Abstract

We describe a relatively simple, but highly effective, approach to the system design and alignment of an all-refractive Offner null corrector and phase-measuring Shack cube interferometer. In addition we outline procedures for fabricating and testing the optical components. Allowable errors for all parameters are determined by a tolerance analysis that separates axisymmetric and residual figure errors. An open construction optics frame provides a high degree of metering flexibility by incorporating simple kinematic mounts that provide adjustment of each lens while also allowing the lens to be removed and replaced with < 2-μm absolute repeatability. Nonaxisymmetric alignment errors are removed by rotating the optics on a high-precision bearing. Axial spacings are measured with contact transducers attached to both ends of an Invar metering rod. Two completed systems have guided the stressed-lap polishing of 1.8-mf/1.0 and 3.5-m f/1.5 aspheric mirrors.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. R. P. Angel, W. B. Davison, J. M. Hill, E. J. Mannery, H. M. Martin, “Progress toward making lightweight 8-m mirrors of short focal length,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 636–640 (1990).
  2. H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, “Use of an actively stressed lap to polish a 1.8-m f/1 paraboloid,” in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Istrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching-bei-München, Germany, 1988), p. 353.
  3. H. M. Martin, D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 682–690 (1990).
  4. D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).
  5. J. M. Hill, “Optical design, error budget, and specifications for the Columbus Project Telescope,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 86–107 (1990).
  6. H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. C. West, “Stressed lap polishing of large aspheric primary mirrors,”
  7. A. Offner, “A null corrector for paraboloidal mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 2, 153–155 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. V. Shack, G. W. Hopkins, “The Shack interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 18, 226–228 (1979).
  9. D. S. Anderson, C. K. Koliopoulis, “Direct phase measurement of large optics,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fabrication and Testing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 126–131.
  10. D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1978).
  11. L. G. Deterding, “High-precision, strain-free mounting of large lens elements,” Appl. Opt. 1, 403–406 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. H. Carnell, M. J. Kidger, A. J. Overill, R. W. Reader, F. C. Reavell, W. T. Welford, C. G. Wynne, “Some experiments on precision lens centering and mounting,” Opt. Acta 21, 615–629 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. C. O’Shea, “Annotated bibliography of optomechanical design,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1160–1170 (1986).
  14. L. Allen, J. R. P. Angel, J. D. Mongos, G. A. Rodney, R. R. Shannon, C. P. Spoelhof, “Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report,” NASA Rep. (NASA, Washington, D.C., November1990)
  15. R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Anderoni, “Active optics IV. Setup and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. N. Wilson, “Matching error” (spherical aberration) in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): some technical comments,” ESO Messenger 61, 22–24 (1990).

1991 (1)

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Anderoni, “Active optics IV. Setup and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. N. Wilson, “Matching error” (spherical aberration) in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): some technical comments,” ESO Messenger 61, 22–24 (1990).

1986 (1)

D. C. O’Shea, “Annotated bibliography of optomechanical design,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1160–1170 (1986).

1979 (1)

R. V. Shack, G. W. Hopkins, “The Shack interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 18, 226–228 (1979).

1974 (1)

K. H. Carnell, M. J. Kidger, A. J. Overill, R. W. Reader, F. C. Reavell, W. T. Welford, C. G. Wynne, “Some experiments on precision lens centering and mounting,” Opt. Acta 21, 615–629 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

1962 (1)

Allen, L.

L. Allen, J. R. P. Angel, J. D. Mongos, G. A. Rodney, R. R. Shannon, C. P. Spoelhof, “Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report,” NASA Rep. (NASA, Washington, D.C., November1990)

Anderoni, G.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Anderoni, “Active optics IV. Setup and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. S.

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

H. M. Martin, D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 682–690 (1990).

D. S. Anderson, C. K. Koliopoulis, “Direct phase measurement of large optics,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fabrication and Testing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 126–131.

Angel, J. R. P.

H. M. Martin, D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 682–690 (1990).

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, “Use of an actively stressed lap to polish a 1.8-m f/1 paraboloid,” in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Istrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching-bei-München, Germany, 1988), p. 353.

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

J. R. P. Angel, W. B. Davison, J. M. Hill, E. J. Mannery, H. M. Martin, “Progress toward making lightweight 8-m mirrors of short focal length,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 636–640 (1990).

L. Allen, J. R. P. Angel, J. D. Mongos, G. A. Rodney, R. R. Shannon, C. P. Spoelhof, “Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report,” NASA Rep. (NASA, Washington, D.C., November1990)

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. C. West, “Stressed lap polishing of large aspheric primary mirrors,”

Burge, J. H.

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. C. West, “Stressed lap polishing of large aspheric primary mirrors,”

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

Carnell, K. H.

