Abstract

A prototype digital free-space photonic switching fabric is demonstrated. It consists of three cascaded 16 × 8 arrays of symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices that are used as logic gates that implement part of a multistage interconnection network. We discuss architecture, device tolerancing, optical system design, and optomechanical design. This optical circuit is successfully configured as a fully operational array of 32 independent 2 × 2 nodes and operates at 100 kHz.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. S. Hinton, “Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209–1226 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch fabricated symmetric self electro-optic effect device,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3
  4. F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3.
  5. M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’ Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “A module for optical logic circuits using symmetric self-electrooptic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2164–2170 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “A digital free space photonic switching network demonstration using S-SEEDs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1990), pp. 597–598.
  8. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Jahns, M. J. Murdocca, “Crossover networks and their optical implementation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3155–3160 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, T. J. Cloonan, “Optical and mechanical issues in free space digital optical logic systems,” in Annual Meeting 1990, Vol 15 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 275.
  19. B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance studies for digital optical computing circuitry, with application of nonlinear interference filters,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 1, 41–49 (1990).
  20. M. E. Prise, M. M. Downs, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Walker, N. Streibl, “Design of an optical digital computer,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. C2 49, 15–18 (1988).
  21. F. B. McCormick, M. E. Prise, “Optical circuitry for free-space interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2013–2018 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam via multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).
  24. P. Belland, J. P. Crenn, “Changes in the characteristics of a Gaussian beam weakly diffracted by a circular aperture,” Appl. Opt. 21, 522–527 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  26. code v is made by Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, California.
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  28. S. Mallick, “Common-path interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 97–98.
  29. E. Kerbis, “Stability analysis of optomechanical components,” in Applications of Optical Engineering OE/Midwest ’90, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1396, 447–452 (1990).
  30. R. L. Morrison, “Image analysis for diagnostics in photonic switching,” in Applications of Optical Engineering OE/Midwest ’90, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1396, 568–574 (1990).
  31. D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–64 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 66.
  33. M. R. Feldman, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, S. C. Esener, “Comparison between electrical and free space optical interconnects for fine grain processor arrays based on interconnect density capabilities,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3820–3829 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.
  35. B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

1990 (9)

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. Swaminathan, J. M. Freund, T. D. Harris, N. A. Kuebler, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Evidence of Surface recombination at mesa sidewalls of self electro-optic effect devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4116–4118 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance studies for digital optical computing circuitry, with application of nonlinear interference filters,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 1, 41–49 (1990).

E. Kerbis, “Stability analysis of optomechanical components,” in Applications of Optical Engineering OE/Midwest ’90, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1396, 447–452 (1990).

R. L. Morrison, “Image analysis for diagnostics in photonic switching,” in Applications of Optical Engineering OE/Midwest ’90, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1396, 568–574 (1990).

F. B. McCormick, M. E. Prise, “Optical circuitry for free-space interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2013–2018 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’ Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “A module for optical logic circuits using symmetric self-electrooptic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2164–2170 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (7)

T. J. Cloonan, “Topological equivalence of optical crossover networks and modified data manipulator networks,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2494–2498 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Feldman, C. C. Guest, T. J. Drabik, S. C. Esener, “Comparison between electrical and free space optical interconnects for fine grain processor arrays based on interconnect density capabilities,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3820–3829 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam via multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Wein, W. L. Wolfe, “Gaussian-apodized apertures and small-angle scatter measurements,” Opt. Eng. 28, 273–280 (1989).

1988 (3)

H. S. Hinton, “Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, M. M. Downs, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Walker, N. Streibl, “Design of an optical digital computer,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. C2 49, 15–18 (1988).

J. Jahns, M. J. Murdocca, “Crossover networks and their optical implementation,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3155–3160 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1971 (1)

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Belland, P.

Bowman, S.

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Boyd, G. D.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch fabricated symmetric self electro-optic effect device,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3

Brubaker, J. L.

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “A digital free space photonic switching network demonstration using S-SEEDs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1990), pp. 597–598.

Buller, G. S.

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Burrows, D. J.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’ Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “A module for optical logic circuits using symmetric self-electrooptic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2164–2170 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Swaminathan, J. M. Freund, T. D. Harris, N. A. Kuebler, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Evidence of Surface recombination at mesa sidewalls of self electro-optic effect devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4116–4118 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 66.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch fabricated symmetric self electro-optic effect device,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

Cloonan, T. J.

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, “Topological equivalence of optical crossover networks and modified data manipulator networks,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2494–2498 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “A digital free space photonic switching network demonstration using S-SEEDs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1990), pp. 597–598.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, T. J. Cloonan, “Optical and mechanical issues in free space digital optical logic systems,” in Annual Meeting 1990, Vol 15 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 275.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Architectural considerations for an optical extended generalized shuffle network based on 2-modules,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, W. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 154–157.

