Abstract

Optical second-harmonic generation from a glass-clad fiber with an organic core crystal of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene (DAN) is demonstrated. Phase matching was due to Čerenkov radiation. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of DAN, a fabrication technique of a crystal-cored fiber, and a focusing method of the generated second-harmonic wave are studied.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. K. Nayar, “Nonlinear optical interactions in organic crystal cored fibers,” ACS Symp. Ser. 233, 153–166 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1985), pp. 97–99.
  3. B. K. Nayar, “Optical fibers with organic crystalline cores,” in Nonlinear Optics: Materials and Devices, C. Flytzanis, J. L. Oudar, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), pp. 142–153.
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Umegaki, A. Hiramatsu, Y. Tsukikawa, S. Tanaka, “Crystal growth of organic materials and optical second-harmonic generation in optical fiber,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 187–190 (1986).
  5. A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of continuous wave blue coherent light from a semiconductor laser using nonlinear optical fiber with organic core-crystal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CFE3, p. 496.
  6. T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic wave,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. Schlossberg, R. Wick, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1148, 207–212 (1989).
  7. D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, eds., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), Vols. 1 and 2.
  8. J. C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, C. W. Dirk, “Crystal growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene, a new organic material for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484–1486 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Gunter, “4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals for nonlinear-optical applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 313–319 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Gunter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Takezoe, Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguroku, Tokyo 152, Japan. (personal communication).
  12. K. Chikuma, S. Umegaki, “Characteristics of optical second-harmonic generation due to Čerenkov-radiation-type phase matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 768–775 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Chikuma, S. Umegaki, “Generalized theory of optical second-harmonic generation in crystal-cored fibers due to Čerenkov-radiation-type phase matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1083–1092 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, Y. Fujii, “Second-harmonic generation by Čerenkov radiation in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1986 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3, p. 230.

1992 (1)

1990 (2)

1989 (1)

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Gunter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, C. W. Dirk, “Crystal growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene, a new organic material for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484–1486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. K. Nayar, “Nonlinear optical interactions in organic crystal cored fibers,” ACS Symp. Ser. 233, 153–166 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Arend, H.

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Gunter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, J. C.

J. C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, C. W. Dirk, “Crystal growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene, a new organic material for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484–1486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

J. C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, C. W. Dirk, “Crystal growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene, a new organic material for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484–1486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Gunter, “4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals for nonlinear-optical applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 313–319 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Gunter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chikuma, K.

K. Chikuma, S. Umegaki, “Generalized theory of optical second-harmonic generation in crystal-cored fibers due to Čerenkov-radiation-type phase matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1083–1092 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Chikuma, S. Umegaki, “Characteristics of optical second-harmonic generation due to Čerenkov-radiation-type phase matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 768–775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic wave,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. Schlossberg, R. Wick, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1148, 207–212 (1989).

Dirk, C. W.

J. C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, C. W. Dirk, “Crystal growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene, a new organic material for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484–1486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, Y. Fujii, “Second-harmonic generation by Čerenkov radiation in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1986 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3, p. 230.

Gunter, P.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Gunter, “4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals for nonlinear-optical applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 313–319 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Gunter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Harada, A.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of continuous wave blue coherent light from a semiconductor laser using nonlinear optical fiber with organic core-crystal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CFE3, p. 496.

Hiramatsu, A.

S. Umegaki, A. Hiramatsu, Y. Tsukikawa, S. Tanaka, “Crystal growth of organic materials and optical second-harmonic generation in optical fiber,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 187–190 (1986).

Kamiyama, K.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of continuous wave blue coherent light from a semiconductor laser using nonlinear optical fiber with organic core-crystal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CFE3, p. 496.

Kerkoc, P.

P. Kerkoc, M. Zgonik, K. Sutter, Ch. Bosshard, P. Gunter, “4-(N,N-Dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single crystals for nonlinear-optical applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 313–319 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Gunter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Logan, J. A.

J. C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, C. W. Dirk, “Crystal growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene, a new organic material for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484–1486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Manabe, A.

S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1985), pp. 97–99.

Nayar, B. K.

B. K. Nayar, “Nonlinear optical interactions in organic crystal cored fibers,” ACS Symp. Ser. 233, 153–166 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayar, “Optical fibers with organic crystalline cores,” in Nonlinear Optics: Materials and Devices, C. Flytzanis, J. L. Oudar, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), pp. 142–153.
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, S.

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic wave,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. Schlossberg, R. Wick, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1148, 207–212 (1989).

Okazaki, Y.

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of continuous wave blue coherent light from a semiconductor laser using nonlinear optical fiber with organic core-crystal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CFE3, p. 496.

Shimizu, Y.

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic wave,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. Schlossberg, R. Wick, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1148, 207–212 (1989).

Sutter, K.

Takahashi, Y.

S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1985), pp. 97–99.

Takezoe, H.

H. Takezoe, Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguroku, Tokyo 152, Japan. (personal communication).

Tanaka, S.

S. Umegaki, A. Hiramatsu, Y. Tsukikawa, S. Tanaka, “Crystal growth of organic materials and optical second-harmonic generation in optical fiber,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 187–190 (1986).

S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1985), pp. 97–99.

Taniuchi, T.

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, Y. Fujii, “Second-harmonic generation by Čerenkov radiation in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1986 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3, p. 230.

