Abstract

We have developed a unique laser fabrication system that uses an ultraviolet laser beam and liquid photopolymer. The system can easily be used to fabricate physical models without milling tools in only one process by using digital data obtained from medical computed tomography (CT) scanners or computer-aided design systems. We describe the fabrication of a smooth physical model such as a cerebrum, using the laser fabrication system, with the help of CT and magnetic resonance images that are made with coarse slices. Each sandwiched area between adjoining images is interpolated by using third-order spline curves in the cylindrical coordinate system. This modeling technique can play a major role in personal prosthesis, surgical planning, and implant design.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Yasuda, Y. Hashimoto, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, “Planning support system for craniofacial surgery using CT images,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J70-D, 2134–2140 (1987).
  2. M. Kaneko, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, T. Aizawa, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of coronary arteries obtained from coronary cineangiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 21, 73–79 (1983).
  3. Y. Kuno, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, H. Sawada, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of left ventricle from two-dimensional echocardiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 23, 14–20 (1985).
  4. H. Oshita, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, M. Matsuo, “3-D display of magnetic resonance images by use of multiplex holography,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 25, 61–68 (1987).
  5. S. Eiho, “Measurement of three dimensional shapes in medicine,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-7, 1–7 (1987).
  6. L. L. Fellingham, J. Vogel, C. Lau, P. Dev, “Interactive graphics and 3-D modeling for surgical planning and prosthesis and implant design,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 3, 132–142 (1986).
  7. D. D. Robertson, P. S. Walker, J. W. Granholm, P. C. Nelson, P. J. Weiss, E. K. Fishman, D. Magid, “Design of custom hip stem prostheses using three-dimensional CT modeling,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11, 804–809 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. T. Kuno, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, S. Yasuda, “Manufacturing artificial bone model using CT image data,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-117, 1–8 (1988).
  9. T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Shaping 3-D solid objects using an UV laser and photopolymer,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 42.
  10. T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Fabrication of 3-dimensional objects using laser lithography,” Syst. Comput. Jpn. 20, 58–67 (1989) [Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J71-D, 416–422 (1988)].
    [Crossref]
  11. H.-J. Ott, Darmstadt, “Laser-Stereolithographie vom CAD-Modell zum Prototyp,” Laser-Praxis (June1989). pp. L24–L26.
  12. R. A. Schubert, “Stereolithography,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 2, 182–186 (1989).
  13. T. T. Wohlers, “Practical prototypes,” Comput. Graphics World (March1990). pp. 73–80.
  14. K. Nutt, “Linking CAD to desktop manufacturing,” Comput. Aided Eng. (January1991). pp. 40–44.
  15. T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Fabrication of a 3-dimensional plastic model with photopolymer from CT images,” Trans. Info. Process. Soc. Jpn. 30, 1441–1449 (1989).

1991 (1)

K. Nutt, “Linking CAD to desktop manufacturing,” Comput. Aided Eng. (January1991). pp. 40–44.

1990 (1)

T. T. Wohlers, “Practical prototypes,” Comput. Graphics World (March1990). pp. 73–80.

1989 (4)

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Fabrication of a 3-dimensional plastic model with photopolymer from CT images,” Trans. Info. Process. Soc. Jpn. 30, 1441–1449 (1989).

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Fabrication of 3-dimensional objects using laser lithography,” Syst. Comput. Jpn. 20, 58–67 (1989) [Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J71-D, 416–422 (1988)].
[Crossref]

H.-J. Ott, Darmstadt, “Laser-Stereolithographie vom CAD-Modell zum Prototyp,” Laser-Praxis (June1989). pp. L24–L26.

R. A. Schubert, “Stereolithography,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 2, 182–186 (1989).

1988 (1)

T. Kuno, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, S. Yasuda, “Manufacturing artificial bone model using CT image data,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-117, 1–8 (1988).

1987 (4)

D. D. Robertson, P. S. Walker, J. W. Granholm, P. C. Nelson, P. J. Weiss, E. K. Fishman, D. Magid, “Design of custom hip stem prostheses using three-dimensional CT modeling,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11, 804–809 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yasuda, Y. Hashimoto, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, “Planning support system for craniofacial surgery using CT images,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J70-D, 2134–2140 (1987).

