Abstract

In 1988 the New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research initiated a program to characterize the spectrum of solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground in New Zealand and to identify the extent and causes of its variability. Routine measurements began at Lauder (45° S, 170° E) in December 1989. The instrumentation, measurement strategy, and calibration procedures are discussed and uncertainties in the measurements are analyzed. With the present system useful measurements at 1-nm resolution are limited to irradiances greater than 10−3 μW cm−2 nm−1, which corresponds to a lower limit in wavelength in the region 290–295 nm (depending on the Sun angle and ozone amount). This is a useful lower limit for many applications of relevance to the biosphere. Results from the first year of operation are presented and discussed.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Elwood, “Intensity of solar ultraviolet and its implications for skin cancer,” N. Z. Med. J. 103, 152–154 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  2. P. Bener, “Approximate values of intensity of natural ultraviolet radiation for different amounts of atmospheric ozone,” Tech. Rep. AF 61(052)-54 (U.S. Army, European Research Office, London, 1972).
  3. J. J. De Luisi, J. M. Harris, Characteristics of ultraviolet radiation in the human erythema band measured with a Robertson–Berger meter and a double monochromator, Tech. Memo. ERL ARL-99 (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colo., 1981).
  4. C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, G. Elliot, “Solar ultraviolet radiation: personal exposure and protection,” J. Occup. Health Safety Aust. N. Z. 4, 133–139 (1988).
  5. A. Bittar, R. L. McKenzie, “Spectral ultraviolet intensity measurements at 45 °S: 1980 and 1988,” Geophys. Res. 95, 5597–5603 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. L. McKenzie, W. A. Matthews, P. V. Johnston, “The relationship between erythemal UV and ozone, derived from spectral irradiance measurements,” Geophys. Res Lett 18, 2269–2272 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. X. Kniezys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Salby, S. A. Clough, “Users guide to lowtran 77” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscon Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).
  8. R. W. H. Dunkley, “UV monochromator and suntracking device for PEL Lauder,” Phys. Eng. Lab. Man. 424 (1989).
  9. J. C. Arvesen, R. N. Griffin, B. D. Pearson, “Determination of solar spectral irradiance from a research aircraft,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2215–2232, (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Nicolet, “The solar spectral irradiance and its action in the atmospheric photodissociation processes,” Planet. Space Sci. 29, 951–974 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Wilkinson, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, National Measurement Laboratory, Sydney, Australia (personal communication).
  12. A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

1991 (1)

R. L. McKenzie, W. A. Matthews, P. V. Johnston, “The relationship between erythemal UV and ozone, derived from spectral irradiance measurements,” Geophys. Res Lett 18, 2269–2272 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Elwood, “Intensity of solar ultraviolet and its implications for skin cancer,” N. Z. Med. J. 103, 152–154 (1990).
[PubMed]

A. Bittar, R. L. McKenzie, “Spectral ultraviolet intensity measurements at 45 °S: 1980 and 1988,” Geophys. Res. 95, 5597–5603 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. W. H. Dunkley, “UV monochromator and suntracking device for PEL Lauder,” Phys. Eng. Lab. Man. 424 (1989).

1988 (1)

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, G. Elliot, “Solar ultraviolet radiation: personal exposure and protection,” J. Occup. Health Safety Aust. N. Z. 4, 133–139 (1988).

1987 (1)

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

1981 (1)

M. Nicolet, “The solar spectral irradiance and its action in the atmospheric photodissociation processes,” Planet. Space Sci. 29, 951–974 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kniezys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Salby, S. A. Clough, “Users guide to lowtran 77” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscon Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kniezys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Salby, S. A. Clough, “Users guide to lowtran 77” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscon Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Arvesen, J. C.

Bener, P.

P. Bener, “Approximate values of intensity of natural ultraviolet radiation for different amounts of atmospheric ozone,” Tech. Rep. AF 61(052)-54 (U.S. Army, European Research Office, London, 1972).

Bittar, A.

A. Bittar, R. L. McKenzie, “Spectral ultraviolet intensity measurements at 45 °S: 1980 and 1988,” Geophys. Res. 95, 5597–5603 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kniezys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Salby, S. A. Clough, “Users guide to lowtran 77” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscon Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Clough, S. A.

F. X. Kniezys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Salby, S. A. Clough, “Users guide to lowtran 77” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscon Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

De Luisi, J. J.

J. J. De Luisi, J. M. Harris, Characteristics of ultraviolet radiation in the human erythema band measured with a Robertson–Berger meter and a double monochromator, Tech. Memo. ERL ARL-99 (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colo., 1981).

Diffey, B. L.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

Dunkley, R. W. H.

R. W. H. Dunkley, “UV monochromator and suntracking device for PEL Lauder,” Phys. Eng. Lab. Man. 424 (1989).

Elliot, G.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, G. Elliot, “Solar ultraviolet radiation: personal exposure and protection,” J. Occup. Health Safety Aust. N. Z. 4, 133–139 (1988).

Elwood, J. M.

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Elwood, “Intensity of solar ultraviolet and its implications for skin cancer,” N. Z. Med. J. 103, 152–154 (1990).
[PubMed]

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kniezys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Salby, S. A. Clough, “Users guide to lowtran 77” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscon Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Gies, H. P.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, G. Elliot, “Solar ultraviolet radiation: personal exposure and protection,” J. Occup. Health Safety Aust. N. Z. 4, 133–139 (1988).