Craft, N. C.

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’ Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “A module for optical logic circuits using symmetric self-electrooptic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2164–2170 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. C. Craft, M. E. Prise, “Optical system tolerances for symmetric self electro-optic effect devices in optical computers,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 9 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 334–337; see also N. C. Craft, “Digital optical computing,” Ph.D dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1989).

Craig, R. G. A.

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Crenn, J. P.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 66.

D’ Asaro, L. A.

D’Asaro, L. A.

V. Swaminathan, J. M. Freund, T. D. Harris, N. A. Kuebler, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Evidence of Surface recombination at mesa sidewalls of self electro-optic effect devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4116–4118 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 66.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch fabricated symmetric self electro-optic effect device,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3

Downs, M. M.

Drabik, T. J.

Esener, S. C.

Feldman, M. R.

Feuer, M. D.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Focht, M. W.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

Freund, J. M.

V. Swaminathan, J. M. Freund, T. D. Harris, N. A. Kuebler, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Evidence of Surface recombination at mesa sidewalls of self electro-optic effect devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4116–4118 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

Guest, C. C.

Guth, G. D.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

Harris, T. D.

V. Swaminathan, J. M. Freund, T. D. Harris, N. A. Kuebler, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Evidence of Surface recombination at mesa sidewalls of self electro-optic effect devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4116–4118 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J. E.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 66.

Herron, M. J.

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “A digital free space photonic switching network demonstration using S-SEEDs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1990), pp. 597–598.

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “A digital free space photonic switching network demonstration using S-SEEDs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1990), pp. 597–598.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Hinton, “Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Kerbis, E.

E. Kerbis, “Stability analysis of optomechanical components,” in Applications of Optical Engineering OE/Midwest ’90, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1396, 447–452 (1990).

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, R. F.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, N. A.

V. Swaminathan, J. M. Freund, T. D. Harris, N. A. Kuebler, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Evidence of Surface recombination at mesa sidewalls of self electro-optic effect devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4116–4118 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J. M.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

LaMarche, R. E.

Leibenguth, R. E.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 66.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “A digital free space photonic switching network demonstration using S-SEEDs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1990), pp. 597–598.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch fabricated symmetric self electro-optic effect device,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, T. J. Cloonan, “Optical and mechanical issues in free space digital optical logic systems,” in Annual Meeting 1990, Vol 15 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 275.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Architectural considerations for an optical extended generalized shuffle network based on 2-modules,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, W. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 154–157.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

Mallick, S.

S. Mallick, “Common-path interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 97–98.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, M. E. Prise, “Optical circuitry for free-space interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2013–2018 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam via multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).

M. E. Prise, M. M. Downs, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Walker, N. Streibl, “Design of an optical digital computer,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. C2 49, 15–18 (1988).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, T. J. Cloonan, “Optical and mechanical issues in free space digital optical logic systems,” in Annual Meeting 1990, Vol 15 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 275.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “A digital free space photonic switching network demonstration using S-SEEDs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1990), pp. 597–598.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Architectural considerations for an optical extended generalized shuffle network based on 2-modules,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, W. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 154–157.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3.

McKnight, D.

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 66.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch fabricated symmetric self electro-optic effect device,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

Morrison, R. L.

R. L. Morrison, “Image analysis for diagnostics in photonic switching,” in Applications of Optical Engineering OE/Midwest ’90, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1396, 568–574 (1990).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
[CrossRef]

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generation,” in Optical Computing 1991, Vol. 6 of OSA 1991 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ME22, pp. 144–147; see also R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Binary phase gratings generating even numbered spots arrays,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, T. J. Cloonan, “Optical and mechanical issues in free space digital optical logic systems,” in Annual Meeting 1990, Vol 15 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 275.

Murdocca, M. J.

Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, T. J. Cloonan, “Optical and mechanical issues in free space digital optical logic systems,” in Annual Meeting 1990, Vol 15 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 275.

Pauly, G. S.

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Prise, M. E.

F. B. McCormick, M. E. Prise, “Optical circuitry for free-space interconnections,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2013–2018 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Prise, N. C. Craft, R. E. LaMarche, M. M. Downs, S. J. Walker, L. A. D’ Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “A module for optical logic circuits using symmetric self-electrooptic effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2164–2170 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Prise, M. M. Downs, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Walker, N. Streibl, “Design of an optical digital computer,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. C2 49, 15–18 (1988).

N. C. Craft, M. E. Prise, “Optical system tolerances for symmetric self electro-optic effect devices in optical computers,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 9 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 334–337; see also N. C. Craft, “Digital optical computing,” Ph.D dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1989).

Przybylek, G. J.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

Redmond, I. R.

