Abstract

The principle of measuring magnetic fields with a ring laser system is discussed. The main source of error, the Zeeman effect, is studied, and a corresponding technique to reduce it is described. An experimental setup is developed with a Faraday cell of a large product of the Verdet constant and the length. The experimental device obtains a sensitivity of 0.5 nT and a stability of 2 nT.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Zhang, T. Feng, Q. Tian, “Study of ring laser weak magnetic sensor,” Acta Geophys. Sin. (China) 29, 363–368 (1986).
  2. J. Zhang, “Measurements of weak magnetic fields using a ring laser: theory and system development,” Ph.D. dissertation (Tsinghua University, Beijing, 1988).
  3. W. E. Lamb, “Theory of an optical maser,” Phys. Rev.134, A1429–A1450 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. N. Mengozzi, W. E. Lamb, “Theory of a ring laser,” Phys. Rev.8, A2103–A2125 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Zhang, “A technique for the alignment of a ring laser cavity,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 321–322 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Zhang, “Signal detection and frequency stabilization of a ring laser system for measuring magnetic fields,” Chin. Phys. Lasers 17, 73–78 (1990).

1990 (1)

J. Zhang, “Signal detection and frequency stabilization of a ring laser system for measuring magnetic fields,” Chin. Phys. Lasers 17, 73–78 (1990).

1988 (1)

J. Zhang, “A technique for the alignment of a ring laser cavity,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 321–322 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S. Zhang, T. Feng, Q. Tian, “Study of ring laser weak magnetic sensor,” Acta Geophys. Sin. (China) 29, 363–368 (1986).

Feng, T.

S. Zhang, T. Feng, Q. Tian, “Study of ring laser weak magnetic sensor,” Acta Geophys. Sin. (China) 29, 363–368 (1986).

Lamb, W. E.

W. E. Lamb, “Theory of an optical maser,” Phys. Rev.134, A1429–A1450 (1964).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Mengozzi, W. E. Lamb, “Theory of a ring laser,” Phys. Rev.8, A2103–A2125 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Mengozzi, L. N.

L. N. Mengozzi, W. E. Lamb, “Theory of a ring laser,” Phys. Rev.8, A2103–A2125 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Q.

S. Zhang, T. Feng, Q. Tian, “Study of ring laser weak magnetic sensor,” Acta Geophys. Sin. (China) 29, 363–368 (1986).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, “Signal detection and frequency stabilization of a ring laser system for measuring magnetic fields,” Chin. Phys. Lasers 17, 73–78 (1990).

J. Zhang, “A technique for the alignment of a ring laser cavity,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 321–322 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, “Measurements of weak magnetic fields using a ring laser: theory and system development,” Ph.D. dissertation (Tsinghua University, Beijing, 1988).

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, T. Feng, Q. Tian, “Study of ring laser weak magnetic sensor,” Acta Geophys. Sin. (China) 29, 363–368 (1986).

Acta Geophys. Sin. (China) (1)

S. Zhang, T. Feng, Q. Tian, “Study of ring laser weak magnetic sensor,” Acta Geophys. Sin. (China) 29, 363–368 (1986).

Chin. Phys. Lasers (1)

J. Zhang, “Signal detection and frequency stabilization of a ring laser system for measuring magnetic fields,” Chin. Phys. Lasers 17, 73–78 (1990).

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

J. Zhang, “A technique for the alignment of a ring laser cavity,” Opt. Laser Technol. 20, 321–322 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. Zhang, “Measurements of weak magnetic fields using a ring laser: theory and system development,” Ph.D. dissertation (Tsinghua University, Beijing, 1988).

W. E. Lamb, “Theory of an optical maser,” Phys. Rev.134, A1429–A1450 (1964).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Mengozzi, W. E. Lamb, “Theory of a ring laser,” Phys. Rev.8, A2103–A2125 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Single gain tube ring laser sensitive to magnetic fields.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of a four-mode ring laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A twin gain tube ring laser for measuring magnetic fields.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for magnetic field measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of producing and processing beat notes. See text for an explanation of the notation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental result of measuring the terrestrial magnetic field in a quasi-steady state.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Sensitivity

Equations (11)

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ν R = ν L = c V l B / π L ,
ν = ν R + ν L = 2 c V l ( 1 + A p ) B / π L + 4 A p μ B g B / h + 8 A m S Ω e / λ L + 2 A m k v / π + f m c γ n / 2 π L ,
ν ¯ = ( ν 2 - ν b 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
ν B = 2 N c V l ( 1 + A p ) B / π L + 4 N A p μ B g B / h .
Δ ν B = 2 N B ( c V l / π L + 2 μ B g / h ) Δ A ,
Δ A p / A p < 1.75 × 10 - 5             or             Δ A p < 2.6 × 10 - 8 .
ν z = [ ( A p 1 - A p 2 ) / A p 1 ] ν z 1 ,
S 1 ( t ) = A 1 cos 2 π ν R t ,
S 2 ( t ) = A 2 cos 2 π ν L t ,
Δ A = A 1 - A 2 = ( A + Δ A 1 ) - ( A + Δ A 2 ) = A ( I R I R - I L I L ) Δ ξ ,
e ( t ) = 1 ,             A 1 - A 2 > C , e ( t ) = 0 ,             A 1 - A 2 < C , e ( t ) = - 1 ,             A 1 - A 2 < C .

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