Abstract

The copper-laser-pumped dye laser system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is now capable of sustained, efficient, and reliable operation at total powers exceeding 2500 W and single amplifier chain powers exceeding 1300 W. Wavelength center frequency stability is maintainable to < 50 MHz. Laser dyes developed at LLNL permit tunability from 550 to 650 nm. Wave-front quality is <λ/4 peak to valley. The system is operated remotely with the aid of a comprehensive set of diagnostics. Besides supporting its primary atomic-vapor-laser-isotope-separation mission, the system is being used in alternate applications such as materials processing and the generation of artificial guide stars.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.
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  3. R. G. Morton, V. G. Draggoo, “Reliable high average power high pulse energy dye laser,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. ThS7-1–ThS7-2; IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 222 (1981).
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  11. J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. I. Davis, “Laser R&D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. I. Davis, “Atomic vapor laser isotope separation,” Rep. UCRL-88040 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1982).
  13. H. Chen, J. I. Davis, “Lasers in chemistry,” Photon. Spectra 16(10), 59–66 (1982).
  14. J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser Focus 18(9), 49–54 (1982).
  15. J. I. Davis, “Lasers in chemical processing,” Rep. UCRL-53276 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1982).
  16. J. I. Davis, E. B. Rockower, “Lasers in material processing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 233–239 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. I. Davis, “Atomic vapor laser isotope separation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory—a status report,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), p. 70.
  18. J. I. Davis, R. W. Davis, “Some aspects of the laser isotope separation program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory,” Rep. UCRL-77981 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., (1976).
  19. T. W. Hädnsch, “Repetitively pulsed tunable dye laser for high resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 11, 895–898 (1972).
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  20. A. F. Bernhardt, P. Rasmussen, “Design criteria and operating characteristics of a single-mode pulsed dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 141–146 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. P. Hackel, M. Feldman, J. Baker, R. D. Paris, J. M. Tampico, T. J. Kauppila, “Pulsed, multiple dye laser oscillator system with accurate wavelength control,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 266.
  22. O. Teschke, A. Dienes, J. R. Whinnery, “Theory and operation of high-power cw and long-pulse dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 383–396 (1976).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. R. E. English, J. M. Halpin, F. A. House, R. D. Paris, “Optical design of a high power fiber optic coupler,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1527, 174–179 (1991).
  25. R. E. English, S. A. Johnson, “High power fiber optic delivery systems,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108892 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1992).
  26. C. D. Swift, J. W. Bergum, E. S. Bliss, F. A. House, M. A. Libkind, J. T. Salmon, C. L. Weinzapfel, “Zonal deformable mirror for laser wavefront control,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 107–119 (1991).
  27. J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 459–467 (1991).
  28. J. T. Salmon, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, C. L. Weinzapfel, J. W. Bergum, R. A. Thomas, “On-line closed-loop wavefront correction for a multikilowatt dye laser system,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108884 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).
  29. M. Feldman, D. J. Mockler, R. E. English, J. L. Byrd, J. T. Salmon, “Self-referencing Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a laser system diagnostic,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, Ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 490–501 (1991).
  30. J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, T. G. Sarginson, “Limits of survivability and damage for optical components used in a high repetition rate visible laser,” Rep.UCRL-JC-108069 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).
  31. J. R. Taylor, “Specification and testing facilities for optical components used in a high average power visible laser system,” in Mirrors and Windows for High Power/High Energy Laser Systems, C. A. Klein, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1047, 250–265 (1989).
  32. V. G. Draggoo, R. G. Morton, R. H. Sawicki, H. D. Bissinger, “Optical coating absorption measurement for high power laser systems,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, W. W. Simmons, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.622, 186–190 (1986).
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  34. P. R. Hammond, J. F. Feeman, “Novel fluorinated laser dyes,” U.S. patent4,945,176 (31July1990); P. R. Hammond, J. F. Feeman, U.S. patent5,047,559 (10September1991).
  35. P. R. Hammond, “Preparation of certain m-aminophenols and the use thereof for preparation of laser dyes,” U.S. patent4,622,400 (11November1986).
  36. J. Arden, G. Deltau, V. Huth, U. Kringel, D. Peros, K. H. Drexhage, “Fluorescence and lasing properties of Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 48/49, 352–358 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. W. Wyeth, M. A. Johnson, M. A. Globig, U.S. patent4798467 (17January1989).
  38. M. Feldman, J. T. Salmon, D. Mockler, “Laser-heterodyne interferometry with streak camera detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 158.
  39. R. S. Hargrove, “Industrial applications of high power lasers,” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Lasers ’91, (STS, McLean, Va., 1991), paper THA. 2, p. 23.
  40. D. D. Kautz, E. P. Dragon, J. S. Sze, M. E. Werve, “Preliminary cutting and drilling studies on new generation lasers” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Lasers ’91 (STS, McLean, Va., 1991), paper TF.7, p. 13.
  41. K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