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Richards, G. W.

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Architectural considerations for an optical extended generalized shuffle network based on 2-modules,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, W. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 154–157.

Shunk, S. C.

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. E.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

Smith, S. D.

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Snowdon, J. F.

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance studies for digital optical computing circuitry, with application of nonlinear interference filters,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 1, 41–49 (1990).

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Stone, H. S.

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Prise, M. M. Downs, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Walker, N. Streibl, “Design of an optical digital computer,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. C2 49, 15–18 (1988).

Swaminathan, V.

V. Swaminathan, J. M. Freund, T. D. Harris, N. A. Kuebler, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Evidence of Surface recombination at mesa sidewalls of self electro-optic effect devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4116–4118 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tagizadeh, M. R.

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Tooley, F. A. P.

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
[CrossRef]

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, T. J. Cloonan, “Optical and mechanical issues in free space digital optical logic systems,” in Annual Meeting 1990, Vol 15 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 275.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “A digital free space photonic switching network demonstration using S-SEEDs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1990), pp. 597–598.

Tu, C. W.

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch fabricated symmetric self electro-optic effect device,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3

Walker, A. C.

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Walker, S. J.

Walker, S. L.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generation,” in Optical Computing 1991, Vol. 6 of OSA 1991 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ME22, pp. 144–147; see also R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Binary phase gratings generating even numbered spots arrays,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
[CrossRef]

Wein, S. J.

S. J. Wein, W. L. Wolfe, “Gaussian-apodized apertures and small-angle scatter measurements,” Opt. Eng. 28, 273–280 (1989).

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, “Star tests,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 11, pp. 351–379.

Wherrett, B. S.

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance studies for digital optical computing circuitry, with application of nonlinear interference filters,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 1, 41–49 (1990).

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

Wolfe, W. L.

S. J. Wein, W. L. Wolfe, “Gaussian-apodized apertures and small-angle scatter measurements,” Opt. Eng. 28, 273–280 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Applications of Optical Engineering OE/Midwest ’90 (2)

E. Kerbis, “Stability analysis of optomechanical components,” in Applications of Optical Engineering OE/Midwest ’90, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1396, 447–452 (1990).

R. L. Morrison, “Image analysis for diagnostics in photonic switching,” in Applications of Optical Engineering OE/Midwest ’90, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1396, 568–574 (1990).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

A. L. Lentine, H. S. Hinton, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, “Symmetric self electro-optic effect device: optical set-reset latch, differential logic gate and differential modulator/detector,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 25, 1928–1936 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

E. Kerbis, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, “An all-optical realization of a (2, 1, 1) switching node,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 600–602 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, F. B. McCormick, R. A. Novotny, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, R. F. Kopf, J. M. Kuo, G. D. Boyd, “A 2 Kbit array of symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 51–53 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, M. J. Herron, F. A. P. Tooley, G. W. Richards, E. Kerbis, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, “An all optical implementation of a 3-D crossover switching network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 438–440 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, M. D. Feuer, T. Y. Chang, S. C. Shunk, J. E. Henry, D. J. Burrows, D. S. Chemla, “Field effect transistor self electro-optic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator, and transistor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 62–64 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

H. S. Stone, “Parallel processing with the perfect shuffle,” IEEE Trans. Comput. C-20, 153–161 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Opt. Comput. (1)

B. S. Wherrett, J. F. Snowdon, “Tolerance studies for digital optical computing circuitry, with application of nonlinear interference filters,” Int. J. Opt. Comput. 1, 41–49 (1990).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Swaminathan, J. M. Freund, T. D. Harris, N. A. Kuebler, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Evidence of Surface recombination at mesa sidewalls of self electro-optic effect devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4116–4118 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. C2 (1)

M. E. Prise, M. M. Downs, F. B. McCormick, S. J. Walker, N. Streibl, “Design of an optical digital computer,” J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. C2 49, 15–18 (1988).

J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

H. S. Hinton, “Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks,” J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209–1226 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam via multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).

S. J. Wein, W. L. Wolfe, “Gaussian-apodized apertures and small-angle scatter measurements,” Opt. Eng. 28, 273–280 (1989).

Other (14)

code v is made by Optical Research Associates, Pasadena, California.

W. T. Welford, “Star tests,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), Chap. 11, pp. 351–379.

S. Mallick, “Common-path interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 97–98.

A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Henry, J. E. Cunningham, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “Optical logic using electrically connected quantum well PIN diode modulators and detectors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), p. 66.