Griffin, R. N.

Harris, J. M.

J. J. De Luisi, J. M. Harris, Characteristics of ultraviolet radiation in the human erythema band measured with a Robertson–Berger meter and a double monochromator, Tech. Memo. ERL ARL-99 (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colo., 1981).

Johnston, P. V.

R. L. McKenzie, W. A. Matthews, P. V. Johnston, “The relationship between erythemal UV and ozone, derived from spectral irradiance measurements,” Geophys. Res Lett 18, 2269–2272 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kniezys, F. X.

F. X. Kniezys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Salby, S. A. Clough, “Users guide to lowtran 77” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscon Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Matthews, W. A.

R. L. McKenzie, W. A. Matthews, P. V. Johnston, “The relationship between erythemal UV and ozone, derived from spectral irradiance measurements,” Geophys. Res Lett 18, 2269–2272 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, R. L.

R. L. McKenzie, W. A. Matthews, P. V. Johnston, “The relationship between erythemal UV and ozone, derived from spectral irradiance measurements,” Geophys. Res Lett 18, 2269–2272 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Bittar, R. L. McKenzie, “Spectral ultraviolet intensity measurements at 45 °S: 1980 and 1988,” Geophys. Res. 95, 5597–5603 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Elwood, “Intensity of solar ultraviolet and its implications for skin cancer,” N. Z. Med. J. 103, 152–154 (1990).
[PubMed]

McKinlay, A. F.

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

Nicolet, M.

M. Nicolet, “The solar spectral irradiance and its action in the atmospheric photodissociation processes,” Planet. Space Sci. 29, 951–974 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, B. D.

Roy, C. R.

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, G. Elliot, “Solar ultraviolet radiation: personal exposure and protection,” J. Occup. Health Safety Aust. N. Z. 4, 133–139 (1988).

Salby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kniezys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Salby, S. A. Clough, “Users guide to lowtran 77” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscon Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kniezys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Salby, S. A. Clough, “Users guide to lowtran 77” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscon Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

Wilkinson, F.

F. Wilkinson, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, National Measurement Laboratory, Sydney, Australia (personal communication).

Appl. Opt. (1)

CIE J. (1)

A. F. McKinlay, B. L. Diffey, “A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin,” CIE J. 6, 17–22 (1987).

Geophys. Res Lett (1)

R. L. McKenzie, W. A. Matthews, P. V. Johnston, “The relationship between erythemal UV and ozone, derived from spectral irradiance measurements,” Geophys. Res Lett 18, 2269–2272 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. (1)

A. Bittar, R. L. McKenzie, “Spectral ultraviolet intensity measurements at 45 °S: 1980 and 1988,” Geophys. Res. 95, 5597–5603 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Occup. Health Safety Aust. N. Z. (1)

C. R. Roy, H. P. Gies, G. Elliot, “Solar ultraviolet radiation: personal exposure and protection,” J. Occup. Health Safety Aust. N. Z. 4, 133–139 (1988).

N. Z. Med. J. (1)

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Elwood, “Intensity of solar ultraviolet and its implications for skin cancer,” N. Z. Med. J. 103, 152–154 (1990).
[PubMed]

Phys. Eng. Lab. Man. (1)

R. W. H. Dunkley, “UV monochromator and suntracking device for PEL Lauder,” Phys. Eng. Lab. Man. 424 (1989).

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

M. Nicolet, “The solar spectral irradiance and its action in the atmospheric photodissociation processes,” Planet. Space Sci. 29, 951–974 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

F. Wilkinson, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, National Measurement Laboratory, Sydney, Australia (personal communication).

F. X. Kniezys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Salby, S. A. Clough, “Users guide to lowtran 77” Rep. AFGL-TR-88-0177 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscon Air Force Base, Mass., 1988).

P. Bener, “Approximate values of intensity of natural ultraviolet radiation for different amounts of atmospheric ozone,” Tech. Rep. AF 61(052)-54 (U.S. Army, European Research Office, London, 1972).

J. J. De Luisi, J. M. Harris, Characteristics of ultraviolet radiation in the human erythema band measured with a Robertson–Berger meter and a double monochromator, Tech. Memo. ERL ARL-99 (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Research Laboratories, Boulder, Colo., 1981).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the instrument: DIG INP, digital input; SMD, stepper-motor drive; A/D, analog-to-digital converters; P/S, power supply.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffuser cosine-response errors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative gain function for the photomultiplier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Instrument-calibration function.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample of (a) summer and (b) winter spectra.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Errors as a function of wavelength for a midday spectrum.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CIE-weighted measurements versus (a) day of year 1990 and (b) solar zenith angle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CIE-weighted irradiance on a clear day, also showing the relationship between direct and scattered radiation at midday: NZST, New Zealand standard time.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Maximum Errors That Do Not Have a Strong Spectral Dependence

Tables Icon

Table 2 Typical Irradiances and Calculated Random Errors in Midday Solar Ultraviolet Measurements at Lauder,

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V A + V B = V ( A + B ) .

Metrics