Abstract

Investigation of the surface character of fused silica polished with various compounds dispersed in water identified pH 4 as the optimum condition for high quality. Analyses support the conclusion that at this pH redeposition of hydrated material onto the surface during polishing is limited. Comparative polishing results for Zerodur are included. Improvement of the laser-damage threshold of a coating on the pH 4 polished fused silica is suggested.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 154–172. (1990).
  2. K. H. Guenther, “Nodular defects in dielectric multilayers and thick single layers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1034–1038 (1981); “The influence of substrate surface on the performance of optical coatings,” Thin Solid Films 77, 239–251 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Fused silica, Corning 7940, contains ~ 1000 ppm of water (Corning Inc., Corning, N.Y.).
  4. Zerodur, striae-free grade (Schott Glass Technologies, Duryea, Pa.).
  5. A. Tesar, T. Oja, “Cursory examination of the zeta potential behaviors of two optical materials,” UCRL-ID-109373 (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1992).
  6. R. Musket, R. Daley, A. Tesar, “Forward recoil spectroscopy of polished fused silica surfaces.” Nucl. Instrum. Methods (to be published).
  7. K. Vedam, P. Chindaudom, A. Tesar, “Characterization of surface layers on polished fused silica by ellipsometry,” Mater. Res. Bull. (to be published).
  8. N. Brown, “Optical fabrication,” UCRL-misc-4476 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1990).
  9. A. Tesar, B. Fuchs, “Removal rates of fused silica with cerium oxide/pitch polishing,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing, II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 80–90 (1991).
  10. The presence of hydrated aluminum ions appears to influence polishing behavior. The dissolution of 2 g of AlCl3.6H2O in 1000 mL of ceria slurry at pH 4 quickly resulted in decreased drag. The redeposition of material onto fused silica sample surfaces became apparent within 30 min.
  11. G. T. Beilby, Aggression and Flow of Solids (Macmillan, London, V, 1921), Sec. p. 81.
  12. SEM/EDS analysis of used pitch and ceria surfaces.
  13. The word fresh is used to describe a silica surface that is newly formed. The authors are aware that such a surface will contain hydroxyl groups to some degree when it is formed in an environment containing water. A fresh surface, however, has not been heat treated, cleaned, or otherwise chemically treated.
  14. F. Grieser, R. N. Lamb, G. R. Wiese, D. E. Yates, R. Cooper, T. W. Healy, “Thermal and radiation control of the electrical double layer properties of silica and glass,” Radiat Phys. Chem. 23, 43–48 (1984). Note that the specific iep of colloidal silica in water is an area of controversy. The double layer formed between colloidal silica and water is sensitive to processing and minute levels of contamination (especially chlorine, alkali salts, and acids). It is unfortunate that most published experiments have examined systems where salts have been added to render the suspension conductive.

1984 (1)

F. Grieser, R. N. Lamb, G. R. Wiese, D. E. Yates, R. Cooper, T. W. Healy, “Thermal and radiation control of the electrical double layer properties of silica and glass,” Radiat Phys. Chem. 23, 43–48 (1984). Note that the specific iep of colloidal silica in water is an area of controversy. The double layer formed between colloidal silica and water is sensitive to processing and minute levels of contamination (especially chlorine, alkali salts, and acids). It is unfortunate that most published experiments have examined systems where salts have been added to render the suspension conductive.

1981 (1)

Beilby, G. T.

G. T. Beilby, Aggression and Flow of Solids (Macmillan, London, V, 1921), Sec. p. 81.

Brown, N.

N. Brown, “Optical fabrication,” UCRL-misc-4476 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1990).

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 154–172. (1990).

Chindaudom, P.

K. Vedam, P. Chindaudom, A. Tesar, “Characterization of surface layers on polished fused silica by ellipsometry,” Mater. Res. Bull. (to be published).

Cooper, R.

F. Grieser, R. N. Lamb, G. R. Wiese, D. E. Yates, R. Cooper, T. W. Healy, “Thermal and radiation control of the electrical double layer properties of silica and glass,” Radiat Phys. Chem. 23, 43–48 (1984). Note that the specific iep of colloidal silica in water is an area of controversy. The double layer formed between colloidal silica and water is sensitive to processing and minute levels of contamination (especially chlorine, alkali salts, and acids). It is unfortunate that most published experiments have examined systems where salts have been added to render the suspension conductive.

