Abstract

Recent advances in the production of ultrashort x-ray pulses by using femtosecond laser-produced plasmas coupled with the development of terawatt ultrashort-pulse lasers may make possible ultrashort-pulse photoexcited x-ray lasers. I examine the creation of a population inversion on the K-α transition of neon at 1.5 nm by using the photoionization scheme first suggested by Duguay and Rentzepis in 1967. It is shown that this laser can be produced by using a pump laser of ~ 10 J in 50 fs, provided that a sufficiently bright laser-produced plasma x-ray source can be created. Recent experimental and theoretical results are discussed that verify the potential feasibility of this scheme.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  49. J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kryala, R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: the effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).
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  58. J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).
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    [CrossRef]

1991 (6)

1990 (2)

S. Szatmari, G. Kuhnle, P. Simon, “Pulse compression and traveling wave excitation scheme using a single dispersive element,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5372–5379 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Main-fray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, A. S. Gomes, “Multiterawatt picosecond Nd-glass laser system at 1053 nm,” Opt. Commun. 75, 278–282 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155–158 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454–457 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (5)

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Murnane, R. W. Falcone, “High-power femtosecond dye-laser system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1573–1575 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, “Auger-pumped short-wavelength lasers in xenon and krypton,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 2033–2038 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Maine, G. Mourou, “Amplification of 1-nsec pulses in Nd:glass followed by compression to 1 psec,” Opt. Lett. 13, 467–469 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Fill, “Gain guiding of x-ray laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 67, 441–445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (6)

H. Tawara, T. Kato, “Total and partial ionization cross sections of atoms and ions by electron impact,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 36, 167–353 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, J. F. Young, “Core-excited metastable levels: application to spectroscopy, to the generation of picosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses, and to lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 547–562 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Walker, C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Observation of super Coster–Kronig-pumped gain in Zn iii,” Opt. Lett. 12, 894–896 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Sher, J. J. Macklin, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Saturation of the Xe iii 109-nm laser using traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma excitation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 891–893 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. E. Martinez, “Design of high-power ultrashort pulse amplifiers by expansion and recompression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1385–1387 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Pessot, P. Maine, G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419–421 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 125–133 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Lee, R. W. Falcone, “Observation of a short-wavelength laser pumped by Auger decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2939–2942 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Yeh, I. Lindau, “Atomic subshell photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters: 1 ≤ Z ≤ 103,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 32, 1–155 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, T. N. Lee, R. C. Elton, “Solid neon sources for plasmas and x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum 56, 471–472 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. L. Musinski, T. M. Henderson, R. J. Simms, T. R. Pattinson, R. B. Jacobs, “Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1394–1402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

M. O. Krause, J. H. Oliver, “Natural widths of atomic K and L levels, Kα x-ray lines and several KLL Auger lines,” J. Phys. Chem Ref. Data 8, 329–338 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Krause, “Atomic radiative and radiationless yields for K and L shells,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 307–327 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

T. S. Axelrod, “Inner-shell photoionization-pumped x-ray lasers. Sulfur,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 376–382 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099–3106 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

F. T. Arecchi, G. P. Banfi, A. M. Malvezzi, “Threshold evaluations for an x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 10, 214–218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

C. P. Bhalla, N. O. Folland, M. A. Hein, “Theoretical K-shell Auger rates, transition energies, and fluorescence yields for multiply ionizaed neon,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 649–657 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. J. G. Irwin, A. E. Livingston, J. A. Kernahan, “Radiative mean-life measurements in neon below 1000 Å,” Can. J. Phys. 51, 1948–1955 (1973).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Werme, B. Grennberg, J. Nordgren, C. Nordling, K. Siegbahn, “Observation of vibrational fine structure in x-ray emission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 523–524 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

Y. L. Stankevich, “The possibility of induced intensification of characteristic x radiation,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 356–357 (1970).

1969 (2)

L. L. House, “Theoretical wavelengths for K-α type x-ray lines in the spectra of ionized atoms (carbon to copper),” Astron. J Suppl. 18, 21–45 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. Caruso, R. Gratton, “Interaction of short laser pulses with solid materials,” Plasma Phys. 11, 839–847 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (3)

W. Lotz, “An empirical formula for the electron-impact ionization cross-section,” Z. Phys. 206, 205–211 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Beardon, “X-ray wavelengths,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 78–124 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, P. M. Rentzepis, “Some approaches to vacuum UV and x-ray lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 350–352 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Arecchi, F. T.

F. T. Arecchi, G. P. Banfi, A. M. Malvezzi, “Threshold evaluations for an x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 10, 214–218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Axelrod, T. S.

T. S. Axelrod, “Inner-shell photoionization-pumped x-ray lasers. Sulfur,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 376–382 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Banfi, G. P.

F. T. Arecchi, G. P. Banfi, A. M. Malvezzi, “Threshold evaluations for an x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 10, 214–218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

Beardon, J. A.

J. A. Beardon, “X-ray wavelengths,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 78–124 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Berkowitz, J.

J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 173.

J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 469.

Bhalla, C. P.

C. P. Bhalla, N. O. Folland, M. A. Hein, “Theoretical K-shell Auger rates, transition energies, and fluorescence yields for multiply ionizaed neon,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 649–657 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Blair, R. J.

Bokor, J.

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

Book, D. L.

D. L. Book, NRL Plasma Formulary (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1983).

Caruso, A.

