Abstract

We identify potential candidates for achieving x-ray lasing in Li-like ions by utilizing Ly-α or He-α radiation to photopump an electron resonantly from the n = 2 state of the Li-like ion to the n = 4 or 5 state with subsequent lasing between the n = 5 → n = 4, n = 5 → n = 3, or n = 4 → n = 3 states of the Li-like ion. To identify potential resonances we calculate all the n = 2 → n = 4 and 5 transitions in Li-like ions that look favorable to pump and identify the resonances that are possible with Ly-α or He-α radiation. Many laser candidates are identified with the baron-pumped Na scheme being modeled as it appears to be an extremely promising candidate that could be driven by pulsed power machines or optical lasers of modest energy. Since gain has already been observed in Li-like ions because of recombination one can also combine the advantages of resonant photopumping with recombination to produce an improved Li-like laser.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. C. Elton, X-ray Lasers (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 99–198.
  2. D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray amplification of 50.3 Å in nickellike ytterbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1858–1863 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. A. Levykin, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, S. S. Churilov, “Population inversion of Al xi in a laser plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 308–311 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, “Soft x-ray amplification by lithiumlike ions in recombining hot plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 563–573 (1987).
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  12. D. Kim, C. H. Skinner, A. Wouters, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, S. Suckewer, “Soft x-ray amplification in lithiumlike Al xi (154 Å) and Si xii (129 Å),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 115–125 (1989).
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  13. J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
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  14. G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaegle, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for X-UV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
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  15. A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobelman, E. A. Yukov, “Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadening lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. A. Bhagavatula, “Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. V. Vinogradov, B. N. Chichkov, E. A. Yukov, “Resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for far ultraviolet lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 444–449 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “Absolute line intensities for photon pumping of x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2817–2819 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, K. G. Whitney, “Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum xii and neon ix,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 ((1982)).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, “Kinetics of x-ray lasing by resonant photoexcitation: fundamentals of pumping power and gain for the Na x–Ne ix system,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2976–2983 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Monier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, “Demonstration of quasiresonant x-ray photoexcitation in a laser-created plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2508–2515 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. Nilsen, “A 33 angston laboratory x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 72, 371–376 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Nilsen, “Resonantly photo-pumped Ni-like Er x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. 40, 5440–5443 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “A neon-like x-ray laser photoresonant pumping scheme,” Opt. Commun. 74, 202–206 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Nilsen, “A Ne-like Cu laser resonantly photo-pumped by a He-like Mg line,” Opt. Commun. 78, 51–57 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Nilsen, “A vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 798–800 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “Prospects for resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 599–610 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing in Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Nilsen, “Ni-like x-ray lasers resonantly photo-pumped by Ly–α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 305–308 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. J. Nilsen, “Resonantly photo-pumped Ni-like Tl x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 43, 596–598 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.
  37. J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, “Analysis of the resonantly photo-pumped Na–Ne x-ray laser scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4591–4598 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. J. Nilsen, “A Ne-like Fe laser resonantly photo-pumped by Ne x Ly-α radiation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 46, 547–556 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  39. N. Qi, M. Krishnan, “Photopumping of a C iii ultraviolet laser by Mn vi line radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2051–2054 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  42. J. H. Scofield, “Energy levels of hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions,” in Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report PUB-490 Revised, D. Vaughan, ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. 1, 1986), pp. 2-23–2-25.
  43. R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstoms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 16, Suppl. 1, 1–1678 (1987).
  44. B. C. Fawcett, “Classifications of highly ionized emission lines due to transitions from singly and double excited levels in sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine,” J. Phys. B 3, 1152–1163 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  45. B. C. Fawcett, R. A. Hardcastle, G. Tondello, “New classifications of emission lines of highly ionized phosphorus and sulfur,” J. Phys. B 3, 564–571 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  46. D. W. Phillion, C. J. Hailey, “Brightness and duration of x-ray line sources irradiated with intense 0.53 μm light at 60 and 120 ps pulse width,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4886–4896 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  48. J. Nilsen, “Radiative-hydro modeling and atomic data bases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 168, 51–58 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1991 (4)

J. Nilsen, “Ni-like x-ray lasers resonantly photo-pumped by Ly–α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 305–308 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, “Resonantly photo-pumped Ni-like Tl x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 43, 596–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, “Analysis of the resonantly photo-pumped Na–Ne x-ray laser scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4591–4598 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, “A Ne-like Fe laser resonantly photo-pumped by Ne x Ly-α radiation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 46, 547–556 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (7)