1991

J. Arden, G. Deltau, V. Huth, U. Kringel, D. Peros, K. H. Drexhage, “Fluorescence and lasing properties of Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 48/49, 352–358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. A. Paisner, “Atomic vapor laser isotope separation,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 253–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. I. Davis, “Laser R&D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

H. Chen, J. I. Davis, “Lasers in chemistry,” Photon. Spectra 16(10), 59–66 (1982).

J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser Focus 18(9), 49–54 (1982).

J. I. Davis, E. B. Rockower, “Lasers in material processing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 233–239 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. F. Bernhardt, P. Rasmussen, “Design criteria and operating characteristics of a single-mode pulsed dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 141–146 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

R. S. Hargrove, T. Kan, “High power efficient dye amplifier pumped by copper vapor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1108–1113 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976

O. Teschke, A. Dienes, J. R. Whinnery, “Theory and operation of high-power cw and long-pulse dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 383–396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972

T. W. Hädnsch, “Repetitively pulsed tunable dye laser for high resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 11, 895–898 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Aldag, H. R.

H. R. Aldag, “The development of a high average power dye laser,” in Technical Digest of the International Conference on Lasers ’89 (STS, McLean, Va., 1989), paper HG.1, p. 27.

Arden, J.

J. Arden, G. Deltau, V. Huth, U. Kringel, D. Peros, K. H. Drexhage, “Fluorescence and lasing properties of Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 48/49, 352–358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Avicola, K.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

Baker, J.

R. P. Hackel, M. Feldman, J. Baker, R. D. Paris, J. M. Tampico, T. J. Kauppila, “Pulsed, multiple dye laser oscillator system with accurate wavelength control,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 266.

Bass, I. L.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

Bergum, J. W.

C. D. Swift, J. W. Bergum, E. S. Bliss, F. A. House, M. A. Libkind, J. T. Salmon, C. L. Weinzapfel, “Zonal deformable mirror for laser wavefront control,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 107–119 (1991).

J. T. Salmon, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, C. L. Weinzapfel, J. W. Bergum, R. A. Thomas, “On-line closed-loop wavefront correction for a multikilowatt dye laser system,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108884 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

Bernhardt, A. F.

A. F. Bernhardt, P. Rasmussen, “Design criteria and operating characteristics of a single-mode pulsed dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 141–146 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bissinger, H.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

Bissinger, H. D.

V. G. Draggoo, R. G. Morton, R. H. Sawicki, H. D. Bissinger, “Optical coating absorption measurement for high power laser systems,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, W. W. Simmons, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.622, 186–190 (1986).

Bliss, E. S.

C. D. Swift, J. W. Bergum, E. S. Bliss, F. A. House, M. A. Libkind, J. T. Salmon, C. L. Weinzapfel, “Zonal deformable mirror for laser wavefront control,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 107–119 (1991).

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 459–467 (1991).

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

Bonanno, R. E.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

Brase, J.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

Byrd, J. L.

M. Feldman, D. J. Mockler, R. E. English, J. L. Byrd, J. T. Salmon, “Self-referencing Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a laser system diagnostic,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, Ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 490–501 (1991).

Castle, P.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J. I. Davis, “Lasers in chemistry,” Photon. Spectra 16(10), 59–66 (1982).

Chocol, C.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

Davis, J. I.

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. I. Davis, “Laser R&D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, J. I. Davis, “Lasers in chemistry,” Photon. Spectra 16(10), 59–66 (1982).

J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser Focus 18(9), 49–54 (1982).

J. I. Davis, E. B. Rockower, “Lasers in material processing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 233–239 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Davis, “Lasers in chemical processing,” Rep. UCRL-53276 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1982).

