Abstract

We have developed a Monte Carlo program that can account for Raman scattering in the ocean when polarization effects are not considered. The program is capable of coupling an inhomogeneous atmosphere to an inhomogeneous ocean through a dielectric interface. We have studied the filling in of both the 486-nm Hβ and the 518-nm Mg Fraunhofer lines caused by Raman scattering in the ocean. The amount of fill varies with solar zenith angle, angle of view, depth in the ocean, and magnitude of the cross sections. By monitoring the shapes of Fraunhofer lines we can learn a great deal about the relative importance of this inelastic process in oceanic optics.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, F. E. Hoge, “Remote sensing of subsurface water temperature by Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1732–1745 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Eckhardt, W. G. Wagner, “On the calculation of absolute Raman scattering coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 407–411 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. P. Romanov, V. S. Shuklin, “Raman scattering cross section of liquid water,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 646–648 (1975).
  9. I. I. Kondilenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the ν1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 43, 384–386 (1978).
  10. D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. M. Beckers, C. A. Bridges, L. B. Gilliam, “A high resolution spectral atlas of the solar irradiance from 380 to 700 nanometers,” Rep. AFGL-TR-76-0126 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1976).
  14. H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward radiance in the sea,” J. Oceanol. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–403 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1990

1989

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1984

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward radiance in the sea,” J. Oceanol. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

1978

I. I. Kondilenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the ν1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 43, 384–386 (1978).

1975

N. P. Romanov, V. S. Shuklin, “Raman scattering cross section of liquid water,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 646–648 (1975).

1967

C. E. Walrafen, “Raman spectral studies of the effects of temperature on water structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114–126 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966

G. Eckhardt, W. G. Wagner, “On the calculation of absolute Raman scattering coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 407–411 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962

J. R. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature (London) 193, 762 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, C. A. Bridges, L. B. Gilliam, “A high resolution spectral atlas of the solar irradiance from 380 to 700 nanometers,” Rep. AFGL-TR-76-0126 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1976).

Bridges, C. A.

J. M. Beckers, C. A. Bridges, L. B. Gilliam, “A high resolution spectral atlas of the solar irradiance from 380 to 700 nanometers,” Rep. AFGL-TR-76-0126 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1976).

Caputo, B.

Demyanenko, O. P.

I. I. Kondilenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the ν1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 43, 384–386 (1978).

Eckhardt, G.

G. Eckhardt, W. G. Wagner, “On the calculation of absolute Raman scattering coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 407–411 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gilliam, L. B.

J. M. Beckers, C. A. Bridges, L. B. Gilliam, “A high resolution spectral atlas of the solar irradiance from 380 to 700 nanometers,” Rep. AFGL-TR-76-0126 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1976).

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grainger, J. R.

J. R. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature (London) 193, 762 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

Humphreys, T. J.

G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kaye, G. T.

M. G. Lovern, M. W. Roberts, S. A. Miller, G. T. Kaye, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. 92152-5000 (personal communication).

Kishino, M.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward radiance in the sea,” J. Oceanol. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Klimenko, V. A.

I. I. Kondilenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the ν1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 43, 384–386 (1978).

Kondilenko, I. I.

I. I. Kondilenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the ν1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 43, 384–386 (1978).

Korotkov, P. A.

I. I. Kondilenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the ν1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 43, 384–386 (1978).

Leonard, D. A.

Long, D. A.

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

Lovern, M. G.

M. G. Lovern, M. W. Roberts, S. A. Miller, G. T. Kaye, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. 92152-5000 (personal communication).

Marshall, B. R.

Miller, S. A.

M. G. Lovern, M. W. Roberts, S. A. Miller, G. T. Kaye, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. 92152-5000 (personal communication).

Okami, N.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward radiance in the sea,” J. Oceanol. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ring, J.

J. R. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature (London) 193, 762 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, M. W.

M. G. Lovern, M. W. Roberts, S. A. Miller, G. T. Kaye, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. 92152-5000 (personal communication).

Romanov, N. P.

N. P. Romanov, V. S. Shuklin, “Raman scattering cross section of liquid water,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 646–648 (1975).

Shuklin, V. S.

N. P. Romanov, V. S. Shuklin, “Raman scattering cross section of liquid water,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 646–648 (1975).

Smith, R. C.

Stavn, R. H.

Sugihara, S.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward radiance in the sea,” J. Oceanol. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, W. G.

G. Eckhardt, W. G. Wagner, “On the calculation of absolute Raman scattering coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 407–411 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Walrafen, C. E.

C. E. Walrafen, “Raman spectral studies of the effects of temperature on water structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114–126 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A. D.

Young, A. T.

G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

C. E. Walrafen, “Raman spectral studies of the effects of temperature on water structure,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114–126 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

G. Eckhardt, W. G. Wagner, “On the calculation of absolute Raman scattering coefficients,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 19, 407–411 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Oceanol. Soc. Jpn.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward radiance in the sea,” J. Oceanol. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–403 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert–Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

J. R. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature (London) 193, 762 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR)

N. P. Romanov, V. S. Shuklin, “Raman scattering cross section of liquid water,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 646–648 (1975).

I. I. Kondilenko, P. A. Korotkov, V. A. Klimenko, O. P. Demyanenko, “Transverse cross section of the Raman scattering of the ν1 vibration of the water molecule in the liquid and gaseous states,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 43, 384–386 (1978).

Other

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

M. G. Lovern, M. W. Roberts, S. A. Miller, G. T. Kaye, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif. 92152-5000 (personal communication).

J. M. Beckers, C. A. Bridges, L. B. Gilliam, “A high resolution spectral atlas of the solar irradiance from 380 to 700 nanometers,” Rep. AFGL-TR-76-0126 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1976).

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