Abstract

A contrast enhancement for electroluminescent displays that uses optical interference is described. The reflection of ambient light from a display can be greatly reduced through the addition of thin-film optical components. In particular, a black layer system consisting of a dielectric layer and a thin absorbing layer is able to reduce the luminous reflectance from 75% to 3% when deposited next to the aluminum counterelectrode. Furthermore, with the addition of several other thin-film optical layers, the luminous reflectance can be decreased to 0.4% while also decreasing the sensitivity of the reflectance to the thicknesses of the electro-optic layers. Theoretical examples of different layer systems with and without optical components are provided. A prototype display that incorporates a black layer system was built, and a luminous reflectance of 3% was achieved.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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1992 (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, E. H. Hara, B. T. Sullivan, A. J. Waldorf, “High performance optical wavelength multiplexer–demultiplexer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4450–4456 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Mach, G. O. Mueller, “Physics and technology of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 6, 305–323 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. K. Tiku, “High contrast dark-field TFEL display,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 31, 37–40 (1990).

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

M. Leskela, M. Tammenmaa, “Materials for electroluminescent thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 16, 349–371 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123–R159 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Kuo, M. H. Kalmanash, “Optimization of contrast-enhancement filter for information displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 17, 428–431 (1986).

T. Shoyji, K. Sawa, M. Nakanishi, T. Nagasako, T. Shimojo, “A high contrast EL unit for large screen graphic display,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 29, 124–126 (1986).

1985 (1)

M. P. R. Panicker, S. K. Tiku, “Contrast enhancement of thin film AC electroluminescent displays by using a contiguous dark dielectric,” Thin Solid Films 123, 19–25 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

R. Mach, G. O. Mueller, “Physical concepts of high-field thin film electroluminescence devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 69, 11–56 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

1978 (1)

1972 (1)

1956 (1)

Abdalla, M. I.

M. I. Abdalla, “Electroluminescent display having dark field semiconducting layer,” U.S. patent4,532,454 (30July1985).

Abe, A.

T. Matsuoka, M. Nishikawa, Y. Fujita, A. Abe, T. Nitta, “Thin film EL panel,” U.S. patent4,668,582 (26May1987).

Ayyagard, M. S.

M. S. Ayyagard, M. P. Schrank, M. Coppola, “Contrast enhanced electroluminescent device,” U.S. patent4,455,506 (19June1984).

Bacjar, R. C.

J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, R. C. Bacjar, “An optical interference electroluminescent device having low reflectance,” U.S. patent5,049,780 (17September1991).

Bahadur, B.

B. Bahadur, “Display parameters and requirements,” in Liquid Crystals: Applications and Uses, B. Bahadur, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), pp. 1–120.
[CrossRef]

Bolum, D. R.

D. R. Bolum, “High contrast filter for visual displays down-converting otherwise blocked radiation,” U.S. patent3,736,050 (29May1973).

Brown, M. G.

M. G. Brown, G. J. Guille, G. E. Long, “Cathode-ray tube with laminated safety panel and separate light-attenuating layer,” U.S. patent3,708,622 (2January1973).

Chao, P.

P. Chao, “Non-glare coating for a cathode ray tube,” U.S. patent4,694,218 (15September1987).

Chiba, S.

S. Chiba, “TFEL element,” Japanese patent60-193295 (1October1985).

Coppola, M.

M. S. Ayyagard, M. P. Schrank, M. Coppola, “Contrast enhanced electroluminescent device,” U.S. patent4,455,506 (19June1984).

Cushera, R. E.

R. E. Cushera, J. L. Hallett, “Display contrast enhancement apparatus for use with cathode ray tube,” U.S. patent3,518,373 (30June1970).

Dobrowolski, J. A.