J. I. Davis, “Atomic vapor laser isotope separation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory—a status report,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), p. 70.

J. I. Davis, R. W. Davis, “Some aspects of the laser isotope separation program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory,” Rep. UCRL-77981 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., (1976).

J. I. Davis, “Atomic vapor laser isotope separation,” Rep. UCRL-88040 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1982).

J. I. Davis, J. A. Paisner, “Science, technology, and the industrialization of laser-driven processes,” Rep. UCID-20448 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1985).

Davis, R. W.

J. I. Davis, R. W. Davis, “Some aspects of the laser isotope separation program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory,” Rep. UCRL-77981 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., (1976).

Deltau, G.

J. Arden, G. Deltau, V. Huth, U. Kringel, D. Peros, K. H. Drexhage, “Fluorescence and lasing properties of Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 48/49, 352–358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

O. Teschke, A. Dienes, J. R. Whinnery, “Theory and operation of high-power cw and long-pulse dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 383–396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Draggoo, V. G.

R. G. Morton, V. G. Draggoo, “Reliable high average power high pulse energy dye laser,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. ThS7-1–ThS7-2; IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 222 (1981).

V. G. Draggoo, R. G. Morton, R. H. Sawicki, H. D. Bissinger, “Optical coating absorption measurement for high power laser systems,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, W. W. Simmons, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.622, 186–190 (1986).

Dragon, E. P.

D. D. Kautz, E. P. Dragon, J. S. Sze, M. E. Werve, “Preliminary cutting and drilling studies on new generation lasers” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Lasers ’91 (STS, McLean, Va., 1991), paper TF.7, p. 13.

Drexhage, K. H.

J. Arden, G. Deltau, V. Huth, U. Kringel, D. Peros, K. H. Drexhage, “Fluorescence and lasing properties of Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 48/49, 352–358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Emmett, J. L.

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. I. Davis, “Laser R&D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
[CrossRef]

English, R. E.

R. E. English, J. M. Halpin, F. A. House, R. D. Paris, “Optical design of a high power fiber optic coupler,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1527, 174–179 (1991).

R. E. English, S. A. Johnson, “High power fiber optic delivery systems,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108892 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1992).

M. Feldman, D. J. Mockler, R. E. English, J. L. Byrd, J. T. Salmon, “Self-referencing Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a laser system diagnostic,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, Ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 490–501 (1991).

Feeman, J. F.

P. R. Hammond, J. F. Feeman, “Novel fluorinated laser dyes,” U.S. patent4,945,176 (31July1990); P. R. Hammond, J. F. Feeman, U.S. patent5,047,559 (10September1991).

Feldman, M.

M. Feldman, D. J. Mockler, R. E. English, J. L. Byrd, J. T. Salmon, “Self-referencing Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a laser system diagnostic,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, Ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 490–501 (1991).

M. Feldman, J. T. Salmon, D. Mockler, “Laser-heterodyne interferometry with streak camera detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 158.

R. P. Hackel, M. Feldman, J. Baker, R. D. Paris, J. M. Tampico, T. J. Kauppila, “Pulsed, multiple dye laser oscillator system with accurate wavelength control,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 266.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

Friedman, H.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

Gavel, D.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

Globig, M. A.

R. W. Wyeth, M. A. Johnson, M. A. Globig, U.S. patent4798467 (17January1989).

Hackel, R. P.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

R. P. Hackel, “High power performance of copper pumped dye lasers,” in Technical Digest of the International Conference on Lasers ’91 (STS, McLean, Va., 1991), paper THA.1, p. 23.

R. P. Hackel, M. Feldman, J. Baker, R. D. Paris, J. M. Tampico, T. J. Kauppila, “Pulsed, multiple dye laser oscillator system with accurate wavelength control,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 266.

Hädnsch, T. W.

T. W. Hädnsch, “Repetitively pulsed tunable dye laser for high resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 11, 895–898 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Halpin, J. M.

R. E. English, J. M. Halpin, F. A. House, R. D. Paris, “Optical design of a high power fiber optic coupler,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1527, 174–179 (1991).

Hammond, P.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

Hammond, P. R.

P. R. Hammond, “Preparation of certain m-aminophenols and the use thereof for preparation of laser dyes,” U.S. patent4,622,400 (11November1986).

