Abstract

The use of optical differential phase-contrast microscopy to obtain the surface profile of samples is outlined. The range of accurate feature height determination was calculated as a function of steepness of the side of the feature. Heights of thin features (height <0.1 μm) were accurately determined experimentally. Sample tilting and oblique stage scanning were required in order to determine the heights of thicker samples. Reconstructed profile heights were measured as a function of defocus.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. DeVelis, G. O. Reynolds, Theory and Applications of Holography (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967), pp. 161–162.
  2. R. A. Sprague, B. J. Thompson, “Quantitative visualization of large phase objects,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1469–1479 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. J. Whitefield, “Noncontact optical profilometer,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2480–2485 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. M. Robinson, D. M. Perry, R. W. Peterson, “Optical interferometry of surfaces,” Sci. Am. 265(7), 66–71 (July1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Kermisch, “Visualization of large variation phase objects,” in Image Processing, J. C. Urbach, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.74, 126–129 (1976).
  6. N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “Differential phase contrast in a STEM,” Optik 41, 452–456 (1974).
  7. N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “A detection method for producing phase and amplitude images simultaneously in a scanning transmission electron microscope,” Philips Tech. Rev. 37, 1–9 (1977).
  8. D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, “Two-dimensional phase imaging in the scanning optical microscope,” Appl. Opt. 23, 348–352 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, “Edge enhancement in scanning optical microscopy by differential detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 1, 322–323 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. P. H. Benschop, “Phase detection using scanning optical microscopy,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control II, K. M. Monahan, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.921, 123–130 (1988).
  11. A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, M. R. Atkinson, “A new transmission and double reflection scanning beam confocal microscope: applications in transmission,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1556, 144–153 (1992).
  12. M. R. Atkinson, “Confocal microscopy applied to metrology of integrated circuits,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada, 1991).

1992 (1)

A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, M. R. Atkinson, “A new transmission and double reflection scanning beam confocal microscope: applications in transmission,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1556, 144–153 (1992).

1991 (1)

G. M. Robinson, D. M. Perry, R. W. Peterson, “Optical interferometry of surfaces,” Sci. Am. 265(7), 66–71 (July1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, “Two-dimensional phase imaging in the scanning optical microscope,” Appl. Opt. 23, 348–352 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, “Edge enhancement in scanning optical microscopy by differential detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 1, 322–323 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “A detection method for producing phase and amplitude images simultaneously in a scanning transmission electron microscope,” Philips Tech. Rev. 37, 1–9 (1977).

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “Differential phase contrast in a STEM,” Optik 41, 452–456 (1974).

1972 (1)

Atkinson, M. R.

A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, M. R. Atkinson, “A new transmission and double reflection scanning beam confocal microscope: applications in transmission,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1556, 144–153 (1992).

M. R. Atkinson, “Confocal microscopy applied to metrology of integrated circuits,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada, 1991).

Benschop, J. P. H.

J. P. H. Benschop, “Phase detection using scanning optical microscopy,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control II, K. M. Monahan, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.921, 123–130 (1988).

Damaskinos, S.

A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, M. R. Atkinson, “A new transmission and double reflection scanning beam confocal microscope: applications in transmission,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1556, 144–153 (1992).

de Lang, H.

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “A detection method for producing phase and amplitude images simultaneously in a scanning transmission electron microscope,” Philips Tech. Rev. 37, 1–9 (1977).

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “Differential phase contrast in a STEM,” Optik 41, 452–456 (1974).

Dekkers, N. H.

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “A detection method for producing phase and amplitude images simultaneously in a scanning transmission electron microscope,” Philips Tech. Rev. 37, 1–9 (1977).

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “Differential phase contrast in a STEM,” Optik 41, 452–456 (1974).

DeVelis, J. B.

J. B. DeVelis, G. O. Reynolds, Theory and Applications of Holography (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967), pp. 161–162.

Dixon, A. E.

A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, M. R. Atkinson, “A new transmission and double reflection scanning beam confocal microscope: applications in transmission,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1556, 144–153 (1992).

Hamilton, D. K.

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, “Edge enhancement in scanning optical microscopy by differential detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 1, 322–323 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, “Two-dimensional phase imaging in the scanning optical microscope,” Appl. Opt. 23, 348–352 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kermisch, D.

D. Kermisch, “Visualization of large variation phase objects,” in Image Processing, J. C. Urbach, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.74, 126–129 (1976).

Perry, D. M.

G. M. Robinson, D. M. Perry, R. W. Peterson, “Optical interferometry of surfaces,” Sci. Am. 265(7), 66–71 (July1991).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, R. W.

G. M. Robinson, D. M. Perry, R. W. Peterson, “Optical interferometry of surfaces,” Sci. Am. 265(7), 66–71 (July1991).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, G. O.

J. B. DeVelis, G. O. Reynolds, Theory and Applications of Holography (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967), pp. 161–162.

Robinson, G. M.

G. M. Robinson, D. M. Perry, R. W. Peterson, “Optical interferometry of surfaces,” Sci. Am. 265(7), 66–71 (July1991).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R. A.

Thompson, B. J.

Whitefield, R. J.

Wilson, T.

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, “Two-dimensional phase imaging in the scanning optical microscope,” Appl. Opt. 23, 348–352 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, “Edge enhancement in scanning optical microscopy by differential detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 1, 322–323 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, “Edge enhancement in scanning optical microscopy by differential detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 1, 322–323 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “Differential phase contrast in a STEM,” Optik 41, 452–456 (1974).

Philips Tech. Rev. (1)

N. H. Dekkers, H. de Lang, “A detection method for producing phase and amplitude images simultaneously in a scanning transmission electron microscope,” Philips Tech. Rev. 37, 1–9 (1977).

Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation (1)

A. E. Dixon, S. Damaskinos, M. R. Atkinson, “A new transmission and double reflection scanning beam confocal microscope: applications in transmission,” in Scanning Microscopy Instrumentation, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1556, 144–153 (1992).

Sci. Am. (1)

G. M. Robinson, D. M. Perry, R. W. Peterson, “Optical interferometry of surfaces,” Sci. Am. 265(7), 66–71 (July1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Kermisch, “Visualization of large variation phase objects,” in Image Processing, J. C. Urbach, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.74, 126–129 (1976).

J. P. H. Benschop, “Phase detection using scanning optical microscopy,” in Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control II, K. M. Monahan, ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.921, 123–130 (1988).

M. R. Atkinson, “Confocal microscopy applied to metrology of integrated circuits,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada, 1991).

J. B. DeVelis, G. O. Reynolds, Theory and Applications of Holography (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967), pp. 161–162.

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