J. A. Dobrowolski, E. H. Hara, B. T. Sullivan, A. J. Waldorf, “High performance optical wavelength multiplexer–demultiplexer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4450–4456 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dobrowolski, F. C. Ho, A. J. Waldorf, “Research on thin film anticounterfeiting coatings at the National Research Council of Canada,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2702–2717 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Versatile computer program for absorbing optical thin-film systems,” Appl. Opt. 20, 74–81 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, R. C. Bacjar, “An optical interference electroluminescent device having low reflectance,” U.S. patent5,049,780 (17September1991).

Essinger, W. F.

M. P. R. Panicker, W. F. Essinger, “Light emission enhancing dielectric layer for EL panel,” U.S. patent4,613,793 (23September1986).

Fitzpatrick, B. J.

B. J. Fitzpatrick, “Green luminescent cathode-ray tube device with improved color filtering system,” U.S. patent4,538,089 (27August1985).

Fujimoto, K.

K. Fujimoto, “Cathode ray tube view screen structure,” U.S. patent3,532,919 (6October1970).

Fujita, Y.

T. Matsuoka, M. Nishikawa, Y. Fujita, A. Abe, T. Nitta, “Thin film EL panel,” U.S. patent4,668,582 (26May1987).

Fuller, P. R.

S. V. Petertyl, P. R. Fuller, “Development of high contrast electroluminescent displays,” Air Force Flight Dynamics Report AFFDL-TR-66-183 (March1967).

Gelber, R. E.

R. E. Gelber, E. A. Small, “Liquid crystal display device with internal anti-reflection coating,” U.S. patent3,736,047 (29May1973).

Geller, R. M.

R. T. Scanlon, R. M. Geller, “Color absorption-type filter and method of making,” U.S. patent4,354,739 (19October1982).

Granqvist, C. G.

I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123–R159 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Guille, G. J.

M. G. Brown, G. J. Guille, G. E. Long, “Cathode-ray tube with laminated safety panel and separate light-attenuating layer,” U.S. patent3,708,622 (2January1973).

Hallett, J. L.

R. E. Cushera, J. L. Hallett, “Display contrast enhancement apparatus for use with cathode ray tube,” U.S. patent3,518,373 (30June1970).

Hamberg, I.

I. Hamberg, C. G. Granqvist, “Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123–R159 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, V. E.

V. E. Hamilton, “Ambient light filter,” U.S. patent3,511,560 (12May1970).

V. E. Hamilton, “Color television tube with ambient light filter,” U.S. patent3,378,636 (16April1968).

Hara, E. H.

J. A. Dobrowolski, E. H. Hara, B. T. Sullivan, A. J. Waldorf, “High performance optical wavelength multiplexer–demultiplexer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4450–4456 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

Heiz, H.

H. Heiz, “Process for producing an antireflecting layer on viewing screens,” U.S. patent4,551,356 (5November1985).

Higton, M. H.

M. H. Higton, “High contrast electroluminescent display panels,” U.S. patent4,672,264 (9June1987).

Ho, F. C.

Hyman, C. E.

C. E. Hyman, G. M. Krembs, “Antiglare coating for cathode-ray tube used with capacitative coupled voltage pen,” U.S. patent3,576,356 (27April1971).

Isaka, K.

M. Takeda, H. Kishishita, H. Kawabata, K. Isaka, “Light absorption film for rear electrodes of electroluminescent display panel,” U.S. patent4,287,449 (1September1981).

Jaffe, S. B.

G. Miller, S. B. Jaffe, “Contrast enhancement structure for color cathode ray tube,” U.S. patent4,663,562 (5May1987).

Kalmanash, M. H.

K. H. Kuo, M. H. Kalmanash, “Optimization of contrast-enhancement filter for information displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 17, 428–431 (1986).

Kamerling, M. A.

M. A. Kamerling, “Contrast enhancement filter and method,” U.S. patent4,351,681 (28September1982).

M. A. Kamerling, “Contrast enhancement filter and method,” U.S. patent4,278,736 (14July1981).

Kawabata, H.

M. Takeda, H. Kishishita, H. Kawabata, K. Isaka, “Light absorption film for rear electrodes of electroluminescent display panel,” U.S. patent4,287,449 (1September1981).