P. R. Hammond, J. F. Feeman, “Novel fluorinated laser dyes,” U.S. patent4,945,176 (31July1990); P. R. Hammond, J. F. Feeman, U.S. patent5,047,559 (10September1991).

Hargrove, R. S.

R. S. Hargrove, T. Kan, “High power efficient dye amplifier pumped by copper vapor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1108–1113 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Hargrove, “Industrial applications of high power lasers,” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Lasers ’91, (STS, McLean, Va., 1991), paper THA. 2, p. 23.

Holtz, J. Z.

J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser Focus 18(9), 49–54 (1982).

House, F. A.

R. E. English, J. M. Halpin, F. A. House, R. D. Paris, “Optical design of a high power fiber optic coupler,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1527, 174–179 (1991).

C. D. Swift, J. W. Bergum, E. S. Bliss, F. A. House, M. A. Libkind, J. T. Salmon, C. L. Weinzapfel, “Zonal deformable mirror for laser wavefront control,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 107–119 (1991).

Huth, V.

J. Arden, G. Deltau, V. Huth, U. Kringel, D. Peros, K. H. Drexhage, “Fluorescence and lasing properties of Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 48/49, 352–358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. A.

R. W. Wyeth, M. A. Johnson, M. A. Globig, U.S. patent4798467 (17January1989).

Johnson, S. A.

R. E. English, S. A. Johnson, “High power fiber optic delivery systems,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108892 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1992).

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

Kan, T.

R. S. Hargrove, T. Kan, “High power efficient dye amplifier pumped by copper vapor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1108–1113 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kauppila, T. J.

R. P. Hackel, M. Feldman, J. Baker, R. D. Paris, J. M. Tampico, T. J. Kauppila, “Pulsed, multiple dye laser oscillator system with accurate wavelength control,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 266.

Kautz, D. D.

D. D. Kautz, E. P. Dragon, J. S. Sze, M. E. Werve, “Preliminary cutting and drilling studies on new generation lasers” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Lasers ’91 (STS, McLean, Va., 1991), paper TF.7, p. 13.

Kichinski, R.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

Kringel, U.

J. Arden, G. Deltau, V. Huth, U. Kringel, D. Peros, K. H. Drexhage, “Fluorescence and lasing properties of Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 48/49, 352–358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. I. Davis, “Laser R&D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Libkind, M. A.

C. D. Swift, J. W. Bergum, E. S. Bliss, F. A. House, M. A. Libkind, J. T. Salmon, C. L. Weinzapfel, “Zonal deformable mirror for laser wavefront control,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 107–119 (1991).

Long, T. W.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 459–467 (1991).

J. T. Salmon, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, C. L. Weinzapfel, J. W. Bergum, R. A. Thomas, “On-line closed-loop wavefront correction for a multikilowatt dye laser system,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108884 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

Max, C.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

Mockler, D.

M. Feldman, J. T. Salmon, D. Mockler, “Laser-heterodyne interferometry with streak camera detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 158.

Mockler, D. J.

M. Feldman, D. J. Mockler, R. E. English, J. L. Byrd, J. T. Salmon, “Self-referencing Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a laser system diagnostic,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, Ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 490–501 (1991).

Morris, J.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

Morton, R. G.

V. G. Draggoo, R. G. Morton, R. H. Sawicki, H. D. Bissinger, “Optical coating absorption measurement for high power laser systems,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, W. W. Simmons, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.622, 186–190 (1986).

R. G. Morton, V. G. Draggoo, “Reliable high average power high pulse energy dye laser,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1981), pp. ThS7-1–ThS7-2; IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 222 (1981).

Moses, E. I.

E. I. Moses, “Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s atomic vapor laser isotope separation program laser technology and demonstration facilities,” in Laser Processing: Fundamentals, Applications, and Systems Engineering, W. W. Duley, R. Weeks, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.668, 347 (1986).

Neeb, K.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

O’Neil, R. W.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

Orham, E. L.

J. T. Salmon, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, C. L. Weinzapfel, J. W. Bergum, R. A. Thomas, “On-line closed-loop wavefront correction for a multikilowatt dye laser system,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108884 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 459–467 (1991).

Paisner, J. A.

