Abstract

Although H and He-like resonantly photopumped laser schemes were among the earliest methods proposed for producing x-ray lasers, demonstrating these schemes in the laboratory has proved to be elusive. Nevertheless the resonantly photopumped schemes remain interesting both because of their potential to improve the efficiency of lasers that otherwise operate through other process such as recombination and because of their potential for yielding entirely new and relatively efficient lasers. We present an expanded list of candidate lasers that operate by utilizing Ly-α or He-α radiation from a pump ion to photopump an electron from the ground state of a H or He-like lasant ion to the n = 3 or 4 state, with subsequent lasing between the n = 4 → n = 3 or n = 3 → n = 2 states of the H or He-like ion. The example of the potassium-pumped chlorine scheme, which exhibits both 4 → 3 and 3 → 2 laser lines, has been modeled extensively, and the results of the calculation are presented.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  2. B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadened lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. A. Bhagavatula, “Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
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  4. W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Elton, X-Ray Lasers (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 99–198.
  6. N. Qi, M. Krishnan, “Photopumping of a C iii ultraviolet laser by Mn vi line radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2051–2054 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
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  8. J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.
  9. J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, “Analysis of the resonantly photo-pumped Na–Ne x-ray laser scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4591–4598 (1991).
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  11. Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing ion Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Nilsen, “Ni-like x-ray lasers resonantly photo-pumped by Ly-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 305–308 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
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  15. I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
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  16. C. L. Pekeris, “Ground state of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1649–1658 (1958).
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  17. Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516–536 (1971).
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  19. R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16Suppl. 1, 1–1678 (1987).
  20. G. W. Erickson, “Energy levels of one-electron atoms,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6, 831–869 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. R. Johnson, G. Soff, “The lamb shift in hydrogen-like atoms, 1 ≤ Z ≤ 110,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 33, 405–446 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  22. U. I. Safronova, “Relativistic and radiative effects in He-like ions,” Phys. Scr. 23, 241–248 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. W. Drake, “Theoretical energies for the n = 1 and 2 states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 100,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 586–611 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Indelicato, “Multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock calculations of transition energies in two electron ions with 10 ≤ Z ≤ 92,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 31, 14–20 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, S. von Goeler, K. W. Hill, “Experimental study of the x-ray transitions in the heliumlike isoelectronic sequence,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 150–157 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. W. Phillion, C. J. Hailey, “Brightness and duration of x-ray line sources irradiated with intense 0.53 μm light at 60 and 120 ps pulse width,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4886–4896 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. N. J. Peacock, R. J. Speer, M. G. Hobby, “Spectra of highly ionized neon and argon in a plasma focus discharge,” J. Phys. B 2, 798–810 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, “Spectra of multiply ionized iron atoms in a low-inductance vacuum discharge time-varying ionization model for the plasma-point,” Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 3, 375–381 (1977).
  29. A. Schulz, R. Burhenn, F. B. Rosmej, H. J. Kunze, “Single-shot analysis of micropinches in a vacuum spark discharge,” J. Phys. D 22, 659–662 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. F. Chapline, Department of Physics, Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550 (personal communication, 1991).
  31. P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Nilsen, “Radiative-hydro modeling and atomic data bases,” in Atomic Processes in Plasmas, A. Hauer, A. L. Merts, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.168, 51–58 (1988).

1991 (2)

J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, “Analysis of the resonantly photo-pumped Na–Ne x-ray laser scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4591–4598 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, “Ni-like x-ray lasers resonantly photo-pumped by Ly-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 305–308 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “Prospects for resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 599–610 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing ion Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, S. von Goeler, K. W. Hill, “Experimental study of the x-ray transitions in the heliumlike isoelectronic sequence,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 150–157 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schulz, R. Burhenn, F. B. Rosmej, H. J. Kunze, “Single-shot analysis of micropinches in a vacuum spark discharge,” J. Phys. D 22, 659–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

G. W. Drake, “Theoretical energies for the n = 1 and 2 states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 100,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 586–611 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Indelicato, “Multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock calculations of transition energies in two electron ions with 10 ≤ Z ≤ 92,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 31, 14–20 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. Qi, M. Krishnan, “Photopumping of a C iii ultraviolet laser by Mn vi line radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2051–2054 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16Suppl. 1, 1–1678 (1987).