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “Prospects for resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 599–610 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing in Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaegle, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for X-UV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “A Ne-like Cu laser resonantly photo-pumped by a He-like Mg line,” Opt. Commun. 78, 51–57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “A vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 798–800 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (5)

D. Kim, C. H. Skinner, A. Wouters, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, S. Suckewer, “Soft x-ray amplification in lithiumlike Al xi (154 Å) and Si xii (129 Å),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 115–125 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “A 33 angston laboratory x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 72, 371–376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “Resonantly photo-pumped Ni-like Er x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. 40, 5440–5443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “A neon-like x-ray laser photoresonant pumping scheme,” Opt. Commun. 74, 202–206 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (4)

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Monier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, “Demonstration of quasiresonant x-ray photoexcitation in a laser-created plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2508–2515 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, “Radiative-hydro modeling and atomic data bases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 168, 51–58 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray amplification of 50.3 Å in nickellike ytterbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1858–1863 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (9)

P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, “Soft x-ray amplification by lithiumlike ions in recombining hot plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 563–573 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstoms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 16, Suppl. 1, 1–1678 (1987).

N. Qi, M. Krishnan, “Photopumping of a C iii ultraviolet laser by Mn vi line radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2051–2054 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “Absolute line intensities for photon pumping of x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2817–2819 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Phillion, C. J. Hailey, “Brightness and duration of x-ray line sources irradiated with intense 0.53 μm light at 60 and 120 ps pulse width,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4886–4896 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (4)

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, “Kinetics of x-ray lasing by resonant photoexcitation: fundamentals of pumping power and gain for the Na x–Ne ix system,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2976–2983 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. V. Vinogradov, B. N. Chichkov, E. A. Yukov, “Resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for far ultraviolet lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 444–449 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, K. G. Whitney, “Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum xii and neon ix,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 ((1982)).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. A. Levykin, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, S. S. Churilov, “Population inversion of Al xi in a laser plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 308–311 (1976).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Bhagavatula, “Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobelman, E. A. Yukov, “Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadening lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

B. C. Fawcett, “Classifications of highly ionized emission lines due to transitions from singly and double excited levels in sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine,” J. Phys. B 3, 1152–1163 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Fawcett, R. A. Hardcastle, G. Tondello, “New classifications of emission lines of highly ionized phosphorus and sulfur,” J. Phys. B 3, 564–571 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alley, W. E.

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Apruzese, J. P.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, “Kinetics of x-ray lasing by resonant photoexcitation: fundamentals of pumping power and gain for the Na x–Ne ix system,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2976–2983 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, K. G. Whitney, “Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum xii and neon ix,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 ((1982)).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Bhagavatula, V. A.

V. A. Bhagavatula, “Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Boehly, T.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkhalter, P. G.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. M.

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carillon, A.

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaegle, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for X-UV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, “Soft x-ray amplification by lithiumlike ions in recombining hot plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 563–573 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandler, E. A.

J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, “Analysis of the resonantly photo-pumped Na–Ne x-ray laser scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4591–4598 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapline, G.

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chenais-Popovics, C.

P. Monier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, “Demonstration of quasiresonant x-ray photoexcitation in a laser-created plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2508–2515 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichkov, B. N.

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “Prospects for resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 599–610 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “A neon-like x-ray laser photoresonant pumping scheme,” Opt. Commun. 74, 202–206 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vinogradov, B. N. Chichkov, E. A. Yukov, “Resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for far ultraviolet lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 444–449 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Churilov, S. S.

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. A. Levykin, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, S. S. Churilov, “Population inversion of Al xi in a laser plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 308–311 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R. W.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Cooperstein, G.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, R.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craxton, R. S.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, “Kinetics of x-ray lasing by resonant photoexcitation: fundamentals of pumping power and gain for the Na x–Ne ix system,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2976–2983 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, K. G. Whitney, “Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum xii and neon ix,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 ((1982)).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Derzon, D. K.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Eckart, M. J.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elton, R. C.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “Absolute line intensities for photon pumping of x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2817–2819 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Elton, X-ray Lasers (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 99–198.

Epstein, R.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fawcett, B. C.

