Abstract

To improve the access time of the optical disk, we have developed an integrated surface acoustic wave deflector. An end-coupled laser diode with a gradient-index lens, a half-wave plate, and a geodesic waveguide lens are integrated together with surface acoustic wave deflector on a Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide. Consequently optical disk tracking on a read-only disk is achieved experimentally with this newly developed deflector. Fabrication techniques for geodesic lenses are also described particularly with respect to polishing and waveguide fabrication.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Wave-guide optical deflector for optical disk tracking actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” in Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 37–40.
  3. A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Waveguide optical deflector for optical disk actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” Appl. Opt. 29, 247–250 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. Shimano, A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, “New design of geodesic lenses,” in Technical Digest of the Second Microoptics Conference/Eighth Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1989), paper G6.
  5. T. Shimano, A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, “New design for geodesic lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5060–5063 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Doughty, J. Smith, “Microcomputer-controlled polishing machine for very smooth and deep aspherical surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2421–2426 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, “Optical properties in titanium-diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693–3698 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive-index changes in Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Fukuma, J. Noda, “Optical properties in titanium-diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides and their coupling-to-a-fiber characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 19, 591–597 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. Ramaswamy, “Numerical field solution for an arbitrary asymmetrical graded-index planar waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 408–417 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Marcuse, “Bending losses of the asymmetric slab waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 2551–2563 (1971).
  12. W. Jiang, V. M. Ristic, “Study of anisotropy effect in planar lenses for integrated optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 849–862 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (2)

1988 (1)

W. Jiang, V. M. Ristic, “Study of anisotropy effect in planar lenses for integrated optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 849–862 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

V. Ramaswamy, “Numerical field solution for an arbitrary asymmetrical graded-index planar waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 408–417 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1978 (2)

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, “Optical properties in titanium-diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693–3698 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive-index changes in Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Bending losses of the asymmetric slab waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 2551–2563 (1971).

Arimoto, A.

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Waveguide optical deflector for optical disk actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” Appl. Opt. 29, 247–250 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shimano, A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, “New design for geodesic lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5060–5063 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shimano, A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, “New design of geodesic lenses,” in Technical Digest of the Second Microoptics Conference/Eighth Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1989), paper G6.

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Wave-guide optical deflector for optical disk tracking actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” in Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 37–40.

Doughty, G.

Fukuma, M.

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, “Optical properties in titanium-diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides and their coupling-to-a-fiber characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 19, 591–597 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, “Optical properties in titanium-diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693–3698 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, S.

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Waveguide optical deflector for optical disk actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” Appl. Opt. 29, 247–250 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Wave-guide optical deflector for optical disk tracking actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” in Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 37–40.

Iwasaki, H.

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, “Optical properties in titanium-diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693–3698 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

W. Jiang, V. M. Ristic, “Study of anisotropy effect in planar lenses for integrated optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 849–862 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, J.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Bending losses of the asymmetric slab waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 2551–2563 (1971).

Minakata, M.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive-index changes in Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, S.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive-index changes in Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Muraoka, K.

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Waveguide optical deflector for optical disk actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” Appl. Opt. 29, 247–250 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shimano, A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, “New design for geodesic lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5060–5063 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shimano, A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, “New design of geodesic lenses,” in Technical Digest of the Second Microoptics Conference/Eighth Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1989), paper G6.

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Wave-guide optical deflector for optical disk tracking actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” in Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 37–40.

Nishihara, H.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, “Optical properties in titanium-diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides and their coupling-to-a-fiber characteristics,” Appl. Opt. 19, 591–597 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, “Optical properties in titanium-diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693–3698 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

V. Ramaswamy, “Numerical field solution for an arbitrary asymmetrical graded-index planar waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 408–417 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ristic, V. M.

W. Jiang, V. M. Ristic, “Study of anisotropy effect in planar lenses for integrated optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 849–862 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive-index changes in Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Senda, K.

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Waveguide optical deflector for optical disk actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” Appl. Opt. 29, 247–250 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Wave-guide optical deflector for optical disk tracking actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” in Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 37–40.

Shibata, M.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive-index changes in Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shimano, T.

T. Shimano, A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, “New design for geodesic lenses,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5060–5063 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Waveguide optical deflector for optical disk actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” Appl. Opt. 29, 247–250 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shimano, A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, “New design of geodesic lenses,” in Technical Digest of the Second Microoptics Conference/Eighth Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1989), paper G6.

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Wave-guide optical deflector for optical disk tracking actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” in Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 37–40.

Smith, J.

Suhara, T.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ura, S.

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, “Bending losses of the asymmetric slab waveguide,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 50, 2551–2563 (1971).

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

V. Ramaswamy, “Numerical field solution for an arbitrary asymmetrical graded-index planar waveguide,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 408–417 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “An integrated-optic disk pickup device,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 913–918 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, “Optical properties in titanium-diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693–3698 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, “Precise determination of refractive-index changes in Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677–4682 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. Jiang, V. M. Ristic, “Study of anisotropy effect in planar lenses for integrated optics,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 849–862 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, T. Shimano, K. Senda, S. Ishikawa, “Wave-guide optical deflector for optical disk tracking actuator using surface acoustic wave device,” in Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of OSA 1989 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 37–40.

T. Shimano, A. Arimoto, K. Muraoka, “New design of geodesic lenses,” in Technical Digest of the Second Microoptics Conference/Eighth Topical Meeting on Gradient-Index Optical Imaging Systems (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Tokyo, 1989), paper G6.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical systems of the integrated SAW deflector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Miniaturization by using a GRIN lens and a half-wave plate: (a) the ellipsoidal far-field distribution of a laser diode, (b) butt-coupling, and (c) end coupling with a GRIN lens and a half-wave plate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscopic image of the center of a diamond turned Y-cut LiNbO3 surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between surface roughness and propagation loss.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polishing machine.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the profile error before and after polishing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Increase in the refractive index of the guide layer as a result of titanium diffusion.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationship between output light power and propagation length with the experimental setup for the measurement. PD, photodetector.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Converging spot of the geodesic lens: (a) converging spot, (b) spot profile.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Integrated SAW deflector.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Optical systems used for the tracking experiment.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Readout signal from an optical disk. The track pitch of the optical disk is 3 μm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Efficiency of the Integrated SAW Deflector

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Table 2 Specifications of the SAW Deflector

Equations (1)

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d 2 = ( d - d 1 ) x

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