J. A. Paisner, “Atomic vapor laser isotope separation,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 253–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Paisner, “High power dye laser technology,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ’88, R. C. Sze, F. J. Duarte, eds. (STS, McLean, Va., 1989), pp. 784–787.

J. I. Davis, J. A. Paisner, “Science, technology, and the industrialization of laser-driven processes,” Rep. UCID-20448 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1985).

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

Paris, R. D.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

R. P. Hackel, M. Feldman, J. Baker, R. D. Paris, J. M. Tampico, T. J. Kauppila, “Pulsed, multiple dye laser oscillator system with accurate wavelength control,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 266.

R. E. English, J. M. Halpin, F. A. House, R. D. Paris, “Optical design of a high power fiber optic coupler,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1527, 174–179 (1991).

Peros, D.

J. Arden, G. Deltau, V. Huth, U. Kringel, D. Peros, K. H. Drexhage, “Fluorescence and lasing properties of Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 48/49, 352–358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Presta, R. W.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 459–467 (1991).

J. T. Salmon, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, C. L. Weinzapfel, J. W. Bergum, R. A. Thomas, “On-line closed-loop wavefront correction for a multikilowatt dye laser system,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108884 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

Rasmussen, P.

A. F. Bernhardt, P. Rasmussen, “Design criteria and operating characteristics of a single-mode pulsed dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 141–146 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rockower, E. B.

J. I. Davis, E. B. Rockower, “Lasers in material processing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 233–239 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, J. T.

I. L. Bass, E. S. Bliss, R. E. Bonanno, P. Castle, M. Feldman, R. P. Hackel, P. Hammond, S. A. Johnson, R. Kichinski, K. Neeb, R. W. O’Neil, J. A. Paisner, R. D. Paris, J. T. Salmon, “High-power performance of a copper-laser-pumped dye master-oscillator-power-amplifier chain,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 392.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 459–467 (1991).

J. T. Salmon, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, C. L. Weinzapfel, J. W. Bergum, R. A. Thomas, “On-line closed-loop wavefront correction for a multikilowatt dye laser system,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108884 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

C. D. Swift, J. W. Bergum, E. S. Bliss, F. A. House, M. A. Libkind, J. T. Salmon, C. L. Weinzapfel, “Zonal deformable mirror for laser wavefront control,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 107–119 (1991).

M. Feldman, J. T. Salmon, D. Mockler, “Laser-heterodyne interferometry with streak camera detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 158.

M. Feldman, D. J. Mockler, R. E. English, J. L. Byrd, J. T. Salmon, “Self-referencing Mach–Zehnder interferometer as a laser system diagnostic,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, Ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 490–501 (1991).

Sarginson, T. G.

J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, T. G. Sarginson, “Limits of survivability and damage for optical components used in a high repetition rate visible laser,” Rep.UCRL-JC-108069 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

Sawicki, R. H.

V. G. Draggoo, R. G. Morton, R. H. Sawicki, H. D. Bissinger, “Optical coating absorption measurement for high power laser systems,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, W. W. Simmons, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.622, 186–190 (1986).

Sivinski, D.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

Spaeth, M. L.

J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser Focus 18(9), 49–54 (1982).

Stolz, C. J.

J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, T. G. Sarginson, “Limits of survivability and damage for optical components used in a high repetition rate visible laser,” Rep.UCRL-JC-108069 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

Swift, C. D.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 459–467 (1991).

C. D. Swift, J. W. Bergum, E. S. Bliss, F. A. House, M. A. Libkind, J. T. Salmon, C. L. Weinzapfel, “Zonal deformable mirror for laser wavefront control,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 107–119 (1991).

J. T. Salmon, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, C. L. Weinzapfel, J. W. Bergum, R. A. Thomas, “On-line closed-loop wavefront correction for a multikilowatt dye laser system,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108884 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

Sze, J. S.

D. D. Kautz, E. P. Dragon, J. S. Sze, M. E. Werve, “Preliminary cutting and drilling studies on new generation lasers” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Lasers ’91 (STS, McLean, Va., 1991), paper TF.7, p. 13.

Tampico, J. M.

R. P. Hackel, M. Feldman, J. Baker, R. D. Paris, J. M. Tampico, T. J. Kauppila, “Pulsed, multiple dye laser oscillator system with accurate wavelength control,” in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 266.

Taylor, J. R.

