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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thin segment of a hemispherical concave reflector forms an image from a 180° strip field of view onto optical fibers that transfer the image to a strip of photodetectors or to a spectrograph.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarized light is transmitted to and returned from a sensing element along optical fibers. A nulling feedback system measures the difference between the angles of polarization of the transmitted and returned signals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Q-switched alexandrite laser was injection seeded by the cw beam from the stabilized AlGaAs laser diode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum of an alexandrite laser was narrowed considerably by injection seeding.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Translation or rotation of a mirror changes the lateral position of the reflected ray and the length of the optical path along the incident and reflected rays. Rotation also changes the direction of the reflected ray.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

This instrument analyzes ions according to velocity and ratio of mass to electric charge. It is a state-of-the-art combination of two well-established instruments: a time-of-flight analyzer and an electrostatic analyzer functioning as a mass spectrometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Advanced receiver is a hybrid digital/analog receiving subsystem that can extract symbols and Doppler shifts from a variety of week PSK signals.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase-locked loops are coupled and outputs of receivers are combined according to two schemes. In both schemes, optical mutual-coupling weights are computed according to Kalman-filter theory. The two schemes differ in the manner of transmission and combination of the outputs of the receivers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

In the period modulator, the time between pulses is varied by varying the control-input voltage, which serves as the critical voltage of a relaxation oscillator. For comparison, the inputs to the comparator of both this period modulator and a similar frequency modulator are shown.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Period demodulator includes a ramp generator such as the one in the modulator. The voltage sampled at the end of each ramp is the demodulated output.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Prototypes of these subsystems of a laser communication system have been built and tested. Gallium arsenide components and emitter-coupled logic circuits are used to attain high data rates.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Acousto-optical SAR processor includes optical and electronic subsystems that together resolve the range and azimuth coordinates of radar targets by a combination of spatial and temporal integrations.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Developmental fiber-optic communication system should be capable of a dynamic-range frequency of 150 dB · Hz. This new high in performance is achieved by taking advantage of recent advances in solid-state lasers and electro-optic modulators.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

This optoelectronic associative memory displays whichever (if any) of M (in this case, M = 4) remembered images resembles an input image most closely.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Full-duplex fiber-optic transmission is particularly advantageous in robots, in which immunity to electromagnetic interference, high data rates, and compactness are particularly desirable.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Conventional and new configurations for noncontact sliding backshorts feature alternating high- and low-impedance sections. The improved backshorts are stronger and easier to fabricate.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Microwave reflection spectra indicate that both the old and new backshorts reflect more than 95% of the incident signal within fairly wide frequency ranges.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Single-mode optical fiber and the associated optical components are relatively insensitive to alignment and can be mounted in a compact, rugged package.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Model represents the transport of charge from the ion track to the sink by diffusion. There is assumed to be no diffusion across, or recombination at, the upper surface of the substrate. Epitaxial and buried layers are not represented in this model.

Equations (4)

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p o i f ( n , μ ) = j = 0 n e - μ μ j / j ! = e - μ ( 1 + μ + μ 2 2 ! + μ 3 3 ! + μ n n ! ) .
p o i f ( n , μ ) = [ ( ( ( ( 1 + U 1 + U 2 + + U r 1 ) × e - f + U r 1 + 1 + U r 1 + 2 + + U r 2 ) × e - f + U r 2 + 1 + U r 2 + 2 + + U r 3 ) × e - f + + U r m + 1 + U r m + 2 + + U r m + 1 ) e - f + U r m + 1 + 1 + U r m + 1 + 2 + + U n ] e - μ + 1 m f ,
U j = U j - 1 μ j for j r k + 1 and 0 < k m ;
U j = U j - 1 μ j e - f for j = r k + 1 and 0 < k m and U 0 = 1.

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