Abstract

An all-optical three-dimensional imaging system based on direct upconversion of depth-resolved images is described. Femtosecond gating of the signal provides a depth resolution in the μm range and a discrimination of the image against scattered light.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansene, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192–194 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. P. Bruckner, “Some applications of picosecond optical range gating,” in High Speed Optical Techniques: Developments and Applications, M. A. Duguay, E. K. Petersen, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.94, 41–48 (1976).
  3. J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, A. Astier, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopic techniques in biological materials,” in Optics and Photonics Applied to Medicine, M. Grosmann, P. Meyrueis, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.211, 128–132 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, W. Rudolph, “Ultrafast diagnostics,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 22, 1605–1611 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, “Imaging with short optical pulses,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 4, 145–162 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. S. Naiman, “Laser radar system,” U.S. patent3,676,003 (11July1972).
  8. H. A. French, “Viewing systems,” U.S. patent4,226,529 (7October1980).
  9. M. A. Duguay, “Direct display of light images with picosecond resolution,” U.S. patent3,669,541 (13June1972).
  10. J. J. Fontaine, J -C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, H. Sallaba, “Subpicosecond time domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 6, 495–498 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. M. Yoo, Qirong Xing, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in highly scattering media using femtosecond second-harmonic-generation cross-correlation time gating,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1019–1021 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. S. Bethune, “Dye cell design for high-power low-divergence excimer-pumped dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1897–1899 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Herriot, H. Kogelnik, R. Kompfner, “Off-axis paths in spherical mirror interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 3, 523–526 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  15. Ming Lai, J. -C. Diels, Chi Yan, “A transversally pumped 11-pass amplifier for femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4365–4367 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).
  17. E. A. Bucher, “Computer simulation of light pulse propagation for communication through thick clouds,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2391–2400 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. W. G. Tam, A. Zardecki, “Multiple scattering corrections to the Beer–Lambert law. 1: Open detector,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2405–2412 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Zardecki, W. G. Tam, “Multiple scattering corrections to the Beer–Lambert law. 2: Detector with a variable field of view,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2413–2420 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. A. Elliott, “Multiple scattering of optical pulses in scale model clouds,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2670–2681 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. K. M. Yoo, R. R. Alfano, “Time-resolved coherent and incoherent components of forward light scattering in random media,” Opt. Lett. 15, 320–322 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. M. Chu, S. W. Churchill, “Representation of the angular distribution of radiation scattered by a spherical particle,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 958–962 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. M. Drake, J. E. Gordon, “Mie scattering,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 955–962 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. R. Tokuda, D. Auth, A. P. Brucker, “Holocamera for 3-d micrography of the alert human eye,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2219–2225 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three-dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CTUA1.
  26. H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, “Two-dimensional imaging through diffusing media using 150-fs gated electronic holography techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 487–489 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, W. Rudolph, “Ultrafast diagnostics,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 22, 1605–1611 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

1983 (2)

J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, “Imaging with short optical pulses,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 4, 145–162 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. A. Elliott, “Multiple scattering of optical pulses in scale model clouds,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2670–2681 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

1981 (2)

J. J. Fontaine, J -C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, H. Sallaba, “Subpicosecond time domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 6, 495–498 (1981).
[Crossref]

D. S. Bethune, “Dye cell design for high-power low-divergence excimer-pumped dye lasers,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1897–1899 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

J. L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Tokuda, D. Auth, A. P. Brucker, “Holocamera for 3-d micrography of the alert human eye,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2219–2225 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

1969 (1)

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansene, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192–194 (1969).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

1964 (1)

Abramson, N. H.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three-dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CTUA1.

Alfano, R. R.

Antonetti, A.

J. L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, A. Astier, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopic techniques in biological materials,” in Optics and Photonics Applied to Medicine, M. Grosmann, P. Meyrueis, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.211, 128–132 (1979).
[Crossref]

Astier, A.

J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, A. Astier, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopic techniques in biological materials,” in Optics and Photonics Applied to Medicine, M. Grosmann, P. Meyrueis, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.211, 128–132 (1979).
[Crossref]

Auth, D.

Bethune, D. S.

Brucker, A. P.

Bruckner, A. P.

A. P. Bruckner, “Some applications of picosecond optical range gating,” in High Speed Optical Techniques: Developments and Applications, M. A. Duguay, E. K. Petersen, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.94, 41–48 (1976).

Bucher, E. A.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, “Two-dimensional imaging through diffusing media using 150-fs gated electronic holography techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 487–489 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three-dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CTUA1.

Chen, Y.

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, “Two-dimensional imaging through diffusing media using 150-fs gated electronic holography techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 487–489 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three-dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CTUA1.

Chu, C. M.

Churchill, S. W.

Diels, J -C.

J. J. Fontaine, J -C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, H. Sallaba, “Subpicosecond time domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 6, 495–498 (1981).
[Crossref]

Diels, J. -C.

Dilworth, D.

Dilworth, D. S.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three-dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CTUA1.

Drake, R. M.

