Abstract

This paper describes the fabrication and characteristics of a gradient-index microlens by using a low-stress, high-transmittance film that is deposited by ion-beam sputtering. The key techniques in forming this film are sputtering with N2 gas, performing ion-beam irradiation during deposition, and stabilizing the deposition acceleration current. An integrated device consisting of the microlens and a laser diode is demonstrated. The focusing spot size is 2 μm × 3 μm at a distance of 11 μm from the lens facet.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens Fabricated by the Planar Process,” in Proceedings of the Third Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 11–13 July 1990 (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 134–135.
  2. J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens fabricated by the planar process,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-9, 571–576 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens integrated with a laser diode by using the planar process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1991 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 316.
  4. M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens Array Prepared from Deep Electromigration,” Electron. Lett., 17, pp. 452–453 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. D. Khoe, H. G. Kock, J. A. Luijendijk, C. H. J. van den Brekel, D. Kuppers, “Plasma CVD Prepared SiO2/Si3N4 Graded Index Lenses Integrated in Windows of Laser Diode Packages,” in Proceeding of the Seventh European Conference on Optical Communications, 1981 (Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, 1981), pp. 7.6.1–4.
  6. E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, “The effect of ion irradiation on the adherence of germanium films,” Thin Solid Films 52, 445–452 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Shimokawa, H. Tanaka, Y. Uenishi, R. Sawada, “Reactive-fast-atom beam etching of GaAs using Cl2 gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2613–2618 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Sawada, H. Tanaka, O. Ohguchi, J. Shimada, S. Hara, “Fabrication of Active Integrated Optical Micro-Encoder,” in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Nara, Japan, 30 January–2 February 1991 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 233–238.

1991 (1)

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens fabricated by the planar process,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-9, 571–576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

F. Shimokawa, H. Tanaka, Y. Uenishi, R. Sawada, “Reactive-fast-atom beam etching of GaAs using Cl2 gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2613–2618 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens Array Prepared from Deep Electromigration,” Electron. Lett., 17, pp. 452–453 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, “The effect of ion irradiation on the adherence of germanium films,” Thin Solid Films 52, 445–452 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hara, S.

R. Sawada, H. Tanaka, O. Ohguchi, J. Shimada, S. Hara, “Fabrication of Active Integrated Optical Micro-Encoder,” in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Nara, Japan, 30 January–2 February 1991 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 233–238.

Hirsch, E. H.

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, “The effect of ion irradiation on the adherence of germanium films,” Thin Solid Films 52, 445–452 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens Array Prepared from Deep Electromigration,” Electron. Lett., 17, pp. 452–453 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

G. D. Khoe, H. G. Kock, J. A. Luijendijk, C. H. J. van den Brekel, D. Kuppers, “Plasma CVD Prepared SiO2/Si3N4 Graded Index Lenses Integrated in Windows of Laser Diode Packages,” in Proceeding of the Seventh European Conference on Optical Communications, 1981 (Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, 1981), pp. 7.6.1–4.

Kock, H. G.

G. D. Khoe, H. G. Kock, J. A. Luijendijk, C. H. J. van den Brekel, D. Kuppers, “Plasma CVD Prepared SiO2/Si3N4 Graded Index Lenses Integrated in Windows of Laser Diode Packages,” in Proceeding of the Seventh European Conference on Optical Communications, 1981 (Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, 1981), pp. 7.6.1–4.

Kuppers, D.

G. D. Khoe, H. G. Kock, J. A. Luijendijk, C. H. J. van den Brekel, D. Kuppers, “Plasma CVD Prepared SiO2/Si3N4 Graded Index Lenses Integrated in Windows of Laser Diode Packages,” in Proceeding of the Seventh European Conference on Optical Communications, 1981 (Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, 1981), pp. 7.6.1–4.

Luijendijk, J. A.

G. D. Khoe, H. G. Kock, J. A. Luijendijk, C. H. J. van den Brekel, D. Kuppers, “Plasma CVD Prepared SiO2/Si3N4 Graded Index Lenses Integrated in Windows of Laser Diode Packages,” in Proceeding of the Seventh European Conference on Optical Communications, 1981 (Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, 1981), pp. 7.6.1–4.

Ohguchi, O.

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens fabricated by the planar process,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-9, 571–576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens Fabricated by the Planar Process,” in Proceedings of the Third Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 11–13 July 1990 (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 134–135.

R. Sawada, H. Tanaka, O. Ohguchi, J. Shimada, S. Hara, “Fabrication of Active Integrated Optical Micro-Encoder,” in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Nara, Japan, 30 January–2 February 1991 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 233–238.

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens integrated with a laser diode by using the planar process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1991 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 316.

Oikawa, M.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens Array Prepared from Deep Electromigration,” Electron. Lett., 17, pp. 452–453 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sanada, T.

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens Array Prepared from Deep Electromigration,” Electron. Lett., 17, pp. 452–453 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sawada, R.

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens fabricated by the planar process,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-9, 571–576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Shimokawa, H. Tanaka, Y. Uenishi, R. Sawada, “Reactive-fast-atom beam etching of GaAs using Cl2 gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2613–2618 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens integrated with a laser diode by using the planar process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1991 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 316.

R. Sawada, H. Tanaka, O. Ohguchi, J. Shimada, S. Hara, “Fabrication of Active Integrated Optical Micro-Encoder,” in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Nara, Japan, 30 January–2 February 1991 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 233–238.