H. Oshita, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, M. Matsuo, “3-D display of magnetic resonance images by use of multiplex holography,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 25, 61–68 (1987).

S. Eiho, “Measurement of three dimensional shapes in medicine,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-7, 1–7 (1987).

1986 (1)

L. L. Fellingham, J. Vogel, C. Lau, P. Dev, “Interactive graphics and 3-D modeling for surgical planning and prosthesis and implant design,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 3, 132–142 (1986).

1985 (1)

Y. Kuno, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, H. Sawada, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of left ventricle from two-dimensional echocardiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 23, 14–20 (1985).

1983 (1)

M. Kaneko, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, T. Aizawa, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of coronary arteries obtained from coronary cineangiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 21, 73–79 (1983).

Aizawa, T.

M. Kaneko, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, T. Aizawa, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of coronary arteries obtained from coronary cineangiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 21, 73–79 (1983).

Darmstadt,

H.-J. Ott, Darmstadt, “Laser-Stereolithographie vom CAD-Modell zum Prototyp,” Laser-Praxis (June1989). pp. L24–L26.

Dev, P.

L. L. Fellingham, J. Vogel, C. Lau, P. Dev, “Interactive graphics and 3-D modeling for surgical planning and prosthesis and implant design,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 3, 132–142 (1986).

Eiho, S.

S. Eiho, “Measurement of three dimensional shapes in medicine,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-7, 1–7 (1987).

Fellingham, L. L.

L. L. Fellingham, J. Vogel, C. Lau, P. Dev, “Interactive graphics and 3-D modeling for surgical planning and prosthesis and implant design,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 3, 132–142 (1986).

Fishman, E. K.

D. D. Robertson, P. S. Walker, J. W. Granholm, P. C. Nelson, P. J. Weiss, E. K. Fishman, D. Magid, “Design of custom hip stem prostheses using three-dimensional CT modeling,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11, 804–809 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujii, J.

Y. Kuno, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, H. Sawada, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of left ventricle from two-dimensional echocardiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 23, 14–20 (1985).

M. Kaneko, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, T. Aizawa, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of coronary arteries obtained from coronary cineangiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 21, 73–79 (1983).

Granholm, J. W.

D. D. Robertson, P. S. Walker, J. W. Granholm, P. C. Nelson, P. J. Weiss, E. K. Fishman, D. Magid, “Design of custom hip stem prostheses using three-dimensional CT modeling,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11, 804–809 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, Y.

T. Yasuda, Y. Hashimoto, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, “Planning support system for craniofacial surgery using CT images,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J70-D, 2134–2140 (1987).

Kaneko, M.

M. Kaneko, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, T. Aizawa, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of coronary arteries obtained from coronary cineangiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 21, 73–79 (1983).

Kato, K.

Y. Kuno, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, H. Sawada, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of left ventricle from two-dimensional echocardiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 23, 14–20 (1985).

M. Kaneko, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, T. Aizawa, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of coronary arteries obtained from coronary cineangiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 21, 73–79 (1983).

Kuno, T.

T. Kuno, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, S. Yasuda, “Manufacturing artificial bone model using CT image data,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-117, 1–8 (1988).

Kuno, Y.

Y. Kuno, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, H. Sawada, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of left ventricle from two-dimensional echocardiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 23, 14–20 (1985).

Lau, C.

L. L. Fellingham, J. Vogel, C. Lau, P. Dev, “Interactive graphics and 3-D modeling for surgical planning and prosthesis and implant design,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 3, 132–142 (1986).

Magid, D.

D. D. Robertson, P. S. Walker, J. W. Granholm, P. C. Nelson, P. J. Weiss, E. K. Fishman, D. Magid, “Design of custom hip stem prostheses using three-dimensional CT modeling,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11, 804–809 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marutani, Y.

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Fabrication of 3-dimensional objects using laser lithography,” Syst. Comput. Jpn. 20, 58–67 (1989) [Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J71-D, 416–422 (1988)].
[Crossref]

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Fabrication of a 3-dimensional plastic model with photopolymer from CT images,” Trans. Info. Process. Soc. Jpn. 30, 1441–1449 (1989).

