We discuss the realization of highly efficient fan-out elements. Laser-beam writing lithography is available now for fabricating smooth surface relief microstructures. We develop several methods for optimizing microstructure profiles. Only a small number of parameters in the object plane are necessary for determining the kinoform. This simplifies the calculation of M × N arrays also for large M and N. Experimental results for a 9-beam fan-out element are presented.
© 1992 Optical Society of America
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