B. C. Fawcett, R. A. Hardcastle, G. Tondello, “New classifications of emission lines of highly ionized phosphorus and sulfur,” J. Phys. B 3, 564–571 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Fawcett, “Classifications of highly ionized emission lines due to transitions from singly and double excited levels in sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine,” J. Phys. B 3, 1152–1163 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Fields, D. J.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E. E.

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “Prospects for resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 599–610 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “A neon-like x-ray laser photoresonant pumping scheme,” Opt. Commun. 74, 202–206 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

P. Monier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, “Demonstration of quasiresonant x-ray photoexcitation in a laser-created plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2508–2515 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geindre, J. P.

P. Monier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, “Demonstration of quasiresonant x-ray photoexcitation in a laser-created plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2508–2515 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldsmith, S.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, I. P.

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Griem, H. R.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guennou, H.

Hagelstein, P. L.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hailey, C. J.

D. W. Phillion, C. J. Hailey, “Brightness and duration of x-ray line sources irradiated with intense 0.53 μm light at 60 and 120 ps pulse width,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4886–4896 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hardcastle, R. A.

B. C. Fawcett, R. A. Hardcastle, G. Tondello, “New classifications of emission lines of highly ionized phosphorus and sulfur,” J. Phys. B 3, 564–571 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hatcher, C. W.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawryluk, A. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazi, A. U.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinshelwood, D. D.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, C. J.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, W. M.

Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing in Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hussey, T. W.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Jaegle, P.

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaegle, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for X-UV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, “Soft x-ray amplification by lithiumlike ions in recombining hot plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 563–573 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jamelot, G.

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaegle, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for X-UV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, “Soft x-ray amplification by lithiumlike ions in recombining hot plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 563–573 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jung, R. K.

P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kauffman, R. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keane, C.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keane, C. J.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray amplification of 50.3 Å in nickellike ytterbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1858–1863 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, R. L.

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstoms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 16, Suppl. 1, 1–1678 (1987).

Key, M. H.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiehn, G. P.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

Klisnick, A.

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaegle, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for X-UV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, “Soft x-ray amplification by lithiumlike ions in recombining hot plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 563–573 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, J.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kononov, E. Ya.

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. A. Levykin, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, S. S. Churilov, “Population inversion of Al xi in a laser plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 308–311 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Koshelev, K. N.

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. A. Levykin, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, S. S. Churilov, “Population inversion of Al xi in a laser plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 308–311 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, M.

N. Qi, M. Krishnan, “Photopumping of a C iii ultraviolet laser by Mn vi line radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2051–2054 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunasz, P.

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. W.

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T. N.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “Absolute line intensities for photon pumping of x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2817–2819 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. T.

Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing in Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Levykin, Yu. A.

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. A. Levykin, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, S. S. Churilov, “Population inversion of Al xi in a laser plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 308–311 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

London, R. A.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray amplification of 50.3 Å in nickellike ytterbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1858–1863 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, S. F.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

MacGowan, B.

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacGowan, B. J.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray amplification of 50.3 Å in nickellike ytterbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1858–1863 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, D. L.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray amplification of 50.3 Å in nickellike ytterbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1858–1863 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matzen, M. K.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Maxon, S.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray amplification of 50.3 Å in nickellike ytterbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1858–1863 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mayers, D. F.

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, E. J.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

McGurn, J. S.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

McKenzie, B. J.

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

McLean, E. A.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medecki, H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehlman, G.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molander, W. A.

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “Absolute line intensities for photon pumping of x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2817–2819 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monier, P.

P. Monier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, “Demonstration of quasiresonant x-ray photoexcitation in a laser-created plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2508–2515 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, J. C.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosher, D.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nash, J. K.

Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing in Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, “Analysis of the resonantly photo-pumped Na–Ne x-ray laser scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4591–4598 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, “Ni-like x-ray lasers resonantly photo-pumped by Ly–α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 305–308 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, “Resonantly photo-pumped Ni-like Tl x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 43, 596–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “A Ne-like Fe laser resonantly photo-pumped by Ne x Ly-α radiation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 46, 547–556 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “A vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 798–800 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, “A Ne-like Cu laser resonantly photo-pumped by a He-like Mg line,” Opt. Commun. 78, 51–57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, “Resonantly photo-pumped Ni-like Er x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. 40, 5440–5443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “A 33 angston laboratory x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 72, 371–376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “Radiative-hydro modeling and atomic data bases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 168, 51–58 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Norrington, P. H.