J. R. Taylor, C. J. Stolz, T. G. Sarginson, “Limits of survivability and damage for optical components used in a high repetition rate visible laser,” Rep.UCRL-JC-108069 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

J. R. Taylor, “Specification and testing facilities for optical components used in a high average power visible laser system,” in Mirrors and Windows for High Power/High Energy Laser Systems, C. A. Klein, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1047, 250–265 (1989).

Teschke, O.

O. Teschke, A. Dienes, J. R. Whinnery, “Theory and operation of high-power cw and long-pulse dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 383–396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, R. A.

J. T. Salmon, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, C. L. Weinzapfel, J. W. Bergum, R. A. Thomas, “On-line closed-loop wavefront correction for a multikilowatt dye laser system,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108884 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

Waltjen, K.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

Ward, R. S.

J. T. Salmon, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, C. L. Weinzapfel, J. W. Bergum, R. A. Thomas, “On-line closed-loop wavefront correction for a multikilowatt dye laser system,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108884 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1542, 459–467 (1991).

Warner, B. E.

B. E. Warner, “An overview of copper laser development for isotope separation,” in New Developments and Applications in Gas Lasers, L. R. Carlson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.737, 2–6 (1987).

B. E. Warner, “Status of copper vapor laser technology at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 10 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 516–518.

Weinzapfel, C. L.

C. D. Swift, J. W. Bergum, E. S. Bliss, F. A. House, M. A. Libkind, J. T. Salmon, C. L. Weinzapfel, “Zonal deformable mirror for laser wavefront control,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Components, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1543, 107–119 (1991).

J. T. Salmon, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, C. L. Weinzapfel, J. W. Bergum, R. A. Thomas, “On-line closed-loop wavefront correction for a multikilowatt dye laser system,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108884 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1991).

Werve, M. E.

D. D. Kautz, E. P. Dragon, J. S. Sze, M. E. Werve, “Preliminary cutting and drilling studies on new generation lasers” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Lasers ’91 (STS, McLean, Va., 1991), paper TF.7, p. 13.

Whinnery, J. R.

O. Teschke, A. Dienes, J. R. Whinnery, “Theory and operation of high-power cw and long-pulse dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 383–396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wyeth, R. W.

R. W. Wyeth, M. A. Johnson, M. A. Globig, U.S. patent4798467 (17January1989).

Appl. Opt.

T. W. Hädnsch, “Repetitively pulsed tunable dye laser for high resolution spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 11, 895–898 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

A. F. Bernhardt, P. Rasmussen, “Design criteria and operating characteristics of a single-mode pulsed dye laser,” Appl. Phys. B 26, 141–146 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Paisner, “Atomic vapor laser isotope separation,” Appl. Phys. B 46, 253–260 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. S. Hargrove, T. Kan, “High power efficient dye amplifier pumped by copper vapor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1108–1113 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

O. Teschke, A. Dienes, J. R. Whinnery, “Theory and operation of high-power cw and long-pulse dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 383–396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Davis, E. B. Rockower, “Lasers in material processing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 233–239 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Emmett, W. F. Krupke, J. I. Davis, “Laser R&D at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fusion and isotope separation applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 591–602 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin

J. Arden, G. Deltau, V. Huth, U. Kringel, D. Peros, K. H. Drexhage, “Fluorescence and lasing properties of Rhodamine dyes,” J. Lumin. 48/49, 352–358 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus

J. I. Davis, J. Z. Holtz, M. L. Spaeth, “Status and prospects for lasers in isotope separation,” Laser Focus 18(9), 49–54 (1982).

Photon. Spectra

H. Chen, J. I. Davis, “Lasers in chemistry,” Photon. Spectra 16(10), 59–66 (1982).

Other

R. W. Wyeth, M. A. Johnson, M. A. Globig, U.S. patent4798467 (17January1989).

M. Feldman, J. T. Salmon, D. Mockler, “Laser-heterodyne interferometry with streak camera detection,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 158.

R. S. Hargrove, “Industrial applications of high power lasers,” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Lasers ’91, (STS, McLean, Va., 1991), paper THA. 2, p. 23.

D. D. Kautz, E. P. Dragon, J. S. Sze, M. E. Werve, “Preliminary cutting and drilling studies on new generation lasers” in Technical Digest for the International Conference on Lasers ’91 (STS, McLean, Va., 1991), paper TF.7, p. 13.

