Abstract

A stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor array with three elements applied to the Infrared Telescope in Space satellite was fabricated and tested in experiments at 2.0 K in very low-photon-influx conditions (~105 photons/s). Stress was applied to three Ge:Ga detectors in a series by a stable and compact stressing apparatus by using cone-disk springs. The cutoff wavelength was ~180 μm. Responsivity was ~100 A/W, and the product of quantum efficiency and photoconductive gain, ηG, was ~1 with a chopping frequency of 2 Hz. The noise equivalent power was <5 × 10−18 W/Hz1/2 when low-noise transimpedance amplifiers were used. A slow transient response and a nonlinear response that was dependent on the background photon influx were observed in the experiments. The latter showed that the ηG had a time constant τc that was proportional to Nph−1/2.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. E. Haller, M. R. Hueshen, P. L. Richards, “Ge:Ga photoconductors in low infrared background,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 495–497 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Lutz, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Stressed Ge:Ga infrared detectors: performance and operational parameters,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1698–1700 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J.-Q. Wang, P. L. Richards, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, “Stressed photoconductive detector for far-infrared space applications,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4767–4771 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, T. Itabe, “Far infrared anastigmatic Czerny–Turner monochromator for stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor experiments,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 353–360 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Nakagawa, H. Okuda, H. Shibai, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, “Liquid helium cooled Fabry–Perot spectrometer and the frequency switching method for far-infrared spectroscopic observations,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 97–107 (1990).
  7. H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).
  8. H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.
  9. H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Okuda, “Japanese space programs of sub-mm astronomy,” in From Ground-Based to Space-Borne Sub-mm Astronomy, Abstracts of the 29th Liege International Astrophysical Colloquium, B. H. Kaldeih, ed., European Southern Observatory Rep. SP-314 (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990), p. 30.
  12. T. Matsumoto, “IRTS: infrared telescope in space,” Observatory in Earth Orbit and Beyond, S. Bowyer, C. Leinert, eds., International Astronomical Union Colloquium 123 (Kluwer Academic, Amsterdam, 1990), pp. 215–222.
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. L. Williams, “Relaxation phenomena in high-resistivity Ge:Hg,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4802–4806 (1967).
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  14. R. L. Williams, “Response characteristics of extrinsic photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 184–192 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. F. Milton, M. M. Blouke, “Sweepout and dielectric relaxation in compensated extrinsic photoconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 3, 4312–4330 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Transient response of Ge:Be and Ge:Zn FIR photoconductors under low background photon flux conditions,” Infrared Phys. 26, 247–261 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. F. Milton, “Frequency dependence of the Debye length in compensated extrinsic photoconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 285–287 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. M. Westervelt, S. W. Teitsworth, “Nonlinear transient response of extrinsic Ge far-infrared photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 5457–5469 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Hiromoto, M. Saito, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor with low compensation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1739–1744 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Vernell, D. E. Langford, “Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-29, 1551–1554 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Oda, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Radiation effects on a Ge:Ga photoconductive detector,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 1499–1505 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Blum, Ch. Hajduk, D. Lemke, A. Salama, J. Wolf, “High-energy radiation effects on the ISOPHOT far-infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. 30, 93–96 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. R. Bratt, “Impurity germanium and silicon infrared detectors,” in Infrared Detectors II, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds., Vol. 12 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic, New York, 1977), Chap. 2, pp. 39–142.

1990 (3)

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Saito, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor with low compensation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1739–1744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Blum, Ch. Hajduk, D. Lemke, A. Salama, J. Wolf, “High-energy radiation effects on the ISOPHOT far-infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. 30, 93–96 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, T. Itabe, “Far infrared anastigmatic Czerny–Turner monochromator for stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor experiments,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 353–360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

D. Lutz, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Stressed Ge:Ga infrared detectors: performance and operational parameters,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1698–1700 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Transient response of Ge:Be and Ge:Zn FIR photoconductors under low background photon flux conditions,” Infrared Phys. 26, 247–261 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. M. Westervelt, S. W. Teitsworth, “Nonlinear transient response of extrinsic Ge far-infrared photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 5457–5469 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