Kawai, H.

H. Kawai, “Electroluminescent panel having a light absorption layer of germanium oxide,” U.S. patent4,634,639 (6January1987).

Ketchpel, R. D.

R. D. Ketchpel, “Thin film electroluminescent display panel,” U.S. patent4,670,690 (2June1987).

Kilcoyne, M. K.

R. W. Wollentin, M. K. Kilcoyne, “High contrast display device incorporating a light absorption and scattering layer,” U.S. patent3,504,212 (31March1970).

Kishishita, H.

M. Takeda, H. Kishishita, H. Kawabata, K. Isaka, “Light absorption film for rear electrodes of electroluminescent display panel,” U.S. patent4,287,449 (1September1981).

Kitamura, N.

A. Ohkoshi, T. Shiota, N. Kitamura, “Cathode ray tube,” U.S. patent3,909,524 (30September1975).

Knittl, Z.

Krembs, G. M.

C. E. Hyman, G. M. Krembs, “Antiglare coating for cathode-ray tube used with capacitative coupled voltage pen,” U.S. patent3,576,356 (27April1971).

Krueger, H.

F. Leenhouts, H. Krueger, “Low-reflection liquid-crystal display,” U.S. patent4,521,079 (4June1985).

Kuo, K. H.

K. H. Kuo, M. H. Kalmanash, “Optimization of contrast-enhancement filter for information displays,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 17, 428–431 (1986).

Leenhouts, F.

F. Leenhouts, H. Krueger, “Low-reflection liquid-crystal display,” U.S. patent4,521,079 (4June1985).

Leskela, M.

M. Leskela, M. Tammenmaa, “Materials for electroluminescent thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 16, 349–371 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Long, G. E.

M. G. Brown, G. J. Guille, G. E. Long, “Cathode-ray tube with laminated safety panel and separate light-attenuating layer,” U.S. patent3,708,622 (2January1973).

Ludwig, R.

R. Ludwig, “Antireflection coating on a surface with high reflecting power,” U.S. patent4,425,022 (10January1984).

Mach, R.

R. Mach, G. O. Mueller, “Physics and technology of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 6, 305–323 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Mach, G. O. Mueller, “Physical concepts of high-field thin film electroluminescence devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 69, 11–56 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986).
[CrossRef]

Maple, T. G.

T. G. Maple, “Absorbing graded nitride film for high contrast display devices,” U.S. patent4,540,914 (10September1985).

T. G. Maple, “Absorbing inhomogeneous film for high contrast display devices,” U.S. patent4,132,919 (2January1979).

Matsudaira, T.

T. Matsudaira, “Electroluminescent panel comprising a dielectric layer of a mixture of tantalum oxide and aluminum oxide,” U.S. patent4,670,355 (2June1987).

Y. Shimizu, T. Matsudaira, “ITO films for EL panels,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Display Research Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1985), pp. 101–105.

Matsuoka, T.

T. Matsuoka, M. Nishikawa, Y. Fujita, A. Abe, T. Nitta, “Thin film EL panel,” U.S. patent4,668,582 (26May1987).

Miller, G.

G. Miller, S. B. Jaffe, “Contrast enhancement structure for color cathode ray tube,” U.S. patent4,663,562 (5May1987).

Miura, K.

M. Nishizawa, K. Miura, O. Sasaya, Y. Odaka, “Method of producing phosphor screen of color picture tube,” U.S. patent4,652,462 (24March1987).

Mouchart, J.

Muccigrosso, V. J.

V. J. Muccigrosso, J. L. Nivison, A. E. Oberg, “High contrast cathode ray display tube,” U.S. patent4,177,399 (4December1979).

Mueller, G. O.

R. Mach, G. O. Mueller, “Physics and technology of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 6, 305–323 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Mach, G. O. Mueller, “Physical concepts of high-field thin film electroluminescence devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 69, 11–56 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nagasako, T.

T. Shoyji, K. Sawa, M. Nakanishi, T. Nagasako, T. Shimojo, “A high contrast EL unit for large screen graphic display,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 29, 124–126 (1986).