K. Avicola, H. Bissinger, J. Brase, C. Chocol, D. Gavel, H. Friedman, C. Max, J. Morris, D. Sivinski, K. Waltjen, “Laser guide stars and adaptive optics for large astronomical telescopes,” in Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 210.

R. E. English, J. M. Halpin, F. A. House, R. D. Paris, “Optical design of a high power fiber optic coupler,” in Current Developments in Optical Design and Optical Engineering, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1527, 174–179 (1991).

R. E. English, S. A. Johnson, “High power fiber optic delivery systems,” Rep. UCRL-JC-108892 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1992).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of the LLNL high average power CL-pumped dye-laser system showing the five dye laser MOPA chains, the 14 CL MOPA chains, and both the discrete component and fiber-optic pump-beam delivery and multiplexing systems.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical schematic of the DMO showing the resonator elements and the motors and the piezoelectric transducers (PZT’s) used for tuning and precise control of the wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of the region around the first amplifier of one of the operations dye laser MOPA chains in actual operation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photograph of a dye amplifier showing the three-axis relationship of the dye beam direction, the flow direction, and pump-beam direction. (b) Schematic of the flow channel region overlaid on the photograph. The curved windows form a nozzle that minimizes the boundary layer and produces the flat, turbulent velocity profile necessary for optical homogeneity in the channel. Note the two counterpropagating pump beams from opposite sides, and the rectangular shape of the dye beam for maximum overlap with the pump beams as it passes through the channel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of folding-bar mirrors and associated optics used to reformat and homogenize the CL pump beams into an elongated rectangular shape for optimum overlap with the dye beam in the amplifier. The number of segments in the output pattern is twice the number of reflections plus one.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Molecular structures of Rhodamine 6G (1) and related new laser dyes (2–6) developed in the AVLIS Program at LLNL.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The 1892 patent disclosure of Rhodamine G6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Historical trend of the demonstrated total output power of the AVLIS dye laser system since 1984. The first point was for the precursor to the system described in this article.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Single chain and total output power trends of the dye laser system over a 60-h period illustrating the capability for long-term, stable, and reliable operation at high power levels.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relative temporal profiles of the pump pulse, the output dye pulse, and the ASE pulse for a dye MOPA chain. Vertical scales and positions have been adjusted separately so that the important features are readily apparent. Spikes at the leading and trailing edges of the ASE pulse are caused by the injected dye pulse being slightly shorter than the pump pulse. Even in this case the net ASE fraction is only a few percent.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The wave front of the output of a dye chain operating at ~ 1 kW, as recorded by a self-referencing Mach–Zehnder interferometer: (a) with distortions of 0.40λ P-V and 0.08λ rms before wave-front correction, (b) with distortions of 0.24λ P-V and 0.03λ rms after wave-front correction by a zonal deformable mirror. The axes corresponding to the flow and pump beam directions in the dye amplifier are indicated.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Intensity profile at a pupil plane of a dye chain output operating at > 1 kW. The axes corresponding to the flow and pump-beam directions in the dye amplifiers are indicated.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Long-term frequency stability of a DMO under closed-loop control by the Fizeau-wedge wavelength control system.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Floor plan of the copper and dye laser systems in the LDF at LLNL showing the locations of the yellow and green pumped oprations dye chains, the 12 copper operations chains, the copper beam combination cabinet, the dye beam combination vacuum vessels, the copper laser oscillators dedicated to pumping the DMO’s, and the fiber delivery to the DMO’s.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Artist’s drawing illustrating the two-story-high vertical monolith structures supporting the laser and optical systems in the LDF at LLNL. The drawing shows the facility’s full capacity of 48 CL MOPA chains. Only 14 have actually been deployed.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Schematic diagram showing the basic elements of the artificial guide star technique being tested at LLNL for the correction of atmospheric turbulence. The signal received from the guide star is processed by a computer to provide atmospheric correction signals to adaptive optics in the telescope. As a result, the angular resolution for larger objects in the field of view, such as galaxies, will be improved.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Nominal Laser Parameters for a Practical AVLIS Process

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Table 2 Summary of Achieved Dye Laser System Performance

Equations (1)

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η c = P out - P in P pump ,

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