Abstract

Planar Rayleigh scattering measurements with an argon–fluoride excimer laser are performed to investigate helium mixing into air at supersonic speeds. The capability of the Rayleigh scattering technique for flow visualization of a turbulent environment is demonstrated in a large-scale, Mach-6 facility. The detection limit obtained with the present setup indicates that planar, quantitative measurements of density can be made over a large cross-sectional area (5 cm × 10 cm) of the flow field in the absence of clusters.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. J. Hartfield, J. D. Abbitt, J. C. McDaniel, “Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 14, 850–852 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. T. Clemens, P. H. Paul, M. G. Mungal, R. K. Hanson, “Scalar mixing in the supersonic shear layer,” AIAA paper 91-1720 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).
  3. M. Smith, A. Smits, R. Miles, “Compressible boundary-layer density cross sections by UV Rayleigh scattering,” Opt. Lett. 14, 916–918 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, M. G. Mungal, K. Lyons, B. Yip, M. B. Long, “Visualization of supersonic flows with planar laser Rayleigh scattering,” Sandia Rep. SAND89-8401 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).
  5. G. D. Stein, “Angular and wavelength dependence of the light scattered from a cloud of particles formed by homogeneous nucleation,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 938–942 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. P. Wegener, “Nucleation of nitrogen: experiment and theory,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2479–2481 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, R. J. Exton, “Condensation effects on Rayleigh scattering measurements in a supersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 29, 242–246 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, A. B. Blair, R. J. Exton, “Study of cluster formation and its effects on Rayleigh and Raman scattering measurements in a Mach 6 wind tunnel,” AIAA paper 91-1496 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).
  9. F. E. Marble, G. J. Hendricks, E. E. Zukoski, “Progress toward shock enhancement of supersonic combustion processes,” AIAA paper 87-1880 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1987).
  10. F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, J. W. Jacobs, G. J. Hendricks, I. A. Waitz, “Shock enhancement and control of hypersonic mixing and combustion,” AIAA paper 90-1981 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1990).
  11. I. A. Waitz, “An investigation of contoured wall injectors for hypervelocity mixing augmentation,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1991).
  12. I. A. Waitz, F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, “An investigation of contoured wall injectors for hypervelocity mixing augmentation,” AIAA paper 91-2265 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).
  13. M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, “Calculations of O2 absorption and fluorescence at elevated temperatures for a broadband argon-fluoride laser source at 193 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425–440 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. M. Hitchcock, G. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1991

B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, R. J. Exton, “Condensation effects on Rayleigh scattering measurements in a supersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 29, 242–246 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

L. M. Hitchcock, G. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1987

P. P. Wegener, “Nucleation of nitrogen: experiment and theory,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2479–2481 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, “Calculations of O2 absorption and fluorescence at elevated temperatures for a broadband argon-fluoride laser source at 193 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425–440 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1969

G. D. Stein, “Angular and wavelength dependence of the light scattered from a cloud of particles formed by homogeneous nucleation,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 938–942 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abbitt, J. D.

Barlow, R. S.

R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, M. G. Mungal, K. Lyons, B. Yip, M. B. Long, “Visualization of supersonic flows with planar laser Rayleigh scattering,” Sandia Rep. SAND89-8401 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Blair, A. B.

B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, A. B. Blair, R. J. Exton, “Study of cluster formation and its effects on Rayleigh and Raman scattering measurements in a Mach 6 wind tunnel,” AIAA paper 91-1496 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Clemens, N. T.

N. T. Clemens, P. H. Paul, M. G. Mungal, R. K. Hanson, “Scalar mixing in the supersonic shear layer,” AIAA paper 91-1720 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Dibble, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, M. G. Mungal, K. Lyons, B. Yip, M. B. Long, “Visualization of supersonic flows with planar laser Rayleigh scattering,” Sandia Rep. SAND89-8401 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Exton, R. J.

