Abstract

A phase-sensitive scanning optical microscope is described that can measure surface height changes down to 0.1 nm. This is achieved by using two heterodyne Michelson interferometers in parallel. One interferometer probes the sample with a tightly focused beam, and the second has a collimated beam that illuminates a large area of the surface, providing a large area on sample reference. This is facilitated by using a specially constructed objective lens that permits the relative areas illuminated by the two probe beams to be varied both arbitrarily and independently, thus ensuring an accurate absolute phase measurement. We subtracted the phase outputs from each interferometer to provide the sample phase information, canceling the phase noise resulting from microphonics in the process. Results from a prototype version of the microscope are presented that demonstrate the advantages of the system over existing techniques.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Scanning heterodyne confocal differential phase and intensity microscope

Michael G. Somekh, M. Salim Valera, and Roland K. Appel
Appl. Opt. 34(22) 4857-4868 (1995)

Polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope

Chien Chou, Chung-Wei Lyu, and Li-Cheng Peng
Appl. Opt. 40(1) 95-99 (2001)

Real-time photodisplacement microscope for high-sensitivity simultaneous surface and subsurface inspection

Toshihiko Nakata, Kazushi Yoshimura, and Takanori Ninomiya
Appl. Opt. 45(12) 2643-2655 (2006)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (12)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (14)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription