Abstract

To provide high-energy, high-power beams at short wavelengths for inertial-confinement fusion experiments, we routinely convert the 1.05-μm output of the Nova, Nd:phosphate-glass, laser system to its second- or third-harmonic wavelength. We describe the design and performance of the 3 × 3 arrays of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal plates used for type-II–type-II phase-matched harmonic conversion of the Nova 0.74-m diameter beams. We also describe an alternate type-I–type-II phase-matching configuration that improves third-harmonic conversion efficiency. These arrays provide conversion of a Nova beam of up to 75% to the second harmonic and of up to 70% to the third harmonic.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. W. Simmons, R. O. Godwin, “Nova laser fusion facility: design, engineering and assembly overview,” J. Nucl. Technol. Fusion 4, 8–24 (1983).
  2. J. F. Holzrichter, E. M. Campbell, J. D. Lindl, E. Storm, “Research with high-power, short-wavelength lasers,” Science 229, 1045–1051 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high-power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1771–1782 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Linford, B. Johnson, J. Hildum, W. Martin, K. Snyder, R. Boyd, W. Smith, C. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, J. Hunt, “Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3633–3643 (1982); G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, J. T. Hunt, W. Seka, R. S. Craxton, S. D. Jacobs, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, J. M. Soures, “Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments at LLNL: comments,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1957–1958 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Harmonic generation at high peak power,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 622, 161–167 (1986).
  8. D. Eimerl, “Quadrature frequency conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-23, 1361–1371 (1987); D. Eimerl, M. A. Summers, B. C. Johnson, J. D. Williams, G. J. Linford, “Harmonic conversion,” Rep. UCRL 50021-81 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1982), pp. 7-1–7-12.
    [CrossRef]
  9. Recent unpublished measurements at Livermore indicate a value for 3ω absorption in KDP of 0.003 cm−1, which we neglect.
  10. J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, “Present and future performance of the Nova laser system,” Opt. Eng. 28, 461–468 (1989).
  11. P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, T. Weiland, “Large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion using a type I/type II phase matching scheme,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 14 of OSA 1987 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 70–71.
  12. W. L. Smith, M. A. Henesian, E. P. Milanovich, “Spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering in KDP and index matching fluids,” Rep. UCRL 50021-83 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1984), pp. 6-61–6-69.
  13. M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Design and performance of the Nova frequency conversion system,” in IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p.256.
  14. P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, F. T. Marchi, D. R. Speck, “Demonstration of efficient full-aperture type I/type II third harmonic conversion on Nova,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 18–19.
  15. R. G. Ozarski, E. S. Bliss, B. C. Johnson, C. D. Swift, S. Warshaw, “Nova alignment and diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-82 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983), pp. 2-16–2-25.
  16. D. Milam, I. M. Thomas, “Sol-gel coatings,” Rep. UCRL 50021-84 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1985), pp. 6-39–6-44.
  17. I. M. Thomas, “High laser damage threshold porous silica antireflective coating,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1481–1483 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. S. Bliss, R. G. Ozarski, D. W. Meyers, “Nova alignment/laser diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-80 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981), pp. 2-119–2-131.
  19. J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).
  20. G. J. Suski, “Two-beam target chamber,” Rep. UCRL 50021-85 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1986), pp. 5-42–5-45.
  21. W. L. Smith, “Two photon absorption in condensed media,” Rep. UCRL-89098 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983).
  22. F. Rainer, D. Milam, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550 (personal communication).
  23. R. A. Lerche, R. L. Griffith, “Resolution limitations and optimization of the LLNL streak camera focus,” in High Speed Photography, Videography, and Photonics V, H. C. Johnson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.832, 266–274 (1987).
  24. M. A. Henesian, C. D. Swift, J. R. Murray, “Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in nitrogen in long air paths,” Opt. Lett. 10, 565–567 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. R. Manes, W. W. Simmons, “Statistical optics applied to high-power glass lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 528–538 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. A. Henesian, R. D. Boyd, J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, C. D. Swift, P. J. Wegner, “B-integral dependent ellipse rotation effects on large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. of OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1986), pp. 236–237.
  27. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, “Intensity dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507–509 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. W. Hellwarth, D. M. Pennington, M. A. Henesian, “The indices governing optical self focussing and self-induced changes in the state of polarization in N2, O2, H2 and Ar gases,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2766–2777 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, J. K. Lawson, D. R. Speck, “Polarization differences among Nova beams measured by the 2ω null technique,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-64–4-66; J. K. Lawson, E. S. Bliss, R. D. Boyd, M. A. Henesian, T. L.Weiland Weiland, “Birefringence measurements of laser chain components,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-66–4-69; L. G. Seppala, “Birefringence measurements of spatial filter lenses,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-69–4-7.

1990

R. W. Hellwarth, D. M. Pennington, M. A. Henesian, “The indices governing optical self focussing and self-induced changes in the state of polarization in N2, O2, H2 and Ar gases,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2766–2777 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, “Present and future performance of the Nova laser system,” Opt. Eng. 28, 461–468 (1989).

1987

D. Eimerl, “Quadrature frequency conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-23, 1361–1371 (1987); D. Eimerl, M. A. Summers, B. C. Johnson, J. D. Williams, G. J. Linford, “Harmonic conversion,” Rep. UCRL 50021-81 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1982), pp. 7-1–7-12.
[CrossRef]

1986

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Harmonic generation at high peak power,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 622, 161–167 (1986).

I. M. Thomas, “High laser damage threshold porous silica antireflective coating,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1481–1483 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

M. A. Henesian, C. D. Swift, J. R. Murray, “Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in nitrogen in long air paths,” Opt. Lett. 10, 565–567 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Manes, W. W. Simmons, “Statistical optics applied to high-power glass lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 528–538 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Holzrichter, E. M. Campbell, J. D. Lindl, E. Storm, “Research with high-power, short-wavelength lasers,” Science 229, 1045–1051 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

W. W. Simmons, R. O. Godwin, “Nova laser fusion facility: design, engineering and assembly overview,” J. Nucl. Technol. Fusion 4, 8–24 (1983).

1982

1981

R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high-power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1771–1782 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1964

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, “Intensity dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507–509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Bach, D. R.

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bliss, E. S.

E. S. Bliss, R. G. Ozarski, D. W. Meyers, “Nova alignment/laser diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-80 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981), pp. 2-119–2-131.

R. G. Ozarski, E. S. Bliss, B. C. Johnson, C. D. Swift, S. Warshaw, “Nova alignment and diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-82 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983), pp. 2-16–2-25.

Boni, R.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R.

Boyd, R. D.

M. A. Henesian, R. D. Boyd, J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, C. D. Swift, P. J. Wegner, “B-integral dependent ellipse rotation effects on large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. of OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1986), pp. 236–237.

Campbell, E. M.

J. F. Holzrichter, E. M. Campbell, J. D. Lindl, E. Storm, “Research with high-power, short-wavelength lasers,” Science 229, 1045–1051 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. H.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Craxton, R. S.

R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high-power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1771–1782 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Drake, R. P.

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eimerl, D.

D. Eimerl, “Quadrature frequency conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-23, 1361–1371 (1987); D. Eimerl, M. A. Summers, B. C. Johnson, J. D. Williams, G. J. Linford, “Harmonic conversion,” Rep. UCRL 50021-81 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1982), pp. 7-1–7-12.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Harmonic generation at high peak power,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 622, 161–167 (1986).

G. Linford, B. Johnson, J. Hildum, W. Martin, K. Snyder, R. Boyd, W. Smith, C. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, J. Hunt, “Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3633–3643 (1982); G. J. Linford, B. C. Johnson, J. S. Hildum, W. E. Martin, K. Snyder, R. D. Boyd, W. L. Smith, C. L. Vercimak, D. Eimerl, J. T. Hunt, W. Seka, R. S. Craxton, S. D. Jacobs, L. D. Lund, R. L. McCrory, J. M. Soures, “Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments at LLNL: comments,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1957–1958 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Design and performance of the Nova frequency conversion system,” in IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p.256.

Estabrook, K.

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godwin, R. O.

W. W. Simmons, R. O. Godwin, “Nova laser fusion facility: design, engineering and assembly overview,” J. Nucl. Technol. Fusion 4, 8–24 (1983).

Griffith, R. L.

R. A. Lerche, R. L. Griffith, “Resolution limitations and optimization of the LLNL streak camera focus,” in High Speed Photography, Videography, and Photonics V, H. C. Johnson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.832, 266–274 (1987).

Hayden, J. S.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. W. Hellwarth, D. M. Pennington, M. A. Henesian, “The indices governing optical self focussing and self-induced changes in the state of polarization in N2, O2, H2 and Ar gases,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2766–2777 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henesian, M. A.

R. W. Hellwarth, D. M. Pennington, M. A. Henesian, “The indices governing optical self focussing and self-induced changes in the state of polarization in N2, O2, H2 and Ar gases,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2766–2777 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Henesian, C. D. Swift, J. R. Murray, “Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in nitrogen in long air paths,” Opt. Lett. 10, 565–567 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Henesian, R. D. Boyd, J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, C. D. Swift, P. J. Wegner, “B-integral dependent ellipse rotation effects on large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. of OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1986), pp. 236–237.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, T. Weiland, “Large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion using a type I/type II phase matching scheme,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 14 of OSA 1987 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 70–71.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, F. T. Marchi, D. R. Speck, “Demonstration of efficient full-aperture type I/type II third harmonic conversion on Nova,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 18–19.

W. L. Smith, M. A. Henesian, E. P. Milanovich, “Spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering in KDP and index matching fluids,” Rep. UCRL 50021-83 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1984), pp. 6-61–6-69.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, J. K. Lawson, D. R. Speck, “Polarization differences among Nova beams measured by the 2ω null technique,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-64–4-66; J. K. Lawson, E. S. Bliss, R. D. Boyd, M. A. Henesian, T. L.Weiland Weiland, “Birefringence measurements of laser chain components,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-66–4-69; L. G. Seppala, “Birefringence measurements of spatial filter lenses,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-69–4-7.

Hildum, J.

Holzrichter, J. F.

J. F. Holzrichter, E. M. Campbell, J. D. Lindl, E. Storm, “Research with high-power, short-wavelength lasers,” Science 229, 1045–1051 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, J.

Hunt, J. T.

J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, “Present and future performance of the Nova laser system,” Opt. Eng. 28, 461–468 (1989).

M. A. Henesian, R. D. Boyd, J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, C. D. Swift, P. J. Wegner, “B-integral dependent ellipse rotation effects on large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. of OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1986), pp. 236–237.

Jacobs, S. D.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B.

Johnson, B. C.

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Harmonic generation at high peak power,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 622, 161–167 (1986).

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Design and performance of the Nova frequency conversion system,” in IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p.256.

R. G. Ozarski, E. S. Bliss, B. C. Johnson, C. D. Swift, S. Warshaw, “Nova alignment and diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-82 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983), pp. 2-16–2-25.

Kauffman, R. L.

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruer, W. L.

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasinski, B. F.

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawson, J. K.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, J. K. Lawson, D. R. Speck, “Polarization differences among Nova beams measured by the 2ω null technique,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-64–4-66; J. K. Lawson, E. S. Bliss, R. D. Boyd, M. A. Henesian, T. L.Weiland Weiland, “Birefringence measurements of laser chain components,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-66–4-69; L. G. Seppala, “Birefringence measurements of spatial filter lenses,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-69–4-7.

Lerche, R. A.

R. A. Lerche, R. L. Griffith, “Resolution limitations and optimization of the LLNL streak camera focus,” in High Speed Photography, Videography, and Photonics V, H. C. Johnson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.832, 266–274 (1987).

Lindl, J. D.

J. F. Holzrichter, E. M. Campbell, J. D. Lindl, E. Storm, “Research with high-power, short-wavelength lasers,” Science 229, 1045–1051 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linford, G.

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, “Intensity dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507–509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Manes, K. R.

K. R. Manes, W. W. Simmons, “Statistical optics applied to high-power glass lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 528–538 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Marchi, F. T.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, F. T. Marchi, D. R. Speck, “Demonstration of efficient full-aperture type I/type II third harmonic conversion on Nova,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 18–19.

Marker, A. J.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Martin, W.

Meissner, H.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Meyers, D. W.

E. S. Bliss, R. G. Ozarski, D. W. Meyers, “Nova alignment/laser diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-80 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981), pp. 2-119–2-131.

Milam, D.

D. Milam, I. M. Thomas, “Sol-gel coatings,” Rep. UCRL 50021-84 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1985), pp. 6-39–6-44.

F. Rainer, D. Milam, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550 (personal communication).

Milanovich, E. P.

W. L. Smith, M. A. Henesian, E. P. Milanovich, “Spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering in KDP and index matching fluids,” Rep. UCRL 50021-83 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1984), pp. 6-61–6-69.

Murray, J. R.

M. A. Henesian, C. D. Swift, J. R. Murray, “Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in nitrogen in long air paths,” Opt. Lett. 10, 565–567 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, S.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Ozarski, R. G.

R. G. Ozarski, E. S. Bliss, B. C. Johnson, C. D. Swift, S. Warshaw, “Nova alignment and diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-82 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983), pp. 2-16–2-25.

E. S. Bliss, R. G. Ozarski, D. W. Meyers, “Nova alignment/laser diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-80 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981), pp. 2-119–2-131.

Pennington, D. M.

R. W. Hellwarth, D. M. Pennington, M. A. Henesian, “The indices governing optical self focussing and self-induced changes in the state of polarization in N2, O2, H2 and Ar gases,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2766–2777 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillion, D. W.

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rainer, F.

F. Rainer, D. Milam, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550 (personal communication).

Rizzo, J. E.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sapak, D. L.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, “Intensity dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507–509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Seka, W.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, W. W.

K. R. Manes, W. W. Simmons, “Statistical optics applied to high-power glass lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 528–538 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Simmons, R. O. Godwin, “Nova laser fusion facility: design, engineering and assembly overview,” J. Nucl. Technol. Fusion 4, 8–24 (1983).

Smith, W.

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, M. A. Henesian, E. P. Milanovich, “Spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering in KDP and index matching fluids,” Rep. UCRL 50021-83 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1984), pp. 6-61–6-69.

W. L. Smith, “Two photon absorption in condensed media,” Rep. UCRL-89098 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983).

Snyder, K.

Speck, D. R.

J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, “Present and future performance of the Nova laser system,” Opt. Eng. 28, 461–468 (1989).

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, J. K. Lawson, D. R. Speck, “Polarization differences among Nova beams measured by the 2ω null technique,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-64–4-66; J. K. Lawson, E. S. Bliss, R. D. Boyd, M. A. Henesian, T. L.Weiland Weiland, “Birefringence measurements of laser chain components,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-66–4-69; L. G. Seppala, “Birefringence measurements of spatial filter lenses,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-69–4-7.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, F. T. Marchi, D. R. Speck, “Demonstration of efficient full-aperture type I/type II third harmonic conversion on Nova,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 18–19.

M. A. Henesian, R. D. Boyd, J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, C. D. Swift, P. J. Wegner, “B-integral dependent ellipse rotation effects on large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. of OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1986), pp. 236–237.

Storm, E.

J. F. Holzrichter, E. M. Campbell, J. D. Lindl, E. Storm, “Research with high-power, short-wavelength lasers,” Science 229, 1045–1051 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summers, M. A.

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Harmonic generation at high peak power,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 622, 161–167 (1986).

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Design and performance of the Nova frequency conversion system,” in IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p.256.

Suski, G. J.

G. J. Suski, “Two-beam target chamber,” Rep. UCRL 50021-85 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1986), pp. 5-42–5-45.

Swift, C. D.

M. A. Henesian, C. D. Swift, J. R. Murray, “Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in nitrogen in long air paths,” Opt. Lett. 10, 565–567 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Ozarski, E. S. Bliss, B. C. Johnson, C. D. Swift, S. Warshaw, “Nova alignment and diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-82 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983), pp. 2-16–2-25.

M. A. Henesian, R. D. Boyd, J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, C. D. Swift, P. J. Wegner, “B-integral dependent ellipse rotation effects on large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. of OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1986), pp. 236–237.

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, “Intensity dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507–509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, I. M.

I. M. Thomas, “High laser damage threshold porous silica antireflective coating,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1481–1483 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Milam, I. M. Thomas, “Sol-gel coatings,” Rep. UCRL 50021-84 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1985), pp. 6-39–6-44.

Toratani, H.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Turner, R. E.

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzumitani, T.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Vercimak, C.

Wallerstein, E. P.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Warrington, D. E.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

Warshaw, S.

R. G. Ozarski, E. S. Bliss, B. C. Johnson, C. D. Swift, S. Warshaw, “Nova alignment and diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-82 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983), pp. 2-16–2-25.

Wegner, P. J.

M. A. Henesian, R. D. Boyd, J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, C. D. Swift, P. J. Wegner, “B-integral dependent ellipse rotation effects on large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. of OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1986), pp. 236–237.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, T. Weiland, “Large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion using a type I/type II phase matching scheme,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 14 of OSA 1987 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 70–71.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, J. K. Lawson, D. R. Speck, “Polarization differences among Nova beams measured by the 2ω null technique,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-64–4-66; J. K. Lawson, E. S. Bliss, R. D. Boyd, M. A. Henesian, T. L.Weiland Weiland, “Birefringence measurements of laser chain components,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-66–4-69; L. G. Seppala, “Birefringence measurements of spatial filter lenses,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-69–4-7.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, F. T. Marchi, D. R. Speck, “Demonstration of efficient full-aperture type I/type II third harmonic conversion on Nova,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 18–19.

Weiland, T.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, T. Weiland, “Large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion using a type I/type II phase matching scheme,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 14 of OSA 1987 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 70–71.

Williams, E. A.

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J. D.

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Harmonic generation at high peak power,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 622, 161–167 (1986).

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Design and performance of the Nova frequency conversion system,” in IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p.256.

Appl. Opt.

I. M. Thomas, “High laser damage threshold porous silica antireflective coating,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1481–1483 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

High Power and Solid State Lasers

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Harmonic generation at high peak power,” in High Power and Solid State Lasers, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 622, 161–167 (1986).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. S. Craxton, “High efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high-power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1771–1782 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.

D. Eimerl, “Quadrature frequency conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-23, 1361–1371 (1987); D. Eimerl, M. A. Summers, B. C. Johnson, J. D. Williams, G. J. Linford, “Harmonic conversion,” Rep. UCRL 50021-81 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1982), pp. 7-1–7-12.
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Technol. Fusion

W. W. Simmons, R. O. Godwin, “Nova laser fusion facility: design, engineering and assembly overview,” J. Nucl. Technol. Fusion 4, 8–24 (1983).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

K. R. Manes, W. W. Simmons, “Statistical optics applied to high-power glass lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 528–538 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

M. A. Henesian, C. D. Swift, J. R. Murray, “Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in nitrogen in long air paths,” Opt. Lett. 10, 565–567 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high efficiency third harmonic conversion of high power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, “Present and future performance of the Nova laser system,” Opt. Eng. 28, 461–468 (1989).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, C. M. Savage, “Intensity dependent changes in the refractive index of liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 507–509 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

R. W. Hellwarth, D. M. Pennington, M. A. Henesian, “The indices governing optical self focussing and self-induced changes in the state of polarization in N2, O2, H2 and Ar gases,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 2766–2777 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. E. Turner, K. Estabrook, R. L. Kauffman, D. R. Bach, R. P. Drake, D. W. Phillion, B. F. Lasinski, E. M. Campbell, W. L. Kruer, E. A. Williams, “Evidence of collisional damping in high-energy Raman-scattering experiments at 0.26 μm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 189–192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

J. F. Holzrichter, E. M. Campbell, J. D. Lindl, E. Storm, “Research with high-power, short-wavelength lasers,” Science 229, 1045–1051 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, J. K. Lawson, D. R. Speck, “Polarization differences among Nova beams measured by the 2ω null technique,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-64–4-66; J. K. Lawson, E. S. Bliss, R. D. Boyd, M. A. Henesian, T. L.Weiland Weiland, “Birefringence measurements of laser chain components,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-66–4-69; L. G. Seppala, “Birefringence measurements of spatial filter lenses,” Rep. UCRL 50021-86, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1987), pp. 4-69–4-7.

M. A. Henesian, R. D. Boyd, J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, C. D. Swift, P. J. Wegner, “B-integral dependent ellipse rotation effects on large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. of OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1986), pp. 236–237.

Recent unpublished measurements at Livermore indicate a value for 3ω absorption in KDP of 0.003 cm−1, which we neglect.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, T. Weiland, “Large aperture high-power third harmonic conversion using a type I/type II phase matching scheme,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 14 of OSA 1987 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 70–71.

W. L. Smith, M. A. Henesian, E. P. Milanovich, “Spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering in KDP and index matching fluids,” Rep. UCRL 50021-83 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1984), pp. 6-61–6-69.

M. A. Summers, J. D. Williams, B. C. Johnson, D. Eimerl, “Design and performance of the Nova frequency conversion system,” in IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), p.256.

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, F. T. Marchi, D. R. Speck, “Demonstration of efficient full-aperture type I/type II third harmonic conversion on Nova,” in Conference on Laser Engineering and Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1988 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 18–19.

R. G. Ozarski, E. S. Bliss, B. C. Johnson, C. D. Swift, S. Warshaw, “Nova alignment and diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-82 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983), pp. 2-16–2-25.

D. Milam, I. M. Thomas, “Sol-gel coatings,” Rep. UCRL 50021-84 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1985), pp. 6-39–6-44.

E. S. Bliss, R. G. Ozarski, D. W. Meyers, “Nova alignment/laser diagnostics,” Rep. UCRL 50021-80 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1981), pp. 2-119–2-131.

J. H. Campbell, E. P. Wallerstein, J. S. Hayden, D. L. Sapak, D. E. Warrington, A. J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima, T. Tzumitani, “Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses,” Rep. UCRL-53932 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1989).

G. J. Suski, “Two-beam target chamber,” Rep. UCRL 50021-85 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1986), pp. 5-42–5-45.

W. L. Smith, “Two photon absorption in condensed media,” Rep. UCRL-89098 (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., 1983).