B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, R. J. Exton, “Condensation effects on Rayleigh scattering measurements in a supersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 29, 242–246 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, A. B. Blair, R. J. Exton, “Study of cluster formation and its effects on Rayleigh and Raman scattering measurements in a Mach 6 wind tunnel,” AIAA paper 91-1496 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Hanson, R. K.

M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, “Calculations of O2 absorption and fluorescence at elevated temperatures for a broadband argon-fluoride laser source at 193 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425–440 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Clemens, P. H. Paul, M. G. Mungal, R. K. Hanson, “Scalar mixing in the supersonic shear layer,” AIAA paper 91-1720 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Hartfield, R. J.

Hendricks, G. J.

F. E. Marble, G. J. Hendricks, E. E. Zukoski, “Progress toward shock enhancement of supersonic combustion processes,” AIAA paper 87-1880 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1987).

F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, J. W. Jacobs, G. J. Hendricks, I. A. Waitz, “Shock enhancement and control of hypersonic mixing and combustion,” AIAA paper 90-1981 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1990).

Hillard, M. E.

B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, R. J. Exton, “Condensation effects on Rayleigh scattering measurements in a supersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 29, 242–246 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, A. B. Blair, R. J. Exton, “Study of cluster formation and its effects on Rayleigh and Raman scattering measurements in a Mach 6 wind tunnel,” AIAA paper 91-1496 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Hitchcock, L. M.

L. M. Hitchcock, G. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, J. W.

F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, J. W. Jacobs, G. J. Hendricks, I. A. Waitz, “Shock enhancement and control of hypersonic mixing and combustion,” AIAA paper 90-1981 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1990).

Kim, G.

L. M. Hitchcock, G. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. P.

M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, “Calculations of O2 absorption and fluorescence at elevated temperatures for a broadband argon-fluoride laser source at 193 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425–440 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, M. G. Mungal, K. Lyons, B. Yip, M. B. Long, “Visualization of supersonic flows with planar laser Rayleigh scattering,” Sandia Rep. SAND89-8401 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Lyons, K.

R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, M. G. Mungal, K. Lyons, B. Yip, M. B. Long, “Visualization of supersonic flows with planar laser Rayleigh scattering,” Sandia Rep. SAND89-8401 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Marble, F. E.

F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, J. W. Jacobs, G. J. Hendricks, I. A. Waitz, “Shock enhancement and control of hypersonic mixing and combustion,” AIAA paper 90-1981 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1990).

F. E. Marble, G. J. Hendricks, E. E. Zukoski, “Progress toward shock enhancement of supersonic combustion processes,” AIAA paper 87-1880 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1987).

I. A. Waitz, F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, “An investigation of contoured wall injectors for hypervelocity mixing augmentation,” AIAA paper 91-2265 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

McDaniel, J. C.

Miles, R.

Mungal, M. G.

R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, M. G. Mungal, K. Lyons, B. Yip, M. B. Long, “Visualization of supersonic flows with planar laser Rayleigh scattering,” Sandia Rep. SAND89-8401 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

N. T. Clemens, P. H. Paul, M. G. Mungal, R. K. Hanson, “Scalar mixing in the supersonic shear layer,” AIAA paper 91-1720 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Paul, P. H.

N. T. Clemens, P. H. Paul, M. G. Mungal, R. K. Hanson, “Scalar mixing in the supersonic shear layer,” AIAA paper 91-1720 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Reck, G. P.

L. M. Hitchcock, G. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, E. W.

L. M. Hitchcock, G. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shirinzadeh, B.

B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, R. J. Exton, “Condensation effects on Rayleigh scattering measurements in a supersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 29, 242–246 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, A. B. Blair, R. J. Exton, “Study of cluster formation and its effects on Rayleigh and Raman scattering measurements in a Mach 6 wind tunnel,” AIAA paper 91-1496 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Smith, M.

Smits, A.

Stein, G. D.