Nakanishi, M.

T. Shoyji, K. Sawa, M. Nakanishi, T. Nagasako, T. Shimojo, “A high contrast EL unit for large screen graphic display,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 29, 124–126 (1986).

Nelson, J. R.

J. R. Nelson, W. K. Wissing, “Image display including improved light-absorbing matrix,” U.S. patent4,682,075 (21July1987).

Nicoll, F. H.

R. N. Rhodes, F. H. Nicoll, “Light reflection reducing device,” U.S. patent2,977,412 (28March1961).

Nishikawa, M.

T. Matsuoka, M. Nishikawa, Y. Fujita, A. Abe, T. Nitta, “Thin film EL panel,” U.S. patent4,668,582 (26May1987).

Nishizawa, M.

M. Nishizawa, K. Miura, O. Sasaya, Y. Odaka, “Method of producing phosphor screen of color picture tube,” U.S. patent4,652,462 (24March1987).

Nitta, T.

T. Matsuoka, M. Nishikawa, Y. Fujita, A. Abe, T. Nitta, “Thin film EL panel,” U.S. patent4,668,582 (26May1987).

Nivison, J. L.

V. J. Muccigrosso, J. L. Nivison, A. E. Oberg, “High contrast cathode ray display tube,” U.S. patent4,177,399 (4December1979).

Oberg, A. E.

V. J. Muccigrosso, J. L. Nivison, A. E. Oberg, “High contrast cathode ray display tube,” U.S. patent4,177,399 (4December1979).

A. E. Oberg, “Cathode ray display tube with contrast enhancement panel,” U.S. patent4,185,220 (22January1980).

Odaka, Y.

M. Nishizawa, K. Miura, O. Sasaya, Y. Odaka, “Method of producing phosphor screen of color picture tube,” U.S. patent4,652,462 (24March1987).

Ohkoshi, A.

A. Ohkoshi, T. Shiota, N. Kitamura, “Cathode ray tube,” U.S. patent3,909,524 (30September1975).

Panicker, M. P. R.

M. P. R. Panicker, S. K. Tiku, “Contrast enhancement of thin film AC electroluminescent displays by using a contiguous dark dielectric,” Thin Solid Films 123, 19–25 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. P. R. Panicker, “Light sink layer for a thin-film EL display Panel,” U.S. patent4,602,189 (22July1986).

M. P. R. Panicker, W. F. Essinger, “Light emission enhancing dielectric layer for EL panel,” U.S. patent4,613,793 (23September1986).

Partlow, W. D.

Petertyl, S. V.

S. V. Petertyl, P. R. Fuller, “Development of high contrast electroluminescent displays,” Air Force Flight Dynamics Report AFFDL-TR-66-183 (March1967).

Rhodes, R. N.

R. N. Rhodes, F. H. Nicoll, “Light reflection reducing device,” U.S. patent2,977,412 (28March1961).

Robinder, R. C.

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G. M. Sach, “Low-reflection filter for cathode ray tube face plate,” U.S. patent3,760,215 (18September1973).

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T. Shoyji, K. Sawa, M. Nakanishi, T. Nagasako, T. Shimojo, “A high contrast EL unit for large screen graphic display,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 29, 124–126 (1986).

Scanlon, R. T.

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Schrank, M. P.

M. S. Ayyagard, M. P. Schrank, M. Coppola, “Contrast enhanced electroluminescent device,” U.S. patent4,455,506 (19June1984).

M. P. Schrank, “Thin film electroluminescent display device,” U.S. patent4,547,702 (15October1985).

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Shimojo, T.

T. Shoyji, K. Sawa, M. Nakanishi, T. Nagasako, T. Shimojo, “A high contrast EL unit for large screen graphic display,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 29, 124–126 (1986).

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T. Shoyji, K. Sawa, M. Nakanishi, T. Nagasako, T. Shimojo, “A high contrast EL unit for large screen graphic display,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 29, 124–126 (1986).

