Abstract

A new method for performing scanning differential optical microscopy is described. This method is based on the use of a higher-order transverse mode of a laser. The technique is capable of responding to both amplitude and phase structures on the object. The sensitivity of the system in detecting differential object phase structures is similar to that of a dc scanning Nomarski microscope. The system is employed to image the surface structure of an integrated circuit.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. B. Laub, “AC heterodyne profilometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1973).
  2. G. E. Sommergren, “Optical phase profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 20, 610–618 (1981).
  3. G. Mackosh, B. Drolinger, “Surface profile measurement with a scanning differential ac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4544–4553 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Vaez-Iravani, “Fiber-optic scanning differential interference contrast microscope,” Electron. Lett. 22, 103–105 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Vaez-Iravani, C. W. See, “Linear and differential techniques in the scanning optical microscope,” in Scanning Microscopy Technologies and Applications, E. C. Teague, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.897, 43–54 (1988).
  6. C. W. See, R. K. Appel, M. G. Somekh, “Scanning differential optical profilometer for simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase variation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 10–12 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential phase contrast optical microscope with 1 Å depth resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 973–975 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. R. Corle, J. T. Fanton, G. S. Kino, “Distance measurements by differential confocal optical ranging,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2416–2420 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Komatsu, H. Suhara, H. Ohzu, “Laser scanning microscope with a differential heterodyne optical probe,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4244–4249 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Ooki, J. Iwasaki, “A novel type of laser scanning microscope: theoretical considerations,” Opt. Commun. 85, 177–182 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Ooki, J. Iwasaki, “A novel type of laser scanning microscope: theoretical considerations,” Opt. Commun. 85, 177–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

C. W. See, R. K. Appel, M. G. Somekh, “Scanning differential optical profilometer for simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase variation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 10–12 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

M. Vaez-Iravani, “Fiber-optic scanning differential interference contrast microscope,” Electron. Lett. 22, 103–105 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential phase contrast optical microscope with 1 Å depth resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 973–975 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1973 (1)

L. B. Laub, “AC heterodyne profilometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1973).

Ameri, S.

H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential phase contrast optical microscope with 1 Å depth resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 973–975 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appel, R. K.

C. W. See, R. K. Appel, M. G. Somekh, “Scanning differential optical profilometer for simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase variation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 10–12 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Corle, T. R.

Drolinger, B.

Fanton, J. T.

Iwasaki, J.

H. Ooki, J. Iwasaki, “A novel type of laser scanning microscope: theoretical considerations,” Opt. Commun. 85, 177–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Komatsu, S.

Laub, L. B.

L. B. Laub, “AC heterodyne profilometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1973).

Mackosh, G.

Ohzu, H.

Ooki, H.

H. Ooki, J. Iwasaki, “A novel type of laser scanning microscope: theoretical considerations,” Opt. Commun. 85, 177–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

See, C. W.

C. W. See, R. K. Appel, M. G. Somekh, “Scanning differential optical profilometer for simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase variation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 10–12 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential phase contrast optical microscope with 1 Å depth resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 973–975 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Vaez-Iravani, C. W. See, “Linear and differential techniques in the scanning optical microscope,” in Scanning Microscopy Technologies and Applications, E. C. Teague, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.897, 43–54 (1988).

Somekh, M. G.

C. W. See, R. K. Appel, M. G. Somekh, “Scanning differential optical profilometer for simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase variation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 10–12 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sommergren, G. E.

Suhara, H.

Vaez-Iravani, M.

M. Vaez-Iravani, “Fiber-optic scanning differential interference contrast microscope,” Electron. Lett. 22, 103–105 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Vaez-Iravani, C. W. See, “Linear and differential techniques in the scanning optical microscope,” in Scanning Microscopy Technologies and Applications, E. C. Teague, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.897, 43–54 (1988).

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential phase contrast optical microscope with 1 Å depth resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 973–975 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. W. See, R. K. Appel, M. G. Somekh, “Scanning differential optical profilometer for simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase variation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 10–12 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential phase contrast optical microscope with 1 Å depth resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 973–975 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Vaez-Iravani, “Fiber-optic scanning differential interference contrast microscope,” Electron. Lett. 22, 103–105 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

L. B. Laub, “AC heterodyne profilometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1973).

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Ooki, J. Iwasaki, “A novel type of laser scanning microscope: theoretical considerations,” Opt. Commun. 85, 177–182 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Vaez-Iravani, C. W. See, “Linear and differential techniques in the scanning optical microscope,” in Scanning Microscopy Technologies and Applications, E. C. Teague, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.897, 43–54 (1988).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System configuration: BS’s, beam splitters; D’s, detectors; SOM, scanning optical microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated far-field intensity distribution of the beam that is due to (a) sample differential phase, (b) reflectivity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated signal strength as a function of sample differential height.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity profile of the expanded laser beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the power through the slit, normalized to the total beam power, as a function of time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Differential image of a series of contact holes and pads on Si.

Equations (3)

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u ( x ) = 2 x exp [ - ( x 2 w 1 2 ) ]
U ( f x ) = - + u ( x ) exp ( - j 2 π f x x ) d x ,
U ( f x ) = ( j w 1 π ) 3 [ 2 f x exp ( - f x 2 w 2 2 ) ] ,

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