K. H. Carnell, M. J. Kidger, A. J. Overill, R. W. Reader, F. C. Reavell, W. T. Welford, C. G. Wynne, “Some experiments on precision lens centering and mounting,” Opt. Acta 21, 615–629 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, A. Y. S.

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, “Use of an actively stressed lap to polish a 1.8-m f/1 paraboloid,” in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Istrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching-bei-München, Germany, 1988), p. 353.

Davison, W. B.

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

J. R. P. Angel, W. B. Davison, J. M. Hill, E. J. Mannery, H. M. Martin, “Progress toward making lightweight 8-m mirrors of short focal length,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 636–640 (1990).

DeRigne, S. T.

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

Deterding, L. G.

Franza, F.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Anderoni, “Active optics IV. Setup and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hill, J. M.

J. R. P. Angel, W. B. Davison, J. M. Hill, E. J. Mannery, H. M. Martin, “Progress toward making lightweight 8-m mirrors of short focal length,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 636–640 (1990).

J. M. Hill, “Optical design, error budget, and specifications for the Columbus Project Telescope,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 86–107 (1990).

Hille, B. B.

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

Hopkins, G. W.

R. V. Shack, G. W. Hopkins, “The Shack interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 18, 226–228 (1979).

Ketelson, D. A.

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

Kidger, M. J.

K. H. Carnell, M. J. Kidger, A. J. Overill, R. W. Reader, F. C. Reavell, W. T. Welford, C. G. Wynne, “Some experiments on precision lens centering and mounting,” Opt. Acta 21, 615–629 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kittrell, W. C.

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

Koliopoulis, C. K.

D. S. Anderson, C. K. Koliopoulis, “Direct phase measurement of large optics,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fabrication and Testing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 126–131.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1978).

Mannery, E. J.

J. R. P. Angel, W. B. Davison, J. M. Hill, E. J. Mannery, H. M. Martin, “Progress toward making lightweight 8-m mirrors of short focal length,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 636–640 (1990).

Martin, H. M.

J. R. P. Angel, W. B. Davison, J. M. Hill, E. J. Mannery, H. M. Martin, “Progress toward making lightweight 8-m mirrors of short focal length,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 636–640 (1990).

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. C. West, “Stressed lap polishing of large aspheric primary mirrors,”

H. M. Martin, D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 682–690 (1990).

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, “Use of an actively stressed lap to polish a 1.8-m f/1 paraboloid,” in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Istrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching-bei-München, Germany, 1988), p. 353.

Mongos, J. D.

L. Allen, J. R. P. Angel, J. D. Mongos, G. A. Rodney, R. R. Shannon, C. P. Spoelhof, “Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report,” NASA Rep. (NASA, Washington, D.C., November1990)

Nagel, R. H.

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

H. M. Martin, D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 682–690 (1990).

Noethe, L.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Anderoni, “Active optics IV. Setup and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, D. C.

D. C. O’Shea, “Annotated bibliography of optomechanical design,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1160–1170 (1986).

Offner, A.

Overill, A. J.

K. H. Carnell, M. J. Kidger, A. J. Overill, R. W. Reader, F. C. Reavell, W. T. Welford, C. G. Wynne, “Some experiments on precision lens centering and mounting,” Opt. Acta 21, 615–629 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Reader, R. W.

K. H. Carnell, M. J. Kidger, A. J. Overill, R. W. Reader, F. C. Reavell, W. T. Welford, C. G. Wynne, “Some experiments on precision lens centering and mounting,” Opt. Acta 21, 615–629 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Reavell, F. C.

K. H. Carnell, M. J. Kidger, A. J. Overill, R. W. Reader, F. C. Reavell, W. T. Welford, C. G. Wynne, “Some experiments on precision lens centering and mounting,” Opt. Acta 21, 615–629 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rodney, G. A.

L. Allen, J. R. P. Angel, J. D. Mongos, G. A. Rodney, R. R. Shannon, C. P. Spoelhof, “Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report,” NASA Rep. (NASA, Washington, D.C., November1990)

Shack, R. V.

R. V. Shack, G. W. Hopkins, “The Shack interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 18, 226–228 (1979).

Shannon, R. R.

L. Allen, J. R. P. Angel, J. D. Mongos, G. A. Rodney, R. R. Shannon, C. P. Spoelhof, “Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report,” NASA Rep. (NASA, Washington, D.C., November1990)

Spoelhof, C. P.

L. Allen, J. R. P. Angel, J. D. Mongos, G. A. Rodney, R. R. Shannon, C. P. Spoelhof, “Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report,” NASA Rep. (NASA, Washington, D.C., November1990)

Trebisky, T. J.

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

Welford, W. T.

K. H. Carnell, M. J. Kidger, A. J. Overill, R. W. Reader, F. C. Reavell, W. T. Welford, C. G. Wynne, “Some experiments on precision lens centering and mounting,” Opt. Acta 21, 615–629 (1974).
[CrossRef]

West, S. C.