R. M. Drake, J. E. Gordon, “Mie scattering,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 955–962 (1985).
[Crossref]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansene, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192–194 (1969).
[Crossref]

M. A. Duguay, “Direct display of light images with picosecond resolution,” U.S. patent3,669,541 (13June1972).

Elliott, R. A.

Etchepare, J.

J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, A. Astier, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopic techniques in biological materials,” in Optics and Photonics Applied to Medicine, M. Grosmann, P. Meyrueis, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.211, 128–132 (1979).
[Crossref]

Fontaine, J. J.

J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, W. Rudolph, “Ultrafast diagnostics,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 22, 1605–1611 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, F. Simoni, “Control and measurement of ultrashort pulse shapes (in amplitude and phase) with femtosecond accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1270–1282 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, “Imaging with short optical pulses,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 4, 145–162 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. J. Fontaine, J -C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, H. Sallaba, “Subpicosecond time domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 6, 495–498 (1981).
[Crossref]

French, H. A.

H. A. French, “Viewing systems,” U.S. patent4,226,529 (7October1980).

Gordon, J. E.

R. M. Drake, J. E. Gordon, “Mie scattering,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 955–962 (1985).
[Crossref]

Grillon, G.

J. L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, A. Astier, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopic techniques in biological materials,” in Optics and Photonics Applied to Medicine, M. Grosmann, P. Meyrueis, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.211, 128–132 (1979).
[Crossref]

Hansene, J. W.

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansene, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192–194 (1969).
[Crossref]

Herriot, D.

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Lai, Ming

Lecarpentier, Y.

J. L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three-dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CTUA1.

Lopez, J.

Lopez, J. L.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three-dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CTUA1.

Martin, J. L.

J. L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, A. Astier, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopic techniques in biological materials,” in Optics and Photonics Applied to Medicine, M. Grosmann, P. Meyrueis, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.211, 128–132 (1979).
[Crossref]

McMichael, I. C.

Migus, A.

J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, A. Astier, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopic techniques in biological materials,” in Optics and Photonics Applied to Medicine, M. Grosmann, P. Meyrueis, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.211, 128–132 (1979).
[Crossref]

Naiman, C. S.

C. S. Naiman, “Laser radar system,” U.S. patent3,676,003 (11July1972).

Rudolph, W.

J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, W. Rudolph, “Ultrafast diagnostics,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 22, 1605–1611 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sallaba, H.

J. J. Fontaine, J -C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, H. Sallaba, “Subpicosecond time domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 6, 495–498 (1981).
[Crossref]

Simoni, F.

Tam, W. G.

Tokuda, A. R.

Valdmanis, J.

Valdmanis, J. A.

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three-dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CTUA1.

Wang, C. Y.

J. J. Fontaine, J -C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, H. Sallaba, “Subpicosecond time domain reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 6, 495–498 (1981).
[Crossref]

Xing, Qirong

Yan, Chi

Yoo, K. M.

Zardecki, A.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

R. M. Drake, J. E. Gordon, “Mie scattering,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 955–962 (1985).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (9)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Duguay, J. W. Hansene, “An ultrafast light gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 192–194 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

J. L. Martin, Y. Lecarpentier, A. Antonetti, G. Grillon, “Picosecond laser stereometry light scattering measurements on biological material,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18, 250–252 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, “Imaging with short optical pulses,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 4, 145–162 (1983).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

J. -C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, W. Rudolph, “Ultrafast diagnostics,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 22, 1605–1611 (1987).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

A. P. Bruckner, “Some applications of picosecond optical range gating,” in High Speed Optical Techniques: Developments and Applications, M. A. Duguay, E. K. Petersen, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.94, 41–48 (1976).

J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, A. Astier, J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, A. Migus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopic techniques in biological materials,” in Optics and Photonics Applied to Medicine, M. Grosmann, P. Meyrueis, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.211, 128–132 (1979).
[Crossref]

C. S. Naiman, “Laser radar system,” U.S. patent3,676,003 (11July1972).

H. A. French, “Viewing systems,” U.S. patent4,226,529 (7October1980).

M. A. Duguay, “Direct display of light images with picosecond resolution,” U.S. patent3,669,541 (13June1972).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

J. A. Valdmanis, H. Chen, E. N. Leith, Y. Chen, J. L. Lopez, N. H. Abramson, D. S. Dilworth, “Three-dimensional imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), paper CTUA1.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the experimental setup including the femtosecond source (oscillator and amplifier) and the imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of a standard U.S. Air Force optical test pattern with a resolution of 3.17 line pairs/mm, which is inserted in Fig. 1 as a test object. (a) fundamental image recorded by CCD camera only, (b) same fundamental image amplified by image intensifier, and (c) the same pattern in second harmonic.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Image of a 500-μm-wide character V through a suspension of 5.2 × 108/μL spheres in a 1-cm-pathway spectroscopic cuvette: (a) the fundamental image with the reference beam blocked and (b) the second-harmonic image with a depth resolution of 30 μm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Transmission Intensity vs. Particle Density

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