F. Rainer, D. Milam, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550 (personal communication).

R. A. Lerche, R. L. Griffith, “Resolution limitations and optimization of the LLNL streak camera focus,” in High Speed Photography, Videography, and Photonics V, H. C. Johnson, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.832, 266–274 (1987).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Crystal plate at the right measures 27 × 27 × 1 cm. It was cut from a large boule of KDP similar to the one shown at the left. A single KDP boule can yield as many as 12 crystal plates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-crystal scheme utilizing type-II phase matching that can be configured for (a) quadrature SHG and (b) polarization-mismatch THG. Note that the relative orientation of the two crystals remains fixed because phase matching is achieved by tilting the crystals about orthogonal axes. The E vectors designate the polarization directions of the optical fields.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-crystal scheme utilizing type-I and type-II phase matching that can be configured for (a) type-I SHG and (b) angle-detuned THG. The E vectors designate the polarization directions of the optical fields.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Type-II–type-II THG conversion efficiency of ideal laser beams as a function of 1ω(o) (ordinary wave) to 1ω(e) (extraordinary wave) intensity ratio, for 1ω drive intensities of a, 0.5; b,1.0; c, 2.0; d, 2.0; and e, 4.0 GW/cm2. Doubler and tripler crystal thicknesses are 1.0 cm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Type-I–type-II THG conversion efficiency of ideal laser beams as a function of the (a) doubling crystal tuning angle and as a function of the (b) tripling crystal tuning angle from exact phase matching, for 1ω drive intensities of a, 0.5; b,1.0; c, 2.0; d, 3.0; and e, 4.0 GW/cm2. Type-I doubling crystal thickness is 1.2 cm; type-II tripling crystal thickness is 1.0 cm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contours of constant conversion efficiency for type-II–type II THG as a function of crystal thickness for incident 1.05-μm intensities of (a) 1.0, (b) 2.0, and (c) 3.0 GW/cm2. The crystal thicknesses used on Nova are indicated by crossed circles. (d) SHG and THG efficiency for the 1.0-cm crystal thicknesses used on Nova plotted as a function of incident 1.05-μm intensity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contours of constant conversion efficiency for type-I–type-II THG as a function of crystal thickness for incident 1.05-μm intensities of (a) 1.0, (b) 2.0, (c) 3.0 GW/cm2. The crystal thicknesses chosen for our tests are indicated by crossed circles. (d) SHG and THG efficiency for the 1.2-cm-thick type-I doubler and 1.0-cm thick type-II tripler, plotted as a function of incident 1.05-μm intensity.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Precisely machined aluminum support used to hold the 18 crystal plates for each Nova beam in one monolithic structure. The exploded view shows how the corners of the crystal plates are held between compliant spacers and polished buttons, which register the crystal face flush with the surface of the support.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Interferograms from a 1-m-aperture Fizeau interferometer showing (a) the transmitted wave front and (b) the wave front reflected by the output set of crystals of an assembled array. The broad fringes overlapping the sharper fringes in (b) are caused by interference between the front and back surface reflections from each crystal.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental arrangement used to measure high-power SHG and THG conversion efficiency at the full 0.74-m Nova aperture. Drawing is not to scale and angles have been exaggerated for clarity. The angles of incidence on the uncoated beam splitters are ≤ 7.5° to keep the difference between s and p reflectivities below 5%.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a). Plot of measured type-II–type-II THG conversion efficiency versus drive intensity for 1-ns (open and filled squares) and 2.5-ns (open circles) square-in-time pulses. The filled squares were obtained with 31 m of the 68-m air path to the crystals replaced with argon. The bands are calculated with different beam characteristics in our model. The upper band assumes perfect polarization and the two lower bands assume 1.7% depolarization at the laser-amplifier-chain output propagated with polarization-ellipse rotation over a 45-m air path (middle band) and a 68-m air path (lower band). (b). Plot of measured type-II–type-II THG conversion efficiency versus drive intensity after repolarization of the incident 1.05-μm beam for 1-ns square-in-time pulses for a 45-m (filled triangle) and 68-m (open triangle) air-propagation path. The calculated band is identical to the upper band in (a). (c). (a) and (b) replotted to show measured 3ω energy versus incident 1ω energy for 1-ns (open and filled squares) and 2.5-ns (open circles) pulses along with bands showing the calculated performance. The repolarized 1-ns data (open and filled triangles) should track the light band, corresponding to theory in (b).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Photograph of a 5-kJ, 1-ns Nova pulse reflected at Brewster’s angle from a glass plate showing the depolarized (dark) regions.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Line scans showing fluence profiles obtained from near-field photographs of third-harmonic beams generated through type-II–type-II THG with (solid curve) and without (dotted curve) repolarization of the incident pulse. The scans are taken through identical regions of the beam.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a). Plot of measured type-I–type-II THG conversion efficiency versus drive intensity for 1-ns (open and filled squares) and 2.5-ns (open circles) square-in-time pulses. The filled squares were obtained with 31 m of the 68-m air path to the crystals replaced with argon. The calculated upper band assumes perfect polarization and the lower band assumes 1.7% depolarization at the laser-amplifier-chain output propagated over a 68-m air path with polarization-ellipse rotation. (b) (a) replotted to show measured 3ω energy versus incident 1ω energy. The 1-ns data (open and filled squares) and 2.5-ns data (open circles) agree well with the calculations derived from the lower band in (a).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Plots of measured 2ω conversion efficiency versus incident 1.05-μm intensity for quadrature SHG for 1-ns (filled squares) and 2.5-ns (filled circles) square-in-time pulses and type-I SHG for 1-ns (filled triangles) square-in-time pulses. The calculated bands assume 1.7% depolarization at the laser output propagated over a 45-m air path with polarization-ellipse rotation.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Measured Optical Transmission of the Test Arrays with That of a New Nova Array with Optimized AR Coatings

Tables Icon

Table 2 Crystal Surface Losses Used in the Modelinga

Tables Icon

Table 3 Electric-Field Ellipticities, Corresponding Depolarizations, and Area Weights Used to Model the Partial Depolarization of the Nova 1ω Beam

Metrics