Abstract

The relevance of the type of atmosphere used during the annealing of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 planar waveguides is discussed. The experimental evidence, based on a comparison of the refractive-index profiles of waveguides annealed under wet O2, dry O2, or ambient atmospheres, with various gas flow rates, suggests that the atmosphere type does not influence the properties of the resulting waveguide.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Loni, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 come of age,” waveguides Laser Focus World 27, 183–188 (1991).
  2. A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Very low loss proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides with a substantially restored electro-optic effect,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.
  3. M. Rottschalk, A. Rasch, W. Karthe, “Electro-optic behavior of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 9, 19–23 (1988).
  4. P. G. Suchoski, M. M. Abou el Leil, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, “Stable low-loss proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguide devices with no electro-optic degradation,” Opt. Lett. 13, 1050–1052 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, “Dependence of refractive index on hydrogen concentration in proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593–601 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. L. Jackel, “Suppression of outdiffusion in titanium diffused LiNbO3: a review,” J. Opt. Commun. 3, 82–85 (1982).
  7. A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides: the effects of post-exchange annealing and buffered melts as determined by infrared spectroscopy, optical waveguide measurements, and hydrogen isotopic exchange reactions,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911–919 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Finak, H. Jerominek, Z. Opilski, K. Wotjala, “Planar diffusion glass waveguides obtained by immersing in molten KNO3,” Opt. Acta 7, 11–17 (1982).

1991 (2)

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, “Dependence of refractive index on hydrogen concentration in proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593–601 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. Loni, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 come of age,” waveguides Laser Focus World 27, 183–188 (1991).

1989 (1)

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides: the effects of post-exchange annealing and buffered melts as determined by infrared spectroscopy, optical waveguide measurements, and hydrogen isotopic exchange reactions,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911–919 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

1982 (2)

J. Finak, H. Jerominek, Z. Opilski, K. Wotjala, “Planar diffusion glass waveguides obtained by immersing in molten KNO3,” Opt. Acta 7, 11–17 (1982).

J. L. Jackel, “Suppression of outdiffusion in titanium diffused LiNbO3: a review,” J. Opt. Commun. 3, 82–85 (1982).

Abou el Leil, M. M.

Burns, W. K.

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, “Dependence of refractive index on hydrogen concentration in proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593–601 (1991).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R. M.

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides: the effects of post-exchange annealing and buffered melts as determined by infrared spectroscopy, optical waveguide measurements, and hydrogen isotopic exchange reactions,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911–919 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Very low loss proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides with a substantially restored electro-optic effect,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.

Finak, J.

J. Finak, H. Jerominek, Z. Opilski, K. Wotjala, “Planar diffusion glass waveguides obtained by immersing in molten KNO3,” Opt. Acta 7, 11–17 (1982).

Findakly, T. K.

Greenblatt, A. S.

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, “Dependence of refractive index on hydrogen concentration in proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593–601 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hay, G.

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides: the effects of post-exchange annealing and buffered melts as determined by infrared spectroscopy, optical waveguide measurements, and hydrogen isotopic exchange reactions,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911–919 (1989).
[Crossref]

Howerton, M. M.

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, “Dependence of refractive index on hydrogen concentration in proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593–601 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, “Suppression of outdiffusion in titanium diffused LiNbO3: a review,” J. Opt. Commun. 3, 82–85 (1982).

Jerominek, H.

J. Finak, H. Jerominek, Z. Opilski, K. Wotjala, “Planar diffusion glass waveguides obtained by immersing in molten KNO3,” Opt. Acta 7, 11–17 (1982).

Karthe, W.

M. Rottschalk, A. Rasch, W. Karthe, “Electro-optic behavior of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 9, 19–23 (1988).

Leonberger, F. J.

Loni, A.

A. Loni, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 come of age,” waveguides Laser Focus World 27, 183–188 (1991).

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides: the effects of post-exchange annealing and buffered melts as determined by infrared spectroscopy, optical waveguide measurements, and hydrogen isotopic exchange reactions,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911–919 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Very low loss proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides with a substantially restored electro-optic effect,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.

Opilski, Z.

J. Finak, H. Jerominek, Z. Opilski, K. Wotjala, “Planar diffusion glass waveguides obtained by immersing in molten KNO3,” Opt. Acta 7, 11–17 (1982).

Rasch, A.

M. Rottschalk, A. Rasch, W. Karthe, “Electro-optic behavior of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 9, 19–23 (1988).

Rottschalk, M.

M. Rottschalk, A. Rasch, W. Karthe, “Electro-optic behavior of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 9, 19–23 (1988).

Skeath, P. R.

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, “Dependence of refractive index on hydrogen concentration in proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593–601 (1991).
[Crossref]

Suchoski, P. G.

Winfield, J. M.

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides: the effects of post-exchange annealing and buffered melts as determined by infrared spectroscopy, optical waveguide measurements, and hydrogen isotopic exchange reactions,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911–919 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Very low loss proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides with a substantially restored electro-optic effect,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.

Wotjala, K.

J. Finak, H. Jerominek, Z. Opilski, K. Wotjala, “Planar diffusion glass waveguides obtained by immersing in molten KNO3,” Opt. Acta 7, 11–17 (1982).

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Loni, G. Hay, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides: the effects of post-exchange annealing and buffered melts as determined by infrared spectroscopy, optical waveguide measurements, and hydrogen isotopic exchange reactions,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 911–919 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Howerton, W. K. Burns, P. R. Skeath, A. S. Greenblatt, “Dependence of refractive index on hydrogen concentration in proton exchanged LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 593–601 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Commun. (2)

J. L. Jackel, “Suppression of outdiffusion in titanium diffused LiNbO3: a review,” J. Opt. Commun. 3, 82–85 (1982).

M. Rottschalk, A. Rasch, W. Karthe, “Electro-optic behavior of proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Commun. 9, 19–23 (1988).

Opt. Acta (1)

J. Finak, H. Jerominek, Z. Opilski, K. Wotjala, “Planar diffusion glass waveguides obtained by immersing in molten KNO3,” Opt. Acta 7, 11–17 (1982).

Opt. Lett. (1)

waveguides Laser Focus World (1)

A. Loni, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 come of age,” waveguides Laser Focus World 27, 183–188 (1991).

Other (1)

A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, “Very low loss proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides with a substantially restored electro-optic effect,” in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Waveguide refractive-index profiles (λ = 0.6328 μm) of samples X1–X4 before and after annealing (360 °C for 45 min followed by a further annealing of 1 h 45 min) under ambient, wet, or dry oxygen atmospheres (see Table 1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveguide refractive-index profiles (λ = 0.6328 μm) of samples of X5–X7 before and after annealing (400 °C for 45 min followed by a further annealing of 2 h 30 min) under ambient or wet oxygen atmospheres (see Table 1).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Atmospheres and Flow Rates Used for Annealing Experiments

Tables Icon

Table 2 Mode Effective Indices Neff and Surface Indices N0a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Mode Effective Indices and Depths after Annealinga

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