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[CrossRef]

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L. E. Tannas, “Systems requirements; electroluminescent displays,” in Flat-Panel Displays and CRTs, L. E. Tannas, ed. (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1985), pp. 34–38, 237–238.

Tiku, S. K.

S. K. Tiku, “High contrast dark-field TFEL display,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 31, 37–40 (1990).

M. P. R. Panicker, S. K. Tiku, “Contrast enhancement of thin film AC electroluminescent displays by using a contiguous dark dielectric,” Thin Solid Films 123, 19–25 (1985).
[CrossRef]

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J. S. Treka, “Contrast enhancement of multicolor displays,” U.S. patent4,245,242 (13January1981).

Turner, A. F.

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M. S. Waite, J. L. Williams, J. R. Siddle, “Electroluminescent device having a resistive backing layer,” U.S. patent4,652,794 (24March1987).

Waldorf, A. J.

J. A. Dobrowolski, E. H. Hara, B. T. Sullivan, A. J. Waldorf, “High performance optical wavelength multiplexer–demultiplexer,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4450–4456 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. R. Nelson, W. K. Wissing, “Image display including improved light-absorbing matrix,” U.S. patent4,682,075 (21July1987).

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Yoldas, B. E.

Zitelli, L. T.

L. T. Zitelli, “Image converter tube with contrast enhancing filter which partially absorbs internally reflected light,” U.S. patent4,333,030 (1June1982).

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Leskela, M. Tammenmaa, “Materials for electroluminescent thin films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 16, 349–371 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

R. Mach, G. O. Mueller, “Physical concepts of high-field thin film electroluminescence devices,” Phys. Status Solidi A 69, 11–56 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. (3)

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T. Shoyji, K. Sawa, M. Nakanishi, T. Nagasako, T. Shimojo, “A high contrast EL unit for large screen graphic display,” Proc. Soc. Inf. Displ. 29, 124–126 (1986).

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[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. P. R. Panicker, S. K. Tiku, “Contrast enhancement of thin film AC electroluminescent displays by using a contiguous dark dielectric,” Thin Solid Films 123, 19–25 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (50)

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L. E. Tannas, “Systems requirements; electroluminescent displays,” in Flat-Panel Displays and CRTs, L. E. Tannas, ed. (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1985), pp. 34–38, 237–238.

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M. Nishizawa, K. Miura, O. Sasaya, Y. Odaka, “Method of producing phosphor screen of color picture tube,” U.S. patent4,652,462 (24March1987).

J. R. Nelson, W. K. Wissing, “Image display including improved light-absorbing matrix,” U.S. patent4,682,075 (21July1987).

J. A. Dobrowolski, B. T. Sullivan, R. C. Bacjar, “An optical interference electroluminescent device having low reflectance,” U.S. patent5,049,780 (17September1991).

M. P. R. Panicker, W. F. Essinger, “Light emission enhancing dielectric layer for EL panel,” U.S. patent4,613,793 (23September1986).

H. Kawai, “Electroluminescent panel having a light absorption layer of germanium oxide,” U.S. patent4,634,639 (6January1987).

M. S. Waite, J. L. Williams, J. R. Siddle, “Electroluminescent device having a resistive backing layer,” U.S. patent4,652,794 (24March1987).

T. Matsuoka, M. Nishikawa, Y. Fujita, A. Abe, T. Nitta, “Thin film EL panel,” U.S. patent4,668,582 (26May1987).

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[CrossRef]

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Y. Shimizu, T. Matsudaira, “ITO films for EL panels,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Display Research Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1985), pp. 101–105.

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[CrossRef]

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R. W. Wollentin, M. K. Kilcoyne, “High contrast display device incorporating a light absorption and scattering layer,” U.S. patent3,504,212 (31March1970).

K. Fujimoto, “Cathode ray tube view screen structure,” U.S. patent3,532,919 (6October1970).

M. G. Brown, G. J. Guille, G. E. Long, “Cathode-ray tube with laminated safety panel and separate light-attenuating layer,” U.S. patent3,708,622 (2January1973).