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens Fabricated by the Planar Process,” in Proceedings of the Third Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 11–13 July 1990 (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 134–135.

Shimada, J.

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens fabricated by the planar process,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-9, 571–576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens Fabricated by the Planar Process,” in Proceedings of the Third Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 11–13 July 1990 (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 134–135.

R. Sawada, H. Tanaka, O. Ohguchi, J. Shimada, S. Hara, “Fabrication of Active Integrated Optical Micro-Encoder,” in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Nara, Japan, 30 January–2 February 1991 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 233–238.

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens integrated with a laser diode by using the planar process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1991 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 316.

Shimokawa, F.

F. Shimokawa, H. Tanaka, Y. Uenishi, R. Sawada, “Reactive-fast-atom beam etching of GaAs using Cl2 gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2613–2618 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

F. Shimokawa, H. Tanaka, Y. Uenishi, R. Sawada, “Reactive-fast-atom beam etching of GaAs using Cl2 gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2613–2618 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Sawada, H. Tanaka, O. Ohguchi, J. Shimada, S. Hara, “Fabrication of Active Integrated Optical Micro-Encoder,” in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Nara, Japan, 30 January–2 February 1991 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 233–238.

Uenishi, Y.

F. Shimokawa, H. Tanaka, Y. Uenishi, R. Sawada, “Reactive-fast-atom beam etching of GaAs using Cl2 gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2613–2618 (1989).
[CrossRef]

van den Brekel, C. H. J.

G. D. Khoe, H. G. Kock, J. A. Luijendijk, C. H. J. van den Brekel, D. Kuppers, “Plasma CVD Prepared SiO2/Si3N4 Graded Index Lenses Integrated in Windows of Laser Diode Packages,” in Proceeding of the Seventh European Conference on Optical Communications, 1981 (Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, 1981), pp. 7.6.1–4.

Varga, I. K.

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, “The effect of ion irradiation on the adherence of germanium films,” Thin Solid Films 52, 445–452 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Oikawa, K. Iga, T. Sanada, “Distributed-Index Planar Microlens Array Prepared from Deep Electromigration,” Electron. Lett., 17, pp. 452–453 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens fabricated by the planar process,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-9, 571–576 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Shimokawa, H. Tanaka, Y. Uenishi, R. Sawada, “Reactive-fast-atom beam etching of GaAs using Cl2 gas,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2613–2618 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, “The effect of ion irradiation on the adherence of germanium films,” Thin Solid Films 52, 445–452 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens Fabricated by the Planar Process,” in Proceedings of the Third Optoelectronics Conference, Chiba, Japan, 11–13 July 1990 (Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Tokyo, 1990), pp. 134–135.

R. Sawada, H. Tanaka, O. Ohguchi, J. Shimada, S. Hara, “Fabrication of Active Integrated Optical Micro-Encoder,” in Proceedings of the Fourth IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Nara, Japan, 30 January–2 February 1991 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 233–238.

J. Shimada, O. Ohguchi, R. Sawada, “Microlens integrated with a laser diode by using the planar process,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 1991 (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), p. 316.

G. D. Khoe, H. G. Kock, J. A. Luijendijk, C. H. J. van den Brekel, D. Kuppers, “Plasma CVD Prepared SiO2/Si3N4 Graded Index Lenses Integrated in Windows of Laser Diode Packages,” in Proceeding of the Seventh European Conference on Optical Communications, 1981 (Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, 1981), pp. 7.6.1–4.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the proposed microlens integrated with a LD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the IBS system for depositing gradient-index film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance dependence on wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stress dependence on deposition temperature. The substrate is a striped Si.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stress dependence on irradiation acceleration voltage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Stress dependence on irradiation acceleration current.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of the refractive index and the deposition rate on acceleration current. Open circles represent the deposition rate, and solid circles represent the refractive index.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of N-atom concentration on the acceleration current.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Etched depth profile of the Si substrate located on the target in the y direction.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependence of the refractive index and deposition rate on the target position. Solid circles represent the refractive index, and open circles represent the deposition rate.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Vertical profile of the atomic concentrations of Si, O and N.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fabrication process of a microlens integrated with a LD.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Focusing pattern of a vertical lens. The lens length is 5 μm, the lens film thickness is 11 μm, and the NA is 0.45.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Dependence of the FWHM and RMSA on fabrication error. The solid curve represents the numerically calculated RMSA, and the solid circles represent the experimental FWHM.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Focal length dependence on fabrication error. The solid circles represent experimental results, and the curve represents numerically calculated results.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Scanning electron microscopy photograph of a microlens integrated with a LD. The width of the LD waveguide is 30 μm. The horizontal aperture of the lens is 50 μm, and the vertical aperture is 10 μm.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Focusing pattern of a microlens integrated with a LD. The FWHM of the focusing spot is 2 μm in the horizontal direction and 3 μm in the vertical direction.

Tables (1)

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Table I Effect of Gases on Film Characteristics

Equations (4)

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σ = σ t + σ i .
σ = E b 2 δ 3 ( 1 - v ) d L 2 ,
σ t = ( α s - α f ) E f ( t - T ) / ( 1 - ν f ) ,
n ( x ) = n 0 L + f - ( x 2 + f 2 ) 1 / 2 L ,

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