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Shaping 3-D solid objects using an UV laser and photopolymer,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 42.

Matsuo, M.

H. Oshita, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, M. Matsuo, “3-D display of magnetic resonance images by use of multiplex holography,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 25, 61–68 (1987).

Nakai, T.

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Fabrication of 3-dimensional objects using laser lithography,” Syst. Comput. Jpn. 20, 58–67 (1989) [Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J71-D, 416–422 (1988)].
[Crossref]

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Fabrication of a 3-dimensional plastic model with photopolymer from CT images,” Trans. Info. Process. Soc. Jpn. 30, 1441–1449 (1989).

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Shaping 3-D solid objects using an UV laser and photopolymer,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 42.

Nelson, P. C.

D. D. Robertson, P. S. Walker, J. W. Granholm, P. C. Nelson, P. J. Weiss, E. K. Fishman, D. Magid, “Design of custom hip stem prostheses using three-dimensional CT modeling,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11, 804–809 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nutt, K.

K. Nutt, “Linking CAD to desktop manufacturing,” Comput. Aided Eng. (January1991). pp. 40–44.

Onoe, M.

Y. Kuno, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, H. Sawada, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of left ventricle from two-dimensional echocardiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 23, 14–20 (1985).

M. Kaneko, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, T. Aizawa, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of coronary arteries obtained from coronary cineangiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 21, 73–79 (1983).

Oshita, H.

H. Oshita, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, M. Matsuo, “3-D display of magnetic resonance images by use of multiplex holography,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 25, 61–68 (1987).

Ott, H.-J.

H.-J. Ott, Darmstadt, “Laser-Stereolithographie vom CAD-Modell zum Prototyp,” Laser-Praxis (June1989). pp. L24–L26.

Robertson, D. D.

D. D. Robertson, P. S. Walker, J. W. Granholm, P. C. Nelson, P. J. Weiss, E. K. Fishman, D. Magid, “Design of custom hip stem prostheses using three-dimensional CT modeling,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11, 804–809 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawada, H.

Y. Kuno, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, H. Sawada, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of left ventricle from two-dimensional echocardiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 23, 14–20 (1985).

Schubert, R. A.

R. A. Schubert, “Stereolithography,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 2, 182–186 (1989).

Toriwaki, J.

T. Kuno, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, S. Yasuda, “Manufacturing artificial bone model using CT image data,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-117, 1–8 (1988).

H. Oshita, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, M. Matsuo, “3-D display of magnetic resonance images by use of multiplex holography,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 25, 61–68 (1987).

T. Yasuda, Y. Hashimoto, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, “Planning support system for craniofacial surgery using CT images,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J70-D, 2134–2140 (1987).

Vogel, J.

L. L. Fellingham, J. Vogel, C. Lau, P. Dev, “Interactive graphics and 3-D modeling for surgical planning and prosthesis and implant design,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 3, 132–142 (1986).

Walker, P. S.

D. D. Robertson, P. S. Walker, J. W. Granholm, P. C. Nelson, P. J. Weiss, E. K. Fishman, D. Magid, “Design of custom hip stem prostheses using three-dimensional CT modeling,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11, 804–809 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, P. J.

D. D. Robertson, P. S. Walker, J. W. Granholm, P. C. Nelson, P. J. Weiss, E. K. Fishman, D. Magid, “Design of custom hip stem prostheses using three-dimensional CT modeling,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11, 804–809 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wohlers, T. T.

T. T. Wohlers, “Practical prototypes,” Comput. Graphics World (March1990). pp. 73–80.

Yasuda, S.

T. Kuno, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, S. Yasuda, “Manufacturing artificial bone model using CT image data,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-117, 1–8 (1988).

Yasuda, T.

T. Yasuda, Y. Hashimoto, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, “Planning support system for craniofacial surgery using CT images,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J70-D, 2134–2140 (1987).

Yokoi, S.

T. Kuno, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, S. Yasuda, “Manufacturing artificial bone model using CT image data,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-117, 1–8 (1988).

T. Yasuda, Y. Hashimoto, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, “Planning support system for craniofacial surgery using CT images,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J70-D, 2134–2140 (1987).