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, “Architectural considerations for an optical extended generalized shuffle network based on 2-modules,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, W. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 154–157.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Progress in diffractive phase gratings used for spot array generation,” in Optical Computing 1991, Vol. 6 of OSA 1991 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ME22, pp. 144–147; see also R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, “Binary phase gratings generating even numbered spots arrays,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “A digital free space photonic switching network demonstration using S-SEEDs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA 1990 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1990), pp. 597–598.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, M. J. Herron, “Free-space photonic switching network demonstration,” in IEEE Summer Topical Meeting on Optical Multiple Access Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1990), Paper OMF10, pp. 69–70.
[CrossRef]

L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, C. W. Tu, A. L. Lentine, G. D. Boyd, D. A. B. Miller, “Batch fabricated symmetric self electro-optic effect device,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3

F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, “An all-optical shift register using symmetric self electro-optic effect devices,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, J. E. Midwinter, H. S. Hinton, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1989), Vol. 3.

A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, R. E. Leibenguth, G. J. Przybylek, L. E. Smith, L. A. D’Asaro, D. A. B. Miller, “Integrated self-electro-optic effect device switching nodes,” in OSA Proceedings on Photonic Switching, M. S. Hinton, J. W. Goodman, eds. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), Vol. 8, pp. 60–66.

B. S. Wherrett, R. G. A. Craig, J. F. Snowdon, G. S. Buller, F. A. P. Tooley, S. Bowman, G. S. Pauly, I. R. Redmond, D. McKnight, M. R. Tagizadeh, A. C. Walker, S. D. Smith, “Construction and tolerancing of an optical CLIP,” in Digital Optical Computing II, R. Arrathoon, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1215, 264–273 (1990).

N. C. Craft, M. E. Prise, “Optical system tolerances for symmetric self electro-optic effect devices in optical computers,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 9 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 334–337; see also N. C. Craft, “Digital optical computing,” Ph.D dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1989).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, T. J. Cloonan, “Optical and mechanical issues in free space digital optical logic systems,” in Annual Meeting 1990, Vol 15 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), p. 275.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multistage interconnection network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Switching nodes: (a) logical equivalent of a 2 × 1 node; (b) two 2 × 1 nodes may be combined to create a 2 × 2 node; (c) logical functionality of the demonstration system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) S-SEED with two signal inputs, clock, preset, and timing diagram. (b) Bistable characteristic of a S-SEED. The reflectivity of one output window (Q bar) is plotted versus the ratio of the powers on the input windows (PR/PS). The transition between states occurs at an approximate input contrast of T = (1 − R1)/(1 − R2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of optical layout of the demonstration system showing three S-SEED’s (S1–S3) illuminated by clock, preset, and control lasers, and light-emitting diodes for alignment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Light propagation through one OHM. The arrows indicate the direction of light flow; they are not ray traces. (b) Spot array generation by multiple imaging. (c) Hardware of the third OHM; spot generation optics are at the bottom of the photograph and the S-SEED array is mounted on the positioner at the top of the photograph.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical spot energy coupling into a 5-μm device window for a range of clipping ratios and f-numbers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Energy coupled into a 5-μm device window as a function of a one-dimensional spot misalignment for spots with e−2 diameters of 2.4, 3.3, and 5 μm. Maximum misalignment is 6 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical path difference plots for the path from the 8 × 16 BPG to the second S-SEED array. Full scale is a half-wave.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Astigmatic field curves and distortion (f tan θ) plot.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Through-focus intensity PSF plots for (a) −10-μm defocus; (b) best rms axial focus; (c) +10-μm defocus; and (d) +20-μm defocus at 1.56°. Two views of each focal position are shown: along the radial (y axis) and tangential (x axis) image directions.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Diffraction spot encircled energy for 0° (solid curve), 1° (dashed curve), and 1.56° (dotted–dashed curve) field angles.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured spot profiles taken with a scanning 2-μm slit (a) on axis and (b) at 1.56°. The profiles were taken at − 10, 0, +10, and +20 μm around the best axial focus. The slit was scanned along the radial image direction (y axis of Fig. 10.)

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I S-SEED Logic Gate Truth Table

Tables Icon

Table II Nonuniformity Tolerances for Four S-SEED Logic Operating Modes

Tables Icon

Table III Wave-front Aberration Contributions and Totals

Equations (5)

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Δ P ( g ) P < ( T - 1 ) ( C + 1 ) ( T + ) ( C - 1 ) ,
Δ P ( g , l ) < T - 1 T + 1 ,
Δ P ( g , l , α ) P = C 1 / 2 - 1 C 1 / 2 + 1 .
focal length variation = Δ f f Δ d f f 1 f 2 = Δ d 4 f             when f 1 = f 2 = 2 f ,
spot diameter = ( 4 λ π ) { r w 0 1 - exp [ - ( r / w 0 ) 2 ] } ( f # ) , for the assumptions f < π w 0 2 λ , 2 w 0 > spot diameter ,             r w 0 > 0.75 ,

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