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Norton, B. A.

B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadening lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Osterheld, A. L.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ottinger, P. F.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peacock, N. J.

B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadening lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pert, G. J.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillion, D. W.

D. W. Phillion, C. J. Hailey, “Brightness and duration of x-ray line sources irradiated with intense 0.53 μm light at 60 and 120 ps pulse width,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4886–4896 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pleasance, L. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porter, J. L.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Pyper, N. C.

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Qi, N.

N. Qi, M. Krishnan, “Photopumping of a C iii ultraviolet laser by Mn vi line radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2051–2054 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rambach, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Regan, C.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogerson, J. E.

J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, S. J.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, M. D.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruggles, L. E.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Russotto, M.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadaat, S.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherrer, V. E.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, J. H.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Scofield, “Energy levels of hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions,” in Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Report PUB-490 Revised, D. Vaughan, ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif. 1, 1986), pp. 2-23–2-25.

Shimkaveg, G.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidelnikov, Yu. V.

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. A. Levykin, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, S. S. Churilov, “Population inversion of Al xi in a laser plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 308–311 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, C. H.

D. Kim, C. H. Skinner, A. Wouters, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, S. Suckewer, “Soft x-ray amplification in lithiumlike Al xi (154 Å) and Si xii (129 Å),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 115–125 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobelman, I. I.

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobelman, E. A. Yukov, “Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Spielman, R. B.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Stephanakis, S. J.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stone, G. F.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suckewer, S.

D. Kim, C. H. Skinner, A. Wouters, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, S. Suckewer, “Soft x-ray amplification in lithiumlike Al xi (154 Å) and Si xii (129 Å),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 115–125 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sureau, A.

Thornhill, J. W.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tomie, T.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tondello, G.

B. C. Fawcett, R. A. Hardcastle, G. Tondello, “New classifications of emission lines of highly ionized phosphorus and sulfur,” J. Phys. B 3, 564–571 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, R. E.

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valeo, E.

Vargas, M.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Vinogradov, A. V.

A. V. Vinogradov, B. N. Chichkov, E. A. Yukov, “Resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for far ultraviolet lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 444–449 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobelman, E. A. Yukov, “Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Voorhees, D.

D. Kim, C. H. Skinner, A. Wouters, E. Valeo, D. Voorhees, S. Suckewer, “Soft x-ray amplification in lithiumlike Al xi (154 Å) and Si xii (129 Å),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 115–125 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weaver, T. A.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisheit, J. C.

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Welch, B. L.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Whelan, D. A.

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, D. A. Whelan, “Soft x-ray amplification of 50.3 Å in nickellike ytterbium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1858–1863 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, K. G.

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, K. G. Whitney, “Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum xii and neon ix,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 ((1982)).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, B. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willi, O.

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wouters, A.

Yaakobi, B.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, F. C.

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yukov, E. A.

A. V. Vinogradov, B. N. Chichkov, E. A. Yukov, “Resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for far ultraviolet lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 444–449 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobelman, E. A. Yukov, “Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

J. Nilsen, “Radiative-hydro modeling and atomic data bases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 168, 51–58 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, P. Jaegle, “Recombination scheme in lithium-like ions for X-UV amplification,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 239–246 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. C. Young, S. J. Stephanakis, V. E. Scherrer, B. L. Welch, G. Mehlman, P. G. Burkhalter, J. P. Apruzese, “Implosion of sodium-bearing capillary-discharge plasmas for x-ray laser experiments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1053–1055 (1987).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

S. J. Stephanakis, J. P. Apruzese, P. G. Burkhalter, G. Cooperstein, J. Davis, D. D. Hinshelwood, G. Mehlman, D. Mosher, P. F. Ottinger, V. E. Scherrer, J. W. Thornhill, B. L. Welch, F. C. Young, “Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft x-ray laser,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 472–481 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, K. G. Whitney, “Plasma conditions required for attainment of maximum gain in resonantly photo-pumped aluminum xii and neon ix,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4020–4027 ((1982)).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Bhagavatula, “Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. B (3)

B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadening lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Fawcett, “Classifications of highly ionized emission lines due to transitions from singly and double excited levels in sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine,” J. Phys. B 3, 1152–1163 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Fawcett, R. A. Hardcastle, G. Tondello, “New classifications of emission lines of highly ionized phosphorus and sulfur,” J. Phys. B 3, 564–571 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. (1)

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstoms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data. 16, Suppl. 1, 1–1678 (1987).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (3)

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing in Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “A Ne-like Fe laser resonantly photo-pumped by Ne x Ly-α radiation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 46, 547–556 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

J. Nilsen, “A 33 angston laboratory x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 72, 371–376 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “A neon-like x-ray laser photoresonant pumping scheme,” Opt. Commun. 74, 202–206 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “A Ne-like Cu laser resonantly photo-pumped by a He-like Mg line,” Opt. Commun. 78, 51–57 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. Nilsen, “Resonantly photo-pumped Ni-like Er x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. 40, 5440–5443 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (9)

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “Prospects for resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 599–610 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Apruzese, J. Davis, “Kinetics of x-ray lasing by resonant photoexcitation: fundamentals of pumping power and gain for the Na x–Ne ix system,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 2976–2983 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Apruzese, G. Mehlman, J. Davis, J. E. Rogerson, V. E. Scherrer, S. J. Stephanakis, P. F. Ottinger, F. C. Young, “Spectroscopic analysis of sodium-bearing Z-pinch plasmas for their x-ray laser pumping efficiency,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 4896–4899 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Monier, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, “Demonstration of quasiresonant x-ray photoexcitation in a laser-created plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2508–2515 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Elton, T. N. Lee, W. A. Molander, “Absolute line intensities for photon pumping of x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 2817–2819 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Phillion, C. J. Hailey, “Brightness and duration of x-ray line sources irradiated with intense 0.53 μm light at 60 and 120 ps pulse width,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4886–4896 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, “Analysis of the resonantly photo-pumped Na–Ne x-ray laser scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4591–4598 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Let. (1)

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, P. L. Hagelstein, C. J. Keane, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, M. D. Rosen, J. H. Scofield, D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification in nickel-like ions,” Phys. Rev. Let.. 59, 2157–2160 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Rosen, P. L. Hagelstein, D. L. Matthews, E. M. Campbell, A. U. Hazi, B. L. Whitten, B. MacGowan, R. E. Turner, R. W. Lee, “Exploding-foil technique for achieving a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 106–109 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, L. B. Da Silva, D. J. Fields, C. J. Keane, D. L. Matthews, A. L. Osterheld, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, G. F. Stone, “Demonstration of x-ray amplifiers near the carbon K edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 420–423 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chenais-Popovics, R. Corbett, C. J. Hooker, M. H. Key, G. P. Kiehn, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, C. Regan, S. J. Rose, S. Sadaat, R. Smith, T. Tomie, O. Willi, “Laser amplification at 18.2 nm in recombining plasma from a laser-irradiated carbon fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2161–2164 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Qi, M. Krishnan, “Photopumping of a C iii ultraviolet laser by Mn vi line radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2051–2054 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, “Ni-like x-ray lasers resonantly photo-pumped by Ly–α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 305–308 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

J. Nilsen, “Resonantly photo-pumped Ni-like Tl x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 43, 596–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (3)

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. A. Levykin, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, S. S. Churilov, “Population inversion of Al xi in a laser plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 308–311 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Other (3)

R. C. Elton, X-ray Lasers (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 99–198.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain produced in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP, Bristol, UK, 1991), pp. 39–42.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy level diagram showing the Ly-α or He-α radiation resonantly photopumping an electrom from the n = 2 state of the Li-like ion to the n = 5 state with subsequent lasing between the n = 5 → n = 4 states of the Li-like ion. Potential lasing is also shown between the n = 5 → n = 3 and n = 4 → n = 3 states.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gain of the Li-Like Na 5g9/24f7/2 laser line versus time. The Na plasma is driven by Ly–α radiation from a B plasma, which peaks at 52 ns and has a peak intensity of 20 GW/cm2, a Gaussian pulse shape with a FWHM duration of 35 ns, and a linewidth of 94 mÅ.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Resonantly Photopumped Laser Schemes with 5g → 4f Lasing Transitions Utilizing Radiation λP to Pump Line λA in a Li-like lon with a Degree of Resonance ΔλPP and Laser Wavelength λ5–4a

Tables Icon

Table II Resonantly Photopumped Laser Schemes with 4f → 3d Lasing Transitions Utilizing Radiation λP to Pump Line λA in a Li-like lon with Degree of Resonance ΔλPP and Laser Wavelength λ4-3

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