N. Oda, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Radiation effects on a Ge:Ga photoconductive detector,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 1499–1505 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

L. Vernell, D. E. Langford, “Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-29, 1551–1554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

E. E. Haller, M. R. Hueshen, P. L. Richards, “Ge:Ga photoconductors in low infrared background,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 495–497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

A. F. Milton, M. M. Blouke, “Sweepout and dielectric relaxation in compensated extrinsic photoconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 3, 4312–4330 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

A. F. Milton, “Frequency dependence of the Debye length in compensated extrinsic photoconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 285–287 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. L. Williams, “Response characteristics of extrinsic photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 184–192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

R. L. Williams, “Relaxation phenomena in high-resistivity Ge:Hg,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4802–4806 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Aruga, T.

N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Beeman, J. W.

Blouke, M. M.

A. F. Milton, M. M. Blouke, “Sweepout and dielectric relaxation in compensated extrinsic photoconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 3, 4312–4330 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Blum, J.

J. Blum, Ch. Hajduk, D. Lemke, A. Salama, J. Wolf, “High-energy radiation effects on the ISOPHOT far-infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. 30, 93–96 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bratt, P. R.

P. R. Bratt, “Impurity germanium and silicon infrared detectors,” in Infrared Detectors II, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds., Vol. 12 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic, New York, 1977), Chap. 2, pp. 39–142.

Haegel, N. M.

N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Transient response of Ge:Be and Ge:Zn FIR photoconductors under low background photon flux conditions,” Infrared Phys. 26, 247–261 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hajduk, Ch.

J. Blum, Ch. Hajduk, D. Lemke, A. Salama, J. Wolf, “High-energy radiation effects on the ISOPHOT far-infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. 30, 93–96 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

J.-Q. Wang, P. L. Richards, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, “Stressed photoconductive detector for far-infrared space applications,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4767–4771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Transient response of Ge:Be and Ge:Zn FIR photoconductors under low background photon flux conditions,” Infrared Phys. 26, 247–261 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Haller, M. R. Hueshen, P. L. Richards, “Ge:Ga photoconductors in low infrared background,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 495–497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hiromoto, N.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, M. Saito, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor with low compensation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1739–1744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, T. Itabe, “Far infrared anastigmatic Czerny–Turner monochromator for stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor experiments,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 353–360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakagawa, H. Okuda, H. Shibai, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, “Liquid helium cooled Fabry–Perot spectrometer and the frequency switching method for far-infrared spectroscopic observations,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 97–107 (1990).

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

Hueshen, M. R.

E. E. Haller, M. R. Hueshen, P. L. Richards, “Ge:Ga photoconductors in low infrared background,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 495–497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Itabe, T.

N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, T. Itabe, “Far infrared anastigmatic Czerny–Turner monochromator for stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor experiments,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 353–360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

T. Nakagawa, H. Okuda, H. Shibai, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, “Liquid helium cooled Fabry–Perot spectrometer and the frequency switching method for far-infrared spectroscopic observations,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 97–107 (1990).

Langford, D. E.

L. Vernell, D. E. Langford, “Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-29, 1551–1554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, D.

J. Blum, Ch. Hajduk, D. Lemke, A. Salama, J. Wolf, “High-energy radiation effects on the ISOPHOT far-infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. 30, 93–96 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Lutz, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Stressed Ge:Ga infrared detectors: performance and operational parameters,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1698–1700 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Oda, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Radiation effects on a Ge:Ga photoconductive detector,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 1499–1505 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Low, F. J.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

Lutz, D.

Maihara, T.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

Matsuhara, H.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakagawa, H. Okuda, H. Shibai, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, “Liquid helium cooled Fabry–Perot spectrometer and the frequency switching method for far-infrared spectroscopic observations,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 97–107 (1990).

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

Matsuhara, T.

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, “IRTS: infrared telescope in space,” Observatory in Earth Orbit and Beyond, S. Bowyer, C. Leinert, eds., International Astronomical Union Colloquium 123 (Kluwer Academic, Amsterdam, 1990), pp. 215–222.
[CrossRef]

Milton, A. F.

