J. M.

J. M. Lloyd, Thermal Imaging Systems (Plenum, New York, 1975).

Mooney, J. M.

J. M. Mooney, E. L. Dereniak, “Comparison on the performance limit of Schottky-barrier and standard infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 26, 223–227 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Mooney, J. Silverman, “The theory of hot-electron photoemission in Schottky-barrier detectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 33–39 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mudar, J.

T. Limperis, J. Mudar, “Detectors,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 11.

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, “Normalization in radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 12, 73–86 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sarkady, K.

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, J. C. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 56–63 (1988).

Scribner, D. A.

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, J. C. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 56–63 (1988).

Shallcross, F. V.

W. F. Kosonocky, F. V. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, J. V. Groppe, “160 × 244 element PtSi Schottky-barrier IR-CCD image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1564–1573 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, F. D.

F. D. Shepherd, “Silicide infrared staring sensors,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 2–10 (1988).

Silverman, J.

J. M. Mooney, J. Silverman, “The theory of hot-electron photoemission in Schottky-barrier detectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 33–39 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suits, G. H.

G. H. Suits, “Natural sources,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 3.

Villani, T. S.

W. F. Kosonocky, F. V. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, J. V. Groppe, “160 × 244 element PtSi Schottky-barrier IR-CCD image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1564–1573 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Williams, O. M.

O. M. Williams, “Infrared photodetector photon formalism: extension and application,” Infrared Phys. 27, 167–179 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Williams, “Photon parameter characterization of infrared photodetectors,” Infrared Phys. 26, 155–166 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Williams, “A critique on the application of infrared photodetector theory,” Infrared Phys. 26, 141–153 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, W. L.

W. L. Wolfe, “Radiometry,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 8, R. R. Shannon, J. C. Wyant, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980) Chap. 5, pp. 117–170.

W. L. Wolfe, “Radiation theory,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 1.

Zissis, G. J.

G. J. Zissis, “Radiometry,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 20.

Appl. Opt. (1)

F. E. Nicodemus, “Normalization in radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 12, 73–86 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

W. F. Kosonocky, F. V. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, J. V. Groppe, “160 × 244 element PtSi Schottky-barrier IR-CCD image sensor,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 1564–1573 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Mooney, J. Silverman, “The theory of hot-electron photoemission in Schottky-barrier detectors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-32, 33–39 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (3)

O. M. Williams, “Photon parameter characterization of infrared photodetectors,” Infrared Phys. 26, 155–166 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Williams, “Infrared photodetector photon formalism: extension and application,” Infrared Phys. 27, 167–179 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Williams, “A critique on the application of infrared photodetector theory,” Infrared Phys. 26, 141–153 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. M. Mooney, E. L. Dereniak, “Comparison on the performance limit of Schottky-barrier and standard infrared focal plane arrays,” Opt. Eng. 26, 223–227 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

N. Bluzer, “Sensitivity limitations on IRFPA’s imposed by detector nonuniformities,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 64–75 (1988).

D. A. Scribner, M. R. Kruer, K. Sarkady, J. C. Gridley, “Spatial noise in staring IR focal plane arrays,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 56–63 (1988).

F. D. Shepherd, “Silicide infrared staring sensors,” in Infrared Detectors and Arrays (Critical Reviews), E. L. Dereniak, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.930, 2–10 (1988).

W. F. Kosonocky, G. W. Hughes, “High fill factor silicide monolithic arrays,” in Infrared Sensors and Sensor Fusion, R. G. Buser, F. B. Warren, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.782, 114–120 (1987).

W. F. Kosonocky, “Infrared image sensors with Schottky-barrier detectors,” in Technologies for Optoelectronics, J. M. Bulabois, R. F. Potter, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.869, 90–106 (1987).

W. L. Wolfe, “Radiometry,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Vol. 8, R. R. Shannon, J. C. Wyant, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980) Chap. 5, pp. 117–170.

W. L. Wolfe, “Radiation theory,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 1.

R. N. Colwell, ed., Manual of Remote Sensing, 2nd ed. (American Society of Photogrammetry Falls Church, Va., Vol. 1. 1983).

G. H. Suits, “Natural sources,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 3.

Note that ΔeqbBB was formerly14,19 denoted by ϕB and sometimes appears within the literature expressed as QB. The parameter is the same as that appearing, for example, within the conventional background-limited infrared photoconductor expression1,16,19DBLIP*=λ2hc(η0ϕB)1/2.

E. L. Dereniak, D. G. Crowe, Optical Radiation Detectors (Wiley, New York, 1984).

R. D. Hudson, Infrared System Engineering (Wiley, New York, 1969).

J. M. Lloyd, Thermal Imaging Systems (Plenum, New York, 1975).

T. Limperis, J. Mudar, “Detectors,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (U.S. Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 11.

G. J. Zissis, “Radiometry,” in Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, eds. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1985), Chap. 20.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conventional responsivity spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Complementary photon-responsivity spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Development of InSb idealized photon-responsivity spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Development of PbS idealized photon-responsivity spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Development of MCT idealized photon-responsivity spectrum.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Development of PtSi idealized photon-responsivity spectrum.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Reference and Cutoff Wavelengths for Various Photodetectors

Tables Icon

Table II PtSi Reference and Cutoff Wavelengths

Tables Icon

Table III Examples of Background-Current Calculation

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I b = A 0 R e ( λ ) E e , λ ( λ, T b ) d λ .
E e , λ = h c λ E q , λ .
I b = q A 0 R q ( λ ) E q , λ ( λ, T b ) d λ,
R q ( λ ) = h c q λ R e ( λ ) = 1 . 24 λ ( μ m ) R e ( λ ) .
R q o = R q ( λ o ) ,
R q ( λ ) = 1 . 24 C 1 λ ( 1 λ λ co ) 2 ,
λ co ( μ m ) = 1 . 24 Ψ m s .
I b = q A b 0 R q ( λ ) τ f ( λ ) E q , λ B B ( λ, T b ) d λ,
I b = q A R q o τ ¯ f b Δ e q b B B ,
Δ e q b B B = λ on λ co E q , λ B B ( λ, T b ) d λ = λ on λ co 2 π c sin 2 θ d λ λ 4 ( e x 1 ) .
x = h c / k λ T b = 14388 λ T b ( μ m K ) .
Δ e q b B B = Δ f q b σ q T b 3 sin 2 θ ,
σ q = 1 . 5202 × 10 11 photons cm 2 s 1 K 3
Δ f q b = f q ( λ co T b ) f q ( λ on T b )
f q ( λ T ) = ( 81 π 4 ) e x ( 1 + x + 1 2 x 2 ) [ 1 + λ T 2600 100000 ] ,
0 [ R q ( λ ) / R q 0 ] [ τ f ( λ ) / τ ¯ f ] E q , λ B B ( λ , T b ) d λ = λ on λ co E q , λ B B ( λ , T b ) d λ .
0 [ R q ( λ ) / R q o ] E q , λ B B ( λ , T b ) d λ = 0 λ co E q , λ B B ( λ , T b ) d λ .
sin 2 θ = sin 2 θ η c s = 1 4 F 2 η c s ,
DBLIP*=λ2hc(η0ϕB)1/2.

Metrics