G. D. Stein, “Angular and wavelength dependence of the light scattered from a cloud of particles formed by homogeneous nucleation,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 938–942 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Waitz, I. A.

F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, J. W. Jacobs, G. J. Hendricks, I. A. Waitz, “Shock enhancement and control of hypersonic mixing and combustion,” AIAA paper 90-1981 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1990).

I. A. Waitz, “An investigation of contoured wall injectors for hypervelocity mixing augmentation,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1991).

I. A. Waitz, F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, “An investigation of contoured wall injectors for hypervelocity mixing augmentation,” AIAA paper 91-2265 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Wegener, P. P.

P. P. Wegener, “Nucleation of nitrogen: experiment and theory,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2479–2481 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yip, B.

R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, M. G. Mungal, K. Lyons, B. Yip, M. B. Long, “Visualization of supersonic flows with planar laser Rayleigh scattering,” Sandia Rep. SAND89-8401 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Zukoski, E. E.

F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, J. W. Jacobs, G. J. Hendricks, I. A. Waitz, “Shock enhancement and control of hypersonic mixing and combustion,” AIAA paper 90-1981 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1990).

F. E. Marble, G. J. Hendricks, E. E. Zukoski, “Progress toward shock enhancement of supersonic combustion processes,” AIAA paper 87-1880 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1987).

I. A. Waitz, F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, “An investigation of contoured wall injectors for hypervelocity mixing augmentation,” AIAA paper 91-2265 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

AIAA J.

B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, R. J. Exton, “Condensation effects on Rayleigh scattering measurements in a supersonic wind tunnel,” AIAA J. 29, 242–246 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

G. D. Stein, “Angular and wavelength dependence of the light scattered from a cloud of particles formed by homogeneous nucleation,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 938–942 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

P. P. Wegener, “Nucleation of nitrogen: experiment and theory,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 2479–2481 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, “Calculations of O2 absorption and fluorescence at elevated temperatures for a broadband argon-fluoride laser source at 193 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425–440 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hitchcock, G. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, M. G. Mungal, K. Lyons, B. Yip, M. B. Long, “Visualization of supersonic flows with planar laser Rayleigh scattering,” Sandia Rep. SAND89-8401 (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

N. T. Clemens, P. H. Paul, M. G. Mungal, R. K. Hanson, “Scalar mixing in the supersonic shear layer,” AIAA paper 91-1720 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

B. Shirinzadeh, M. E. Hillard, A. B. Blair, R. J. Exton, “Study of cluster formation and its effects on Rayleigh and Raman scattering measurements in a Mach 6 wind tunnel,” AIAA paper 91-1496 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

F. E. Marble, G. J. Hendricks, E. E. Zukoski, “Progress toward shock enhancement of supersonic combustion processes,” AIAA paper 87-1880 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1987).

F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, J. W. Jacobs, G. J. Hendricks, I. A. Waitz, “Shock enhancement and control of hypersonic mixing and combustion,” AIAA paper 90-1981 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1990).

I. A. Waitz, “An investigation of contoured wall injectors for hypervelocity mixing augmentation,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1991).

I. A. Waitz, F. E. Marble, E. E. Zukoski, “An investigation of contoured wall injectors for hypervelocity mixing augmentation,” AIAA paper 91-2265 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the model geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. CL’s, cylindrical lenses; W’s, windows; B’s, baffles; L’s, spherical lenses; PD’s, photodiodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Corrected Rayleigh images for two consecutive laser shots. See text for details.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Averaged Rayleigh data converted to pressure (Torr) at room temperature for 22 laser shots, (b) the mean density of air (kg/m3) deduced from probe measurements, (c) the mean static temperature (K) deduced from probe data. See text for detail.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Corrected single-shot image of the Rayleigh signal for the central injector, (b) the same as (a) but for another laser shot in the same sequence, (c) the fluctuating component of the Rayleigh signal for 22 laser shots in the same sequence. See text for detail.

Metrics