A. F. Milton, M. M. Blouke, “Sweepout and dielectric relaxation in compensated extrinsic photoconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 3, 4312–4330 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Milton, “Frequency dependence of the Debye length in compensated extrinsic photoconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 285–287 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, K.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

Nakagawa, T.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

T. Nakagawa, H. Okuda, H. Shibai, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, “Liquid helium cooled Fabry–Perot spectrometer and the frequency switching method for far-infrared spectroscopic observations,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 97–107 (1990).

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

Nishimura, T.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

Oda, N.

N. Oda, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Radiation effects on a Ge:Ga photoconductive detector,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 1499–1505 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, H.

N. Hiromoto, M. Saito, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor with low compensation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1739–1744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakagawa, H. Okuda, H. Shibai, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, “Liquid helium cooled Fabry–Perot spectrometer and the frequency switching method for far-infrared spectroscopic observations,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 97–107 (1990).

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

H. Okuda, “Japanese space programs of sub-mm astronomy,” in From Ground-Based to Space-Borne Sub-mm Astronomy, Abstracts of the 29th Liege International Astrophysical Colloquium, B. H. Kaldeih, ed., European Southern Observatory Rep. SP-314 (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990), p. 30.

Richards, P. L.

J.-Q. Wang, P. L. Richards, J. W. Beeman, E. E. Haller, “Stressed photoconductive detector for far-infrared space applications,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4767–4771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Haller, M. R. Hueshen, P. L. Richards, “Ge:Ga photoconductors in low infrared background,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 495–497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

N. Hiromoto, M. Saito, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor with low compensation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1739–1744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Salama, A.

J. Blum, Ch. Hajduk, D. Lemke, A. Salama, J. Wolf, “High-energy radiation effects on the ISOPHOT far-infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. 30, 93–96 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shibai, H.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakagawa, H. Okuda, H. Shibai, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, “Liquid helium cooled Fabry–Perot spectrometer and the frequency switching method for far-infrared spectroscopic observations,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 97–107 (1990).

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

Takami, H.

N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, T. Itabe, “Far infrared anastigmatic Czerny–Turner monochromator for stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor experiments,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 353–360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

Teitsworth, S. W.

R. M. Westervelt, S. W. Teitsworth, “Nonlinear transient response of extrinsic Ge far-infrared photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 5457–5469 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vernell, L.

L. Vernell, D. E. Langford, “Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-29, 1551–1554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-Q.

Westervelt, R. M.

R. M. Westervelt, S. W. Teitsworth, “Nonlinear transient response of extrinsic Ge far-infrared photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 5457–5469 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. L.

R. L. Williams, “Response characteristics of extrinsic photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 184–192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Williams, “Relaxation phenomena in high-resistivity Ge:Hg,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4802–4806 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.

J. Blum, Ch. Hajduk, D. Lemke, A. Salama, J. Wolf, “High-energy radiation effects on the ISOPHOT far-infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. 30, 93–96 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Lutz, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Stressed Ge:Ga infrared detectors: performance and operational parameters,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1698–1700 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Oda, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Radiation effects on a Ge:Ga photoconductive detector,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 1499–1505 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yajima, N.

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. E. Haller, M. R. Hueshen, P. L. Richards, “Ge:Ga photoconductors in low infrared background,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 495–497 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Milton, “Frequency dependence of the Debye length in compensated extrinsic photoconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 285–287 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (2)

H. Matsuhara, T. Nakagawa, H. Shibai, H. Okuda, K. Mizutani, T. Maihara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “A [C ii] 158 micron map of the M17 complex,” Astrophys. J. 339, L67–L70 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, H. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, T. Nishimura, F. J. Low, “Large scale [C ii] 158 micron emission from the galaxy,” Astrophys. J. 374, 522–532 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

L. Vernell, D. E. Langford, “Radiation effects in IRAS extrinsic infrared detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-29, 1551–1554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (3)

