Abstract

The fabrication of kinoform micro-optical elements for applications in optical computing is described. The elements are recorded as continuous microrelief structures by programmable laser beam writing in photoresist with a computer-controlled precision xy stage and a modulated, focused laser beam. Kinoform structures can be programmed to any desired profile that is required for reproducing complex, optimized structures that are found by computer design techniques.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Prongué, H. P. Herzig, R. Dädliker, M. T. Gale, “Optimized kinoform structures for highly efficient fan-out elements,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  2. H. P. Herzig, D. Prongué, R. Dändliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1307–1309 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. T. Gale, K. Knop, “The Fabrication of Fine Lens Arrays by Laser Beam Writing,” in Industrial Applications of Laser Technology, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.,398, 347–353 (1983).
  4. M. T. Gale, K. Knop, “Diffractive diffusers for display applications,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Diffraction Phenomena, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, J. Harvey, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.679, 165–168 (1986).
  5. M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schütz, “Fabrication of microoptical components by laser writing in photoresist,” in. Micro-Optics II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 65–70 (1991).
  6. M. Haruna, M. Takahashi, K. Wakahayasi, H. Nishihara, “Laser beam lithographed micro-Fresnel lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5120–5126 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Daly, S. M. Hodson, M. C. Hutley, “Fan-out gratings with a continuous profile,” Opt. Commun. 82, 183–187 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Sandercock, “A dynamic antivibration system,” in First International Conference on Vibration Control in Optics and Metrology, Proc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 732, 157–165 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Daly, S. M. Hodson, M. C. Hutley, “Fan-out gratings with a continuous profile,” Opt. Commun. 82, 183–187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

H. P. Herzig, D. Prongué, R. Dändliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1307–1309 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Haruna, M. Takahashi, K. Wakahayasi, H. Nishihara, “Laser beam lithographed micro-Fresnel lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5120–5126 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. R. Sandercock, “A dynamic antivibration system,” in First International Conference on Vibration Control in Optics and Metrology, Proc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 732, 157–165 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dädliker, R.

D. Prongué, H. P. Herzig, R. Dädliker, M. T. Gale, “Optimized kinoform structures for highly efficient fan-out elements,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Daly, D.

D. Daly, S. M. Hodson, M. C. Hutley, “Fan-out gratings with a continuous profile,” Opt. Commun. 82, 183–187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dändliker, R.

H. P. Herzig, D. Prongué, R. Dändliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1307–1309 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, “The Fabrication of Fine Lens Arrays by Laser Beam Writing,” in Industrial Applications of Laser Technology, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.,398, 347–353 (1983).

D. Prongué, H. P. Herzig, R. Dädliker, M. T. Gale, “Optimized kinoform structures for highly efficient fan-out elements,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schütz, “Fabrication of microoptical components by laser writing in photoresist,” in. Micro-Optics II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 65–70 (1991).

Haruna, M.

Herzig, H. P.

H. P. Herzig, D. Prongué, R. Dändliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1307–1309 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Prongué, H. P. Herzig, R. Dädliker, M. T. Gale, “Optimized kinoform structures for highly efficient fan-out elements,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Hodson, S. M.

D. Daly, S. M. Hodson, M. C. Hutley, “Fan-out gratings with a continuous profile,” Opt. Commun. 82, 183–187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hutley, M. C.

D. Daly, S. M. Hodson, M. C. Hutley, “Fan-out gratings with a continuous profile,” Opt. Commun. 82, 183–187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knop, K.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, “The Fabrication of Fine Lens Arrays by Laser Beam Writing,” in Industrial Applications of Laser Technology, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.,398, 347–353 (1983).

Lang, G. K.

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schütz, “Fabrication of microoptical components by laser writing in photoresist,” in. Micro-Optics II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 65–70 (1991).

Nishihara, H.

Prongué, D.

H. P. Herzig, D. Prongué, R. Dändliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1307–1309 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Prongué, H. P. Herzig, R. Dädliker, M. T. Gale, “Optimized kinoform structures for highly efficient fan-out elements,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Raynor, J. M.

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schütz, “Fabrication of microoptical components by laser writing in photoresist,” in. Micro-Optics II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 65–70 (1991).

Sandercock, J. R.

J. R. Sandercock, “A dynamic antivibration system,” in First International Conference on Vibration Control in Optics and Metrology, Proc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 732, 157–165 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, H.

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schütz, “Fabrication of microoptical components by laser writing in photoresist,” in. Micro-Optics II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 65–70 (1991).

Takahashi, M.

Wakahayasi, K.

Appl. Opt. (1)

First International Conference on Vibration Control in Optics and Metrology (1)

J. R. Sandercock, “A dynamic antivibration system,” in First International Conference on Vibration Control in Optics and Metrology, Proc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 732, 157–165 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. P. Herzig, D. Prongué, R. Dändliker, “Design and fabrication of highly efficient fan-out elements,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1307–1309 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Daly, S. M. Hodson, M. C. Hutley, “Fan-out gratings with a continuous profile,” Opt. Commun. 82, 183–187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Prongué, H. P. Herzig, R. Dädliker, M. T. Gale, “Optimized kinoform structures for highly efficient fan-out elements,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, “The Fabrication of Fine Lens Arrays by Laser Beam Writing,” in Industrial Applications of Laser Technology, W. F. Fagan, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.,398, 347–353 (1983).

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, “Diffractive diffusers for display applications,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Diffraction Phenomena, R. E. Fischer, W. J. Smith, J. Harvey, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.679, 165–168 (1986).

M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schütz, “Fabrication of microoptical components by laser writing in photoresist,” in. Micro-Optics II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1506, 65–70 (1991).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic writing technique: xy raster scan exposure of a photoresist film scanned under a focused laser beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser beam writing system: modulation of the laser spot intensity during the scanning produces an exposure pattern that results in the required microrelief structure after development of the photoresist.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured development characteristic for AZ 1400-37 photoresist (3.2-μm-thick film) developed in AZ 303 developer (1:7 dilution, 30 s).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Software developed for the programming and writing of microrelief structures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured surface profile and optical performance of fabricated kinoform elements with 200-μm and 488-μm periodicities.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Resist Development Characteristic (From Data in Fig. 3)

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