1986 (1)

D. W. Phillion, C. J. Hailey, “Brightness and duration of x-ray line sources irradiated with intense 0.53 μm light at 60 and 120 ps pulse width,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4886–4896 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

W. R. Johnson, G. Soff, “The lamb shift in hydrogen-like atoms, 1 ≤ Z ≤ 110,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 33, 405–446 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

U. I. Safronova, “Relativistic and radiative effects in He-like ions,” Phys. Scr. 23, 241–248 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

G. W. Erickson, “Energy levels of one-electron atoms,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6, 831–869 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, “Spectra of multiply ionized iron atoms in a low-inductance vacuum discharge time-varying ionization model for the plasma-point,” Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 3, 375–381 (1977).

1976 (1)

V. A. Bhagavatula, “Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobelman, E. A. Yukov, “Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadened lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516–536 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

N. J. Peacock, R. J. Speer, M. G. Hobby, “Spectra of highly ionized neon and argon in a plasma focus discharge,” J. Phys. B 2, 798–810 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

C. L. Pekeris, “Ground state of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1649–1658 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Accad, Y.

Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516–536 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Alley, W. E.

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Apruzese, J. P.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Beiersdorfer, P.

P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, S. von Goeler, K. W. Hill, “Experimental study of the x-ray transitions in the heliumlike isoelectronic sequence,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 150–157 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhagavatula, V. A.

V. A. Bhagavatula, “Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bitter, M.

P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, S. von Goeler, K. W. Hill, “Experimental study of the x-ray transitions in the heliumlike isoelectronic sequence,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 150–157 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boehly, T.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burhenn, R.

A. Schulz, R. Burhenn, F. B. Rosmej, H. J. Kunze, “Single-shot analysis of micropinches in a vacuum spark discharge,” J. Phys. D 22, 659–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, E. A.

J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, “Analysis of the resonantly photo-pumped Na–Ne x-ray laser scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4591–4598 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapline, G.

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chapline, G. F.

G. F. Chapline, Department of Physics, Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. 94550 (personal communication, 1991).

Chichkov, B. N.

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “Prospects for resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 599–610 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, R. W.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Craxton, R. S.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daido, H.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Derzon, D. K.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Drake, G. W.

G. W. Drake, “Theoretical energies for the n = 1 and 2 states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 100,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 586–611 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Elton, R. C.

R. C. Elton, X-Ray Lasers (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990), pp. 99–198.

Epstein, R.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erickson, G. W.

G. W. Erickson, “Energy levels of one-electron atoms,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6, 831–869 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fields, D. J.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E. E.

B. N. Chichkov, E. E. Fill, “Prospects for resonant photoexcitation as a pumping mechanism for x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 599–610 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, I. P.

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hagelstein, P. L.

P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hailey, C. J.

D. W. Phillion, C. J. Hailey, “Brightness and duration of x-ray line sources irradiated with intense 0.53 μm light at 60 and 120 ps pulse width,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4886–4896 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herman, P. R.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. W.

P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, S. von Goeler, K. W. Hill, “Experimental study of the x-ray transitions in the heliumlike isoelectronic sequence,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 150–157 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hobby, M. G.

N. J. Peacock, R. J. Speer, M. G. Hobby, “Spectra of highly ionized neon and argon in a plasma focus discharge,” J. Phys. B 2, 798–810 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Howard, W. M.

Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing ion Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hussey, T. W.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Indelicato, P.

P. Indelicato, “Multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock calculations of transition energies in two electron ions with 10 ≤ Z ≤ 92,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 31, 14–20 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jitsuno, T.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. R.

W. R. Johnson, G. Soff, “The lamb shift in hydrogen-like atoms, 1 ≤ Z ≤ 110,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 33, 405–446 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jung, R. K.

P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Keane, C.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, R. L.

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16Suppl. 1, 1–1678 (1987).

Key, M. H.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kononov, E. Ya.

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, “Spectra of multiply ionized iron atoms in a low-inductance vacuum discharge time-varying ionization model for the plasma-point,” Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 3, 375–381 (1977).

Koshelev, K. N.

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, “Spectra of multiply ionized iron atoms in a low-inductance vacuum discharge time-varying ionization model for the plasma-point,” Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 3, 375–381 (1977).

Krishnan, M.

N. Qi, M. Krishnan, “Photopumping of a C iii ultraviolet laser by Mn vi line radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2051–2054 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunasz, P.

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kunze, H. J.

A. Schulz, R. Burhenn, F. B. Rosmej, H. J. Kunze, “Single-shot analysis of micropinches in a vacuum spark discharge,” J. Phys. D 22, 659–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing ion Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, S. F.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

MacGowan, B. J.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, D. L.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matzen, M. K.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Mayers, D. F.

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, E. J.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

McGurn, J. S.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

McKenzie, B. J.

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, E.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, S.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nash, J. K.

Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing ion Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

J. Nilsen, “Ni-like x-ray lasers resonantly photo-pumped by Ly-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 305–308 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, “Analysis of the resonantly photo-pumped Na–Ne x-ray laser scheme,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4591–4598 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
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J. Nilsen, “Radiative-hydro modeling and atomic data bases,” in Atomic Processes in Plasmas, A. Hauer, A. L. Merts, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.168, 51–58 (1988).

Nishimura, H.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Norrington, P. H.

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Norton, B. A.

B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadened lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, N. J.

B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadened lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Peacock, R. J. Speer, M. G. Hobby, “Spectra of highly ionized neon and argon in a plasma focus discharge,” J. Phys. B 2, 798–810 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Pekeris, C. L.

Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516–536 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Pekeris, “Ground state of two-electron atoms,” Phys. Rev. 112, 1649–1658 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phillion, D. W.

D. W. Phillion, C. J. Hailey, “Brightness and duration of x-ray line sources irradiated with intense 0.53 μm light at 60 and 120 ps pulse width,” Phys. Rev. A 34, 4886–4896 (1986).
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Porter, J. L.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Pyper, N. C.

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Qi, N.

N. Qi, M. Krishnan, “Photopumping of a C iii ultraviolet laser by Mn vi line radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2051–2054 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, S. J.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rosmej, F. B.

A. Schulz, R. Burhenn, F. B. Rosmej, H. J. Kunze, “Single-shot analysis of micropinches in a vacuum spark discharge,” J. Phys. D 22, 659–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ruggles, L. E.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Rumsby, P. T.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Russotto, M.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
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Safronova, U. I.

U. I. Safronova, “Relativistic and radiative effects in He-like ions,” Phys. Scr. 23, 241–248 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, B.

Y. Accad, C. L. Pekeris, B. Schiff, “S and P states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 10,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 516–536 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, A.

A. Schulz, R. Burhenn, F. B. Rosmej, H. J. Kunze, “Single-shot analysis of micropinches in a vacuum spark discharge,” J. Phys. D 22, 659–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, J. H.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
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J. H. Scofield, “Energy levels of hydrogen-, helium-, and neon-like ions,” Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Rep. PUB-490 Revised, D. Vaughan, ed. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1986), pp. 2-23–2-25.

Shimkaveg, G.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiraga, H.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sidelnikov, Yu. V.

E. Ya. Kononov, K. N. Koshelev, Yu. V. Sidelnikov, “Spectra of multiply ionized iron atoms in a low-inductance vacuum discharge time-varying ionization model for the plasma-point,” Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 3, 375–381 (1977).

Skinner, C. H.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobelman, I. I.

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobelman, E. A. Yukov, “Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Soff, G.

W. R. Johnson, G. Soff, “The lamb shift in hydrogen-like atoms, 1 ≤ Z ≤ 110,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 33, 405–446 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Speer, R. J.

N. J. Peacock, R. J. Speer, M. G. Hobby, “Spectra of highly ionized neon and argon in a plasma focus discharge,” J. Phys. B 2, 798–810 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Spielman, R. B.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Suckewer, S.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tachi, T.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takabe, H.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, M.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tallents, G. J.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vargas, M.

J. P. Apruzese, R. W. Clark, J. Davis, J. L. Porter, R. B. Spielman, M. K. Matzen, S. F. Lopez, J. S. McGurn, L. E. Ruggles, M. Vargas, D. K. Derzon, T. W. Hussey, E. J. McGuire, “Calculations of photoionization, photoexcitation, and gain production in a neon gas cell irradiated by a sodium Z-pinch on Saturn,” in Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on X-ray Lasers, G. J. Tallents, ed. (IOP Publishing, Bristol, England, 1991), pp. 39–42.

Vinogradov, A. V.

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobelman, E. A. Yukov, “Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
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von Goeler, S.

P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, S. von Goeler, K. W. Hill, “Experimental study of the x-ray transitions in the heliumlike isoelectronic sequence,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 150–157 (1989).
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Voorhees, D.

S. Suckewer, C. H. Skinner, H. Milchberg, C. Keane, D. Voorhees, “Amplification of stimulated soft x-ray emission in a confined plasma column,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1753–1756 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisheit, J. C.

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yaakobi, B.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanaka, C.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, M.

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yukov, E. A.

A. V. Vinogradov, I. I. Sobelman, E. A. Yukov, “Possibility of constructing a far-ultraviolet laser utilizing transitions in multiply charged ions in an inhomogeneous plasma,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5, 59–63 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Kato, E. Miura, T. Tachi, H. Shiraga, H. Nishimura, H. Daido, M. Yamanaka, T. Jitsuno, M. Takagi, P. R. Herman, H. Takabe, S. Nakai, C. Yamanaka, M. H. Key, G. J. Tallents, S. J. Rose, P. T. Rumsby, “Observaton of gain at 54.2 Å on Balmer-Alpha transition of hydrogenic sodium,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 247–256 (1990).
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At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

P. L. Hagelstein, R. K. Jung, “Relativistic distorted-wave calculations of electron collision cross sections and rate coefficients for Ne-like ions,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 37, 121–188 (1987).
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At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

W. R. Johnson, G. Soff, “The lamb shift in hydrogen-like atoms, 1 ≤ Z ≤ 110,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 33, 405–446 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

G. W. Drake, “Theoretical energies for the n = 1 and 2 states of the helium isoelectronic sequence up to Z = 100,” Can. J. Phys. 66, 586–611 (1988).
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Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers, N. C. Pyper, “An atomic multiconfigurational Dirac–Fock package,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 21, 207–231 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. A. Bhagavatula, “Soft x-ray population inversion by resonant photoexcitation in multicomponent laser plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4535–4537 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

N. J. Peacock, R. J. Speer, M. G. Hobby, “Spectra of highly ionized neon and argon in a plasma focus discharge,” J. Phys. B 2, 798–810 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

A. Schulz, R. Burhenn, F. B. Rosmej, H. J. Kunze, “Single-shot analysis of micropinches in a vacuum spark discharge,” J. Phys. D 22, 659–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

B. A. Norton, N. J. Peacock, “Population inversion in laser-produced plasmas by pumping with opacity-broadened lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 989–996 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (2)

R. L. Kelly, “Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000 angstroms: hydrogen through krypton,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 16Suppl. 1, 1–1678 (1987).

G. W. Erickson, “Energy levels of one-electron atoms,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 6, 831–869 (1977).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

Y. T. Lee, W. M. Howard, J. K. Nash, “Soft x-ray lasing ion Li-like iron by resonant photo-pumping,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 43, 335–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

W. E. Alley, G. Chapline, P. Kunasz, J. C. Weisheit, “Calculation of gain at x-ray wavelengths resulting from optical pumping of helium-like ions,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 27, 257–266 (1982).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods B (1)

P. Indelicato, “Multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock calculations of transition energies in two electron ions with 10 ≤ Z ≤ 92,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 31, 14–20 (1988).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram showing the Ly-α or He-α radiation resonantly photopumping an electron from the ground state of the H or He-like ion to the n = 4 state with subsequent lasing between the n = 4 → n = 3 states of the H or He-like ion. Alternatively, if the resonance occurs on the transition from the ground state to n = 3 state, lasing will be expected on the 3 → 2 transitions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gain on the 4f7/2 → 3d5/2 line in Cl at 64.8 Å versus position across a 20-μm thick Cl slab that is sandwiched between two 500-μm thick K slabs for four cases. In the first case none of the lines is resonant with each other, the second case has the K Ly-α2 resonant with the two Cl Ly-γ lines, the third case has the K He-αs resonant with the two Cl Ly-β lines, and the fourth case includes the resonances from cases two and three. There is a significant gain of 1.2 cm−1 only for the case of the Ly-α pump alone being resonant. The presence of the He-α resonance strongly poisons the gain.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gain on the 3d5/2 → 2P3/2 line in Cl at 22.7 Å versus position across a 20-μm thick Cl slab that is sandwiched between two 500-μm thick K slabs for four cases. In the first case none of the lines is resonant with each other, the second case has the K Ly-α2 resonant with the two Cl Ly-γ lines, the third case has the K He-αs resonant with the two Cl Ly-β lines, and the fourth case includes the resonances from cases two and three. When no photopumping is allowed or when the Ly-α pumping alone is allowed, the line is absorbing (negative gain). However, the presence of the He-α resonance drives the gain positive. The addition of the Ly-α pump makes the gain more spatially uniform varying from 0.5 to 0.7 cm−1 across the slab.

Tables (4)

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Table I Wavelengths in Angstroms of Ly-α, Ly-β, and Ly-γ Lines

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Table II Wavelengths in Angstroms of the He-α, He-β, and He-γ Lines

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Table III Resonantly Photopumped Laser Schemes With 4f → 3d Lasing Transitions Utilizing Radiation λP to Pump Line λA in a H or He-like lon with Degree of Resonance ΔλPP and Laser Wavelength λL

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Table IV Resonantly Photopumped Laser Schemes With 3d → 2p Lasing Transitions Utilizing Radiation λP to Pump Line λA in a H or He-like lon with Degree of Resonance ΔλPP and Laser Wavelength λL

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