G. M. Sach, “Low-reflection filter for cathode ray tube face plate,” U.S. patent3,760,215 (18September1973).

R. C. Robinder, “Display tube with neutral density filtration,” U.S. patent3,879,627 (22April1975).

L. T. Zitelli, “Image converter tube with contrast enhancing filter which partially absorbs internally reflected light,” U.S. patent4,333,030 (1June1982).

C. E. Hyman, G. M. Krembs, “Antiglare coating for cathode-ray tube used with capacitative coupled voltage pen,” U.S. patent3,576,356 (27April1971).

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M. A. Kamerling, “Contrast enhancement filter and method,” U.S. patent4,278,736 (14July1981).

M. A. Kamerling, “Contrast enhancement filter and method,” U.S. patent4,351,681 (28September1982).

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J. S. Treka, “Contrast enhancement of multicolor displays,” U.S. patent4,245,242 (13January1981).

R. T. Scanlon, R. M. Geller, “Color absorption-type filter and method of making,” U.S. patent4,354,739 (19October1982).

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G. Miller, S. B. Jaffe, “Contrast enhancement structure for color cathode ray tube,” U.S. patent4,663,562 (5May1987).

R. N. Rhodes, F. H. Nicoll, “Light reflection reducing device,” U.S. patent2,977,412 (28March1961).

R. E. Gelber, E. A. Small, “Liquid crystal display device with internal anti-reflection coating,” U.S. patent3,736,047 (29May1973).

T. G. Maple, “Absorbing graded nitride film for high contrast display devices,” U.S. patent4,540,914 (10September1985).

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M. Takeda, H. Kishishita, H. Kawabata, K. Isaka, “Light absorption film for rear electrodes of electroluminescent display panel,” U.S. patent4,287,449 (1September1981).

R. Ludwig, “Antireflection coating on a surface with high reflecting power,” U.S. patent4,425,022 (10January1984).

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M. P. Schrank, “Thin film electroluminescent display device,” U.S. patent4,547,702 (15October1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional view of the main electro-optic components of a basic TFEL device, along with their thicknesses and optical constants at 550 nm. Also indicated is the fraction of ambient light that is reflected to the viewer from each interface. (b) Cross-sectional view of the TFEL device including additional optical components designed to reduce the reflection of ambient light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Black layer system consisting of a dielectric layer and a thin absorbing metal layer between opaque Al and a glass medium. Also displayed are the thicknesses of the layers and their optical constants at 550 nm. (b) Calculated reflectance versus wavelength for opaque Al with and without the layer system. The reflectance of an opaque Inconel layer and the CIE 1931 photopic response curve are also provided for comparison. (c) CIE chromaticity coordinates and luminous reflectance of the opaque Al and black layer system as a function of angle of incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated spectral and luminous reflectance of 1, a conventional TFEL device (system 1, Table 1); 2, the same TFEL system but with a black layer system interposed between the second dielectric and the counterelectrode (system 2, Table 1); and 3, the previous system after refinement of the thicknesses of all the layers (system 3, Table 1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Performance of a TFEL device (a) without and (b) with additional optical components C2, C4, and C5. The solid curves correspond to the systems listed in Table 2. The dashed and dotted curves refer to similar systems, but in which the thicknesses of all the electro-optic layers have been multiplied by scaling factors of 0.5 and 2.0, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured spectral reflectance of a prototype TFEL device that incorporates a black layer system. The system parameters are given in Table 3. Also listed are the CIE chromaticity coordinates and the luminous reflectance at normal incidence.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Construction Parameters of a Thin-Film Electroluminescent Devicea

Tables Icon

Table 2 Construction Parameters of a Thin-Film Electroluminescent Device With and Without Optical Components C2, C4, and C5a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Layer Thicknesses of a Prototype Thin-Film Electroluminescent Devicea

Equations (1)

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CR = L on + R L L ambient L off + R L L ambient ,

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