Abstract

An active cavity radiometer of the electrical substitution type with a cone receiver that operates at 2–4 K has been developed for measuring radiant fluxes in the dynamic range of 20 nW to 100 μW within an uncertainty of ±1% (2σ level). It is a broadband absolute detector with a flat overall absorption efficiency that is > 99% for radiation from the visible to long-wavelength IR. The system is designed based on thermal modeling and experimental measurements of concepts. It has been installed in the cryogenic chamber for low-background infrared radiation calibrations at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for testing cryogenic blackbody sources, detectors, and optical components. Its time constant, responsivity, and nonequivalence error have been measured. They are in agreement with design predictions. Radiant power measurements of an amplitude-stabilized He–Ne laser beam with the radiometer and an industry standard photodiode detector, QED-200, have been intercompared and found to be in agreement. The intercomparison ratio of the measurements with the absolute cryogenic radiometer and QED-200 was 1.004 in the 75–100-μW range with an uncertainty of 0.5% (the 3σ level).

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Hengstberger, “The absolute measurement of radiant power,” in Absolute Radiometry: Electrically Calibrated Thermal Detectors of Optical Radiation, F. Hengstberger, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), pp. 1–117.
  2. P. V. Foukal, C. Hoyt, H. Kochling, P. Miller, “Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 988–993 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. R. Yokely, “Long wave infrared testing at NBS,” in Applications of Optical Metrology: Techniques and Measurements II, J. J. Lee, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.416, 2–7 (1983).
  4. A. C. Parr, J. Fowler, S. Ebner, “Low background infrared calibration facility at the National Bureau of Standards,” in Infrared Scene Simulation: Systems, Requirements, Calibration, Devices, and Modeling, R. B. Johnson, M. J. Triplett, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.940, 26–33 (1988).
  5. S. C. Ebner, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, “Update on the low background IR calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” in Imaging Infrared: Scene Simulations, Modeling, and Real Image Tracking, A. J. Huber, M. J. Triplett, J. R. Wolverton, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1110, 49–60 (1989).
  6. E. F. Zalewski, C. R. Duda, “Silicon photodiode device with 100% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2867–2873 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. F. Clark, “Thermal expansion,” in Materials at Low Temperatures, P. R. Reed, A. F. Clark, eds. (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1983), pp. 75–128.
  8. Product of Lord Corporation, Industrial Coatings Division, 2000 West Grandview Boulevard, Erie, Pa. 16514–0038.
  9. Laser Power Controller system, Models LPC-VIS and RD-40, manufactured by Cambridge Research and Instrumentation, Inc., 21 Erie Street, Cambridge, Mass. 02139.

1990 (1)

1983 (1)

Clark, A. F.

A. F. Clark, “Thermal expansion,” in Materials at Low Temperatures, P. R. Reed, A. F. Clark, eds. (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1983), pp. 75–128.

Duda, C. R.

Ebner, S.

A. C. Parr, J. Fowler, S. Ebner, “Low background infrared calibration facility at the National Bureau of Standards,” in Infrared Scene Simulation: Systems, Requirements, Calibration, Devices, and Modeling, R. B. Johnson, M. J. Triplett, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.940, 26–33 (1988).

Ebner, S. C.

S. C. Ebner, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, “Update on the low background IR calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” in Imaging Infrared: Scene Simulations, Modeling, and Real Image Tracking, A. J. Huber, M. J. Triplett, J. R. Wolverton, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1110, 49–60 (1989).

Foukal, P. V.

Fowler, J.

A. C. Parr, J. Fowler, S. Ebner, “Low background infrared calibration facility at the National Bureau of Standards,” in Infrared Scene Simulation: Systems, Requirements, Calibration, Devices, and Modeling, R. B. Johnson, M. J. Triplett, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.940, 26–33 (1988).

Hengstberger, F.

F. Hengstberger, “The absolute measurement of radiant power,” in Absolute Radiometry: Electrically Calibrated Thermal Detectors of Optical Radiation, F. Hengstberger, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), pp. 1–117.

Hoyt, C.

Hoyt, C. C.

S. C. Ebner, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, “Update on the low background IR calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” in Imaging Infrared: Scene Simulations, Modeling, and Real Image Tracking, A. J. Huber, M. J. Triplett, J. R. Wolverton, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1110, 49–60 (1989).

Kochling, H.

Miller, P.

Parr, A. C.

S. C. Ebner, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, “Update on the low background IR calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” in Imaging Infrared: Scene Simulations, Modeling, and Real Image Tracking, A. J. Huber, M. J. Triplett, J. R. Wolverton, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1110, 49–60 (1989).

A. C. Parr, J. Fowler, S. Ebner, “Low background infrared calibration facility at the National Bureau of Standards,” in Infrared Scene Simulation: Systems, Requirements, Calibration, Devices, and Modeling, R. B. Johnson, M. J. Triplett, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.940, 26–33 (1988).

Yokely, C. R.

C. R. Yokely, “Long wave infrared testing at NBS,” in Applications of Optical Metrology: Techniques and Measurements II, J. J. Lee, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.416, 2–7 (1983).

Zalewski, E. F.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Other (7)

A. F. Clark, “Thermal expansion,” in Materials at Low Temperatures, P. R. Reed, A. F. Clark, eds. (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1983), pp. 75–128.

Product of Lord Corporation, Industrial Coatings Division, 2000 West Grandview Boulevard, Erie, Pa. 16514–0038.

Laser Power Controller system, Models LPC-VIS and RD-40, manufactured by Cambridge Research and Instrumentation, Inc., 21 Erie Street, Cambridge, Mass. 02139.

C. R. Yokely, “Long wave infrared testing at NBS,” in Applications of Optical Metrology: Techniques and Measurements II, J. J. Lee, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.416, 2–7 (1983).

A. C. Parr, J. Fowler, S. Ebner, “Low background infrared calibration facility at the National Bureau of Standards,” in Infrared Scene Simulation: Systems, Requirements, Calibration, Devices, and Modeling, R. B. Johnson, M. J. Triplett, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.940, 26–33 (1988).

S. C. Ebner, A. C. Parr, C. C. Hoyt, “Update on the low background IR calibration facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology,” in Imaging Infrared: Scene Simulations, Modeling, and Real Image Tracking, A. J. Huber, M. J. Triplett, J. R. Wolverton, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1110, 49–60 (1989).

F. Hengstberger, “The absolute measurement of radiant power,” in Absolute Radiometry: Electrically Calibrated Thermal Detectors of Optical Radiation, F. Hengstberger, ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1989), pp. 1–117.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nodes in the lumped parameter model: GRT’s, Ge resistance thermometers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated response of the ACR receiver for 10- and 100-μW input power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated responsivity of the ACR receiver.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of the temperature of the ACR receiver cone with incident power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ACR receiver subassembly.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorptance measurements of Chemglaze.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Electrical substitution principle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for the intercomparison of the ACR and QED-200.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Nonequivalence Measurementa

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Table 2 Uncertainty Budget for ACR Characterization,

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Table 3 Comparison of QED-200 Measurements of Laser Power Between Inside and Outside the Chamber

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Table 4 Comparison of QED-200 (Outside) and ACR (Inside)

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Table 5 Intercomparison of ACR and OED-200

Equations (4)

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responsivity = ( temperature change ) / ( power change ) .
electrical power = radiative power , V 1 ( V 2 / R ) = F A N ,
F = V 1 ( V 2 / R ) ( 1 / A ) ( 1 / N ) .
R = wavelength / 1239.5 ,

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