Tohma, T.

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic wave,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. Schlossberg, R. Wick, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1148, 207–212 (1989).

Tsukikawa, Y.

S. Umegaki, A. Hiramatsu, Y. Tsukikawa, S. Tanaka, “Crystal growth of organic materials and optical second-harmonic generation in optical fiber,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 187–190 (1986).

Twieg, R. J.

J. C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, C. W. Dirk, “Crystal growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene, a new organic material for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484–1486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Uemiya, T.

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic wave,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. Schlossberg, R. Wick, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1148, 207–212 (1989).

Uenishi, N.

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic wave,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. Schlossberg, R. Wick, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1148, 207–212 (1989).

Umegaki, S.

K. Chikuma, S. Umegaki, “Generalized theory of optical second-harmonic generation in crystal-cored fibers due to Čerenkov-radiation-type phase matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1083–1092 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Chikuma, S. Umegaki, “Characteristics of optical second-harmonic generation due to Čerenkov-radiation-type phase matching,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 768–775 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of continuous wave blue coherent light from a semiconductor laser using nonlinear optical fiber with organic core-crystal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CFE3, p. 496.

S. Umegaki, A. Hiramatsu, Y. Tsukikawa, S. Tanaka, “Crystal growth of organic materials and optical second-harmonic generation in optical fiber,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 187–190 (1986).

S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1985), pp. 97–99.

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic wave,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. Schlossberg, R. Wick, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1148, 207–212 (1989).

Yamamoto, K.

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, Y. Fujii, “Second-harmonic generation by Čerenkov radiation in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1986 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3, p. 230.

Zgonik, M.

ACS Symp. Ser. (1)

B. K. Nayar, “Nonlinear optical interactions in organic crystal cored fibers,” ACS Symp. Ser. 233, 153–166 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. C. Baumert, R. J. Twieg, G. C. Bjorklund, J. A. Logan, C. W. Dirk, “Crystal growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene, a new organic material for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1484–1486 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Kerkoc, Ch. Bosshard, H. Arend, P. Gunter, “Growth and characterization of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-3-acetamidonitrobenzene single-crystal cored fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 487–489 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Other (8)

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, Y. Fujii, “Second-harmonic generation by Čerenkov radiation in proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1986 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3, p. 230.

H. Takezoe, Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguroku, Tokyo 152, Japan. (personal communication).

S. Umegaki, Y. Takahashi, A. Manabe, S. Tanaka, “Optical second-harmonic generation in an organic crystal-core fiber,” in Extended Abstracts: Nonlinear Optical Materials, D. A. Miller, ed. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1985), pp. 97–99.

B. K. Nayar, “Optical fibers with organic crystalline cores,” in Nonlinear Optics: Materials and Devices, C. Flytzanis, J. L. Oudar, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), pp. 142–153.
[CrossRef]

S. Umegaki, A. Hiramatsu, Y. Tsukikawa, S. Tanaka, “Crystal growth of organic materials and optical second-harmonic generation in optical fiber,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.682, 187–190 (1986).

A. Harada, Y. Okazaki, K. Kamiyama, S. Umegaki, “Generation of continuous wave blue coherent light from a semiconductor laser using nonlinear optical fiber with organic core-crystal,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CFE3, p. 496.

T. Uemiya, N. Uenishi, Y. Shimizu, S. Okamoto, K. Chikuma, T. Tohma, S. Umegaki, “Crystal cored fiber using organic material and focusing properties of generated second-harmonic wave,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, H. Schlossberg, R. Wick, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1148, 207–212 (1989).

D. S. Chemla, J. Zyss, eds., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1987), Vols. 1 and 2.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum for light polarized parallel to a crystallographic b axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive indices n a and n b as a function of wavelength, where a and b denote the crystallographic a and b axes. The solid curves were drawn by using Eq. (2) for which the coefficients are determined by a least-squares fit to the experimental values of the refractive indices. The vertical bars on the circles represent experimental errors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron micrograph of a core crystal in a cross section of a fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dielectric X, Y and Z axes of the core crystal. The propagation directions of the fundamental wave and its SH wave and their polarization directions are also shown. The Čerenkov-angles in the cladding, in the core, and in the air are denoted by ρ, ρ′, and ρ A , respectively, where nclad(2ω)cos ρ = ncore(2ω)cos ρ′.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmittance of a fiber as a function of fiber length L.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ring-shaped pattern of a 0.532-μm SH wave conically launched from an end surface of a fiber. The left objective lens with a numerical aperture of 0.4 was used to focus a Nd:YAG laser into the fiber core.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup for collimation by using an axicon lens and by focusing the SH wave that is generated from SF4-clad fiber. N.A., numerical aperture.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Microscopic photograph of a spot focused after collimation with an axicon lens.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Coefficients of Sellmeier Equations for Refractive Indices n a and n b

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental and Theoretical SH Powers from a Guided 40-mW Fundamental Power

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 n ( λ m ) d = m λ m ,             2 n ( λ m ) d = ( m + ½ ) λ m ,
n ( λ ) 2 = A + B / ( 1 - C / λ 2 ) ,
1 / n 2 = sin 2 θ / n X 2 + cos 2 θ / n Z 2 ,
cos ρ = N ( ω ) / n clad ( 2 ω ) ,

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