Daley, R.

R. Musket, R. Daley, A. Tesar, “Forward recoil spectroscopy of polished fused silica surfaces.” Nucl. Instrum. Methods (to be published).

Fuchs, B.

A. Tesar, B. Fuchs, “Removal rates of fused silica with cerium oxide/pitch polishing,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing, II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 80–90 (1991).

Grieser, F.

F. Grieser, R. N. Lamb, G. R. Wiese, D. E. Yates, R. Cooper, T. W. Healy, “Thermal and radiation control of the electrical double layer properties of silica and glass,” Radiat Phys. Chem. 23, 43–48 (1984). Note that the specific iep of colloidal silica in water is an area of controversy. The double layer formed between colloidal silica and water is sensitive to processing and minute levels of contamination (especially chlorine, alkali salts, and acids). It is unfortunate that most published experiments have examined systems where salts have been added to render the suspension conductive.

Guenther, K. H.

Healy, T. W.

F. Grieser, R. N. Lamb, G. R. Wiese, D. E. Yates, R. Cooper, T. W. Healy, “Thermal and radiation control of the electrical double layer properties of silica and glass,” Radiat Phys. Chem. 23, 43–48 (1984). Note that the specific iep of colloidal silica in water is an area of controversy. The double layer formed between colloidal silica and water is sensitive to processing and minute levels of contamination (especially chlorine, alkali salts, and acids). It is unfortunate that most published experiments have examined systems where salts have been added to render the suspension conductive.

Lamb, R. N.

F. Grieser, R. N. Lamb, G. R. Wiese, D. E. Yates, R. Cooper, T. W. Healy, “Thermal and radiation control of the electrical double layer properties of silica and glass,” Radiat Phys. Chem. 23, 43–48 (1984). Note that the specific iep of colloidal silica in water is an area of controversy. The double layer formed between colloidal silica and water is sensitive to processing and minute levels of contamination (especially chlorine, alkali salts, and acids). It is unfortunate that most published experiments have examined systems where salts have been added to render the suspension conductive.

Musket, R.

R. Musket, R. Daley, A. Tesar, “Forward recoil spectroscopy of polished fused silica surfaces.” Nucl. Instrum. Methods (to be published).

Oja, T.

A. Tesar, T. Oja, “Cursory examination of the zeta potential behaviors of two optical materials,” UCRL-ID-109373 (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1992).

Stolz, C. J.

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 154–172. (1990).

Taylor, J. R.

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 154–172. (1990).

Tesar, A.

A. Tesar, T. Oja, “Cursory examination of the zeta potential behaviors of two optical materials,” UCRL-ID-109373 (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1992).

R. Musket, R. Daley, A. Tesar, “Forward recoil spectroscopy of polished fused silica surfaces.” Nucl. Instrum. Methods (to be published).

K. Vedam, P. Chindaudom, A. Tesar, “Characterization of surface layers on polished fused silica by ellipsometry,” Mater. Res. Bull. (to be published).

A. Tesar, B. Fuchs, “Removal rates of fused silica with cerium oxide/pitch polishing,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing, II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 80–90 (1991).

Tesar, A. A.

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 154–172. (1990).

Vedam, K.

K. Vedam, P. Chindaudom, A. Tesar, “Characterization of surface layers on polished fused silica by ellipsometry,” Mater. Res. Bull. (to be published).

Wiese, G. R.

F. Grieser, R. N. Lamb, G. R. Wiese, D. E. Yates, R. Cooper, T. W. Healy, “Thermal and radiation control of the electrical double layer properties of silica and glass,” Radiat Phys. Chem. 23, 43–48 (1984). Note that the specific iep of colloidal silica in water is an area of controversy. The double layer formed between colloidal silica and water is sensitive to processing and minute levels of contamination (especially chlorine, alkali salts, and acids). It is unfortunate that most published experiments have examined systems where salts have been added to render the suspension conductive.

Yates, D. E.