H. Oshita, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, M. Matsuo, “3-D display of magnetic resonance images by use of multiplex holography,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 25, 61–68 (1987).

Comput. Aided Eng. (1)

K. Nutt, “Linking CAD to desktop manufacturing,” Comput. Aided Eng. (January1991). pp. 40–44.

Comput. Graphics World (1)

T. T. Wohlers, “Practical prototypes,” Comput. Graphics World (March1990). pp. 73–80.

Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. (2)

S. Eiho, “Measurement of three dimensional shapes in medicine,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-7, 1–7 (1987).

T. Kuno, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, S. Yasuda, “Manufacturing artificial bone model using CT image data,” Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Tech. Rep. IE87-117, 1–8 (1988).

J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. (1)

D. D. Robertson, P. S. Walker, J. W. Granholm, P. C. Nelson, P. J. Weiss, E. K. Fishman, D. Magid, “Design of custom hip stem prostheses using three-dimensional CT modeling,” J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 11, 804–809 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. (3)

M. Kaneko, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, T. Aizawa, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of coronary arteries obtained from coronary cineangiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 21, 73–79 (1983).

Y. Kuno, M. Onoe, J. Fujii, H. Sawada, K. Kato, “Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of left ventricle from two-dimensional echocardiograms,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 23, 14–20 (1985).

H. Oshita, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, M. Matsuo, “3-D display of magnetic resonance images by use of multiplex holography,” Jpn. J. Med. Electron. Biol. Eng. 25, 61–68 (1987).

Laser-Praxis (1)

H.-J. Ott, Darmstadt, “Laser-Stereolithographie vom CAD-Modell zum Prototyp,” Laser-Praxis (June1989). pp. L24–L26.

Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. (2)

R. A. Schubert, “Stereolithography,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 2, 182–186 (1989).

L. L. Fellingham, J. Vogel, C. Lau, P. Dev, “Interactive graphics and 3-D modeling for surgical planning and prosthesis and implant design,” Proc. Natl. Comput. Graphics Assoc. 3, 132–142 (1986).

Syst. Comput. Jpn. (1)

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Fabrication of 3-dimensional objects using laser lithography,” Syst. Comput. Jpn. 20, 58–67 (1989) [Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J71-D, 416–422 (1988)].
[Crossref]

Trans. Info. Process. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Fabrication of a 3-dimensional plastic model with photopolymer from CT images,” Trans. Info. Process. Soc. Jpn. 30, 1441–1449 (1989).

Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. (1)

T. Yasuda, Y. Hashimoto, S. Yokoi, J. Toriwaki, “Planning support system for craniofacial surgery using CT images,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. Jpn. J70-D, 2134–2140 (1987).

Other (1)

T. Nakai, Y. Marutani, “Shaping 3-D solid objects using an UV laser and photopolymer,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA 1986 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), p. 42.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic process of the optical fabrication method that uses an UV laser beam to cure successive layers of a liquid photopolymer. An elevator mechanism vertically lowers the platform and then the next liquid layer is recoated on the layer just cured.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three-dimensional descriptive methods from CT or MR images: (a) cube-shaped resolution method, (b) triangular surface method.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Third-order spline curve on the vertical section at θ. Each sandwiched area between adjoining CT or MR images is interpolated along the z axis in the cylindrical coordinate system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transformation of contour data from the orthogonal coordinate system to the cylindrical coordinate system at each 10° angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of line elements in the orthogonal coordinate system. A line element is made from a couple of data. Ul and Ur are connected to Dl and Dr, respectively, by linkage inequalities (1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the fabricating apparatus of the SOUP system that is also equipped with an engineering workstation SUN3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of unsolved linkage information. The dotted lines indicate the misconnected lines at X and the solid lines indicate the modified lines.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Three-dimensional life-size organ models: (a) 6-cm-high spine; (b) 8-cm-high cerebrum.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Three-dimensional 10-mm-long tooth model.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Landform model of Izuohshima island in Japan. The model was fabricated on a rectangular 20-cm-wide, 35-cm-long mesh.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fabricating Apparatus of the SOUP System

Tables Icon

Table 2 Workstation SUN3 of the SOUP System

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D l _ U r ,             D r _ U l .

Metrics