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. C. West, “Stressed lap polishing of large aspheric primary mirrors,”

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

H. M. Martin, D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 682–690 (1990).

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Anderoni, “Active optics IV. Setup and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, “Matching error” (spherical aberration) in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): some technical comments,” ESO Messenger 61, 22–24 (1990).

Wynne, C. G.

K. H. Carnell, M. J. Kidger, A. J. Overill, R. W. Reader, F. C. Reavell, W. T. Welford, C. G. Wynne, “Some experiments on precision lens centering and mounting,” Opt. Acta 21, 615–629 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. S.

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

H. M. Martin, D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 682–690 (1990).

Appl. Opt. (2)

ESO Messenger (1)

R. N. Wilson, “Matching error” (spherical aberration) in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): some technical comments,” ESO Messenger 61, 22–24 (1990).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Anderoni, “Active optics IV. Setup and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) in the observatory,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

K. H. Carnell, M. J. Kidger, A. J. Overill, R. W. Reader, F. C. Reavell, W. T. Welford, C. G. Wynne, “Some experiments on precision lens centering and mounting,” Opt. Acta 21, 615–629 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. C. O’Shea, “Annotated bibliography of optomechanical design,” Opt. Eng. 25, 1160–1170 (1986).

R. V. Shack, G. W. Hopkins, “The Shack interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 18, 226–228 (1979).

Other (9)

D. S. Anderson, C. K. Koliopoulis, “Direct phase measurement of large optics,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fabrication and Testing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), pp. 126–131.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, New York, 1978).

L. Allen, J. R. P. Angel, J. D. Mongos, G. A. Rodney, R. R. Shannon, C. P. Spoelhof, “Hubble Space Telescope optical systems failure report,” NASA Rep. (NASA, Washington, D.C., November1990)

J. R. P. Angel, W. B. Davison, J. M. Hill, E. J. Mannery, H. M. Martin, “Progress toward making lightweight 8-m mirrors of short focal length,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 636–640 (1990).

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, A. Y. S. Cheng, “Use of an actively stressed lap to polish a 1.8-m f/1 paraboloid,” in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Istrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching-bei-München, Germany, 1988), p. 353.

H. M. Martin, D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, R. H. Nagel, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Progress in the stressed-lap polishing of a 1.8-m f/1 mirror,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 682–690 (1990).

D. S. Anderson, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, W. B. Davison, S. T. DeRigne, B. B. Hille, D. A. Ketelson, W. C. Kittrell, H. M. Martin, R. H. Nagel, T. J. Trebisky, S. C. West, R. S. Young, “Stressed-lap polishing of 3.5-m f/1.5 and 1.8-m f/1.0 Mirrors,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing II,V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 260–269 (1991).

J. M. Hill, “Optical design, error budget, and specifications for the Columbus Project Telescope,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 86–107 (1990).

H. M. Martin, J. R. P. Angel, J. H. Burge, S. C. West, “Stressed lap polishing of large aspheric primary mirrors,”

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Offner null corrector and Shack-cube interferometer used to perform the null test of the primary mirrors (not to scale). See text for explanation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Contributions of each error in the null lens to the uncertainty in (a) the conic constant and (b) the wave front for the Phillips Laboratory primary mirror. Only the parameters with the greatest effect are labeled.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the test optics for the Lennon 1.8-m f/1.0 and Phillips Laboratory 3.5-m f/1.5 primary mirrors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Kinematic lens supports permit nearly strain-free lens mounting, five axes of adjustment, and the ability to remove and replace the lens with extremely high-positioning repeatability.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Procedure used to align the relay lens of the null corrector with respect to the field lens. (a) The edge metering of two surfaces removes tip-tilt, wedge, and decentration. (b) Vertex-to-vertex axial adjustments were made while the tip tilt was monitored. A high degree of metering flexibility is provided by the removable kinematic lens mounts.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the test tower for large optics. Shown are the concrete base and steel structure providing five individual testing platforms at heights ranging from 11.5 to 23.5 m. The platforms are offset horizontally (out of the plane of the page) to provide clearance for all test paths. Vibration isolation is provided with 40 100-psi pneumatic isolators (not shown). The Phillips Laboratory metrology system is mounted to the lowest platform.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase map showing the nonaxisymmetric errors of the null corrector and Shack cube for the Lennon 1.8-m f/1.0 mirror determined by rotating the interferometer with the high-precision rotary table. The corresponding surface error is 0.0061 wave rms and 0.043 wave p.v. and is slightly better than that for the Phillips Laboratory corrector. The contour step is 0.005 wave PTS.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Asphericity Versus Cumulative Errors Resulting from the Fabrication of the Null Correctors

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