F. Grieser, R. N. Lamb, G. R. Wiese, D. E. Yates, R. Cooper, T. W. Healy, “Thermal and radiation control of the electrical double layer properties of silica and glass,” Radiat Phys. Chem. 23, 43–48 (1984). Note that the specific iep of colloidal silica in water is an area of controversy. The double layer formed between colloidal silica and water is sensitive to processing and minute levels of contamination (especially chlorine, alkali salts, and acids). It is unfortunate that most published experiments have examined systems where salts have been added to render the suspension conductive.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Radiat Phys. Chem. (1)

F. Grieser, R. N. Lamb, G. R. Wiese, D. E. Yates, R. Cooper, T. W. Healy, “Thermal and radiation control of the electrical double layer properties of silica and glass,” Radiat Phys. Chem. 23, 43–48 (1984). Note that the specific iep of colloidal silica in water is an area of controversy. The double layer formed between colloidal silica and water is sensitive to processing and minute levels of contamination (especially chlorine, alkali salts, and acids). It is unfortunate that most published experiments have examined systems where salts have been added to render the suspension conductive.

Other (12)

A. A. Tesar, N. Brown, J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, “Subsurface polishing damage of fused silica: nature and effect on damage threshold of coated surfaces,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials ’90, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newman, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1441, 154–172. (1990).

Fused silica, Corning 7940, contains ~ 1000 ppm of water (Corning Inc., Corning, N.Y.).

Zerodur, striae-free grade (Schott Glass Technologies, Duryea, Pa.).

A. Tesar, T. Oja, “Cursory examination of the zeta potential behaviors of two optical materials,” UCRL-ID-109373 (National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., 1992).

R. Musket, R. Daley, A. Tesar, “Forward recoil spectroscopy of polished fused silica surfaces.” Nucl. Instrum. Methods (to be published).

K. Vedam, P. Chindaudom, A. Tesar, “Characterization of surface layers on polished fused silica by ellipsometry,” Mater. Res. Bull. (to be published).

N. Brown, “Optical fabrication,” UCRL-misc-4476 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1990).

A. Tesar, B. Fuchs, “Removal rates of fused silica with cerium oxide/pitch polishing,” in Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing, II, V. J. Doherty, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1531, 80–90 (1991).

The presence of hydrated aluminum ions appears to influence polishing behavior. The dissolution of 2 g of AlCl3.6H2O in 1000 mL of ceria slurry at pH 4 quickly resulted in decreased drag. The redeposition of material onto fused silica sample surfaces became apparent within 30 min.

G. T. Beilby, Aggression and Flow of Solids (Macmillan, London, V, 1921), Sec. p. 81.

SEM/EDS analysis of used pitch and ceria surfaces.

The word fresh is used to describe a silica surface that is newly formed. The authors are aware that such a surface will contain hydroxyl groups to some degree when it is formed in an environment containing water. A fresh surface, however, has not been heat treated, cleaned, or otherwise chemically treated.

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Figures (11)

Figure 1
Figure 1

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of fused silica polished at pH7 with Hastelite PO.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of Zerodur polished at pH7 with Hastelite PO.

Figure 3
Figure 3

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of fused silica polished at pH4 with Hastelite PO.

Figure 4
Figure 4

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of fused silica polished at pH4 with Opaline.

Figure 5
Figure 5

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of Zerodur polished at pH4 with Opaline.

Figure 6
Figure 6

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of fused silica polished at pH7 with zirconia.

Figure 7
Figure 7

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of Zerodur polished at pH7 with zirconia.

Figure 8
Figure 8

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of fused silica polished at pH4 with zirconia.

Figure 9
Figure 9

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of Zerodur polished at pH4 with zirconia.

Figure 10
Figure 10

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of fused silica polished at pH4 with alumina.

Figure 11
Figure 11

Nomarski micrograph at 200× and AFM surface profile of Zerodur polished at pH4 with alumina.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Description of Polishing Compounds

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Table 2 Parameters of Polishing Experiments

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Table 3 Comparison of Roughness Measurements

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Table 4 ESCA Composition Dataa

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Table 5 Laser-Damage Threshold Results

Equations (1)

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C = Δ M ρ L Δ S ,

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