N. M. Haegel, E. E. Haller, “Transient response of Ge:Be and Ge:Zn FIR photoconductors under low background photon flux conditions,” Infrared Phys. 26, 247–261 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Hiromoto, T. Itabe, T. Aruga, H. Okuda, H. Matsuhara, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, M. Saito, “Stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor with a compact and stable stressing assembly,” Infrared Phys. 29, 255–259 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Blum, Ch. Hajduk, D. Lemke, A. Salama, J. Wolf, “High-energy radiation effects on the ISOPHOT far-infrared detectors,” Infrared Phys. 30, 93–96 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves (2)

N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, T. Itabe, “Far infrared anastigmatic Czerny–Turner monochromator for stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor experiments,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 10, 353–360 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Oda, D. Lemke, J. Wolf, “Radiation effects on a Ge:Ga photoconductive detector,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 1499–1505 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. M. Westervelt, S. W. Teitsworth, “Nonlinear transient response of extrinsic Ge far-infrared photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 57, 5457–5469 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Williams, “Relaxation phenomena in high-resistivity Ge:Hg,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4802–4806 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Williams, “Response characteristics of extrinsic photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 184–192 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Hiromoto, M. Saito, H. Okuda, “Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor with low compensation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, 1739–1744 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. F. Milton, M. M. Blouke, “Sweepout and dielectric relaxation in compensated extrinsic photoconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 3, 4312–4330 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

T. Nakagawa, H. Okuda, H. Shibai, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, “Liquid helium cooled Fabry–Perot spectrometer and the frequency switching method for far-infrared spectroscopic observations,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 97–107 (1990).

H. Shibai, H. Okuda, T. Nakagawa, N. Yajima, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, H. Matsuhara, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, H. Takami, “Balloonborne infrared telescope (BIRT) for far-infrared astronomy,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VII, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1235, 108–118 (1990).

H. Okuda, H. Shibai, T. Nakagawa, T. Matsuhara, T. Maihara, K. Mizutani, Y. Kobayashi, N. Hiromoto, F. J. Low, T. Nishimura, “Observation of diffuse C Π emission in the galactic center region,” in The Center of the Galaxy, M. Morris, ed., International Astrophysical Symposium 136 (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 145–149.

H. Okuda, “Japanese space programs of sub-mm astronomy,” in From Ground-Based to Space-Borne Sub-mm Astronomy, Abstracts of the 29th Liege International Astrophysical Colloquium, B. H. Kaldeih, ed., European Southern Observatory Rep. SP-314 (ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1990), p. 30.

T. Matsumoto, “IRTS: infrared telescope in space,” Observatory in Earth Orbit and Beyond, S. Bowyer, C. Leinert, eds., International Astronomical Union Colloquium 123 (Kluwer Academic, Amsterdam, 1990), pp. 215–222.
[CrossRef]

P. R. Bratt, “Impurity germanium and silicon infrared detectors,” in Infrared Detectors II, R. K. Willardson, A. C. Beer, eds., Vol. 12 of Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic, New York, 1977), Chap. 2, pp. 39–142.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus of the three-element stressed Ge:Ga photoconductor array: (a) back view; (b) A–A cross section, a, 6-mm-diameter stainless-steel screw; b, ball bearing; c, pistons; d, electrodes; e, cone-disk springs; f, 12-mm-diameter stainless-steel screw; g, detector; h, Teflon terminals; i, feedback resistors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral response of three stressed Ge:Ga photoconductors in the array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Slow transient response of the three photoconductors to the step irradiation of the infrared light of 1.7 × 106 photons/s: (a) G51, (b) G65, (c) G71.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) ηG versus background photon influx. The numbers are the chopping frequencies in hertz. (b) ηG versus chopping frequency. The numbers in the figure are background photon influxes in 105 photons/s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time constant τc in ηG as a function of Nph, the background photon influx. The line represents τcNph−1/2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Experimental Conditions and the Performance of the Three-Element Stressed Ge:Ga Photoconductor Array Operating at 2.0 K

Tables Icon

Table II Cross Talk Measured for the Three-Element Stressed Ge:Ga Photoconductor Array (Relative Value in Photon Influx Units)

Equations (4)

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τ a ( p 1 r ) 1 ,
τ 0 ( N d r ) 1 .
τ ρ = ( e μ p 2 / ) 1 ,
τ s ( r N d p 1 / s 1 ) 1 τ 0 ( p 1 / s 1 ) 1 ,

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