A. Caruso, R. Gratton, “Interaction of short laser pulses with solid materials,” Plasma Phys. 11, 839–847 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cobble, J. A.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kryala, R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: the effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454–457 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daugherty, J. D.

S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099–3106 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Delamater, N. D.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454–457 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, R. H.

R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, T. N. Lee, R. C. Elton, “Solid neon sources for plasmas and x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum 56, 471–472 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, P. M. Rentzepis, “Some approaches to vacuum UV and x-ray lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 350–352 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Elton, R. C.

R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, T. N. Lee, R. C. Elton, “Solid neon sources for plasmas and x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum 56, 471–472 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Elton, “Quasi-stationary population inversion on K-α transitions,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2243–2249 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcone, R.

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

Falcone, R. W.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, R. W. Falcone, “Ultrafast x-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas,” Science 251, 531–536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, W. White, H. Nathel, R. J. Blair, R. W. Falcone, “Multiterawatt 100 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1406–1408 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155–158 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, “Auger-pumped short-wavelength lasers in xenon and krypton,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 2033–2038 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Murnane, R. W. Falcone, “High-power femtosecond dye-laser system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1573–1575 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Lee, R. W. Falcone, “Observation of a short-wavelength laser pumped by Auger decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2939–2942 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Falcone, M. M. Murnane, “Proposal for a femtosecond x-ray light source,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. AIP Conf. Proc.147. 81–85. (1986).

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. Szoke, A. Hawryluk, R. W. Falcone, “Enhanced absorption and ASE pedestal suppression in the generation of ultrashort-pulse solid-density plasmas,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 53 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 122–123.
[CrossRef]

Ferray, M.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Main-fray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, A. S. Gomes, “Multiterawatt picosecond Nd-glass laser system at 1053 nm,” Opt. Commun. 75, 278–282 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. E. Fill, “Gain guiding of x-ray laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 67, 441–445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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C. P. Bhalla, N. O. Folland, M. A. Hein, “Theoretical K-shell Auger rates, transition energies, and fluorescence yields for multiply ionizaed neon,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 649–657 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, T. N. Lee, R. C. Elton, “Solid neon sources for plasmas and x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum 56, 471–472 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fujikawa, B. K.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fulton, R. D.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kryala, R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: the effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T.

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

Glytsis, E.

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

Gnall, R.

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

Gobert, O.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Main-fray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, A. S. Gomes, “Multiterawatt picosecond Nd-glass laser system at 1053 nm,” Opt. Commun. 75, 278–282 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Main-fray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, A. S. Gomes, “Multiterawatt picosecond Nd-glass laser system at 1053 nm,” Opt. Commun. 75, 278–282 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, C. C.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454–457 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, S.

A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, W. White, H. Nathel, R. J. Blair, R. W. Falcone, “Multiterawatt 100 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1406–1408 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

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A. Caruso, R. Gratton, “Interaction of short laser pulses with solid materials,” Plasma Phys. 11, 839–847 (1969).
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L. O. Werme, B. Grennberg, J. Nordgren, C. Nordling, K. Siegbahn, “Observation of vibrational fine structure in x-ray emission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 523–524 (1973).
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P. L. Hagelstein, “Physics of short wavelength laser design,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1981).
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C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamster, H.

Harris, S. E.

Hauer, A. A.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454–457 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawryluk, A.

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. Szoke, A. Hawryluk, R. W. Falcone, “Enhanced absorption and ASE pedestal suppression in the generation of ultrashort-pulse solid-density plasmas,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 53 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 122–123.
[CrossRef]

Hein, M. A.

C. P. Bhalla, N. O. Folland, M. A. Hein, “Theoretical K-shell Auger rates, transition energies, and fluorescence yields for multiply ionizaed neon,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 649–657 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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D. L. Musinski, T. M. Henderson, R. J. Simms, T. R. Pattinson, R. B. Jacobs, “Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1394–1402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

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L. L. House, “Theoretical wavelengths for K-α type x-ray lines in the spectra of ionized atoms (carbon to copper),” Astron. J Suppl. 18, 21–45 (1969).
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J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Hyman, H. A.

S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099–3106 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Irwin, D. J. G.

D. J. G. Irwin, A. E. Livingston, J. A. Kernahan, “Radiative mean-life measurements in neon below 1000 Å,” Can. J. Phys. 51, 1948–1955 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, R. B.

D. L. Musinski, T. M. Henderson, R. J. Simms, T. R. Pattinson, R. B. Jacobs, “Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1394–1402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jones, L. A.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kryala, R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: the effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

Kapteyn, H. C.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, R. W. Falcone, “Ultrafast x-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas,” Science 251, 531–536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, W. White, H. Nathel, R. J. Blair, R. W. Falcone, “Multiterawatt 100 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1406–1408 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155–158 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, “Auger-pumped short-wavelength lasers in xenon and krypton,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 2033–2038 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Lee, R. W. Falcone, “Observation of a short-wavelength laser pumped by Auger decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2939–2942 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. Szoke, A. Hawryluk, R. W. Falcone, “Enhanced absorption and ASE pedestal suppression in the generation of ultrashort-pulse solid-density plasmas,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 53 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 122–123.
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J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Kernahan, J. A.

D. J. G. Irwin, A. E. Livingston, J. A. Kernahan, “Radiative mean-life measurements in neon below 1000 Å,” Can. J. Phys. 51, 1948–1955 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

King, D. A.

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirz, J.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Kmetic, J. D.

Kortright, J. B.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

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M. O. Krause, J. H. Oliver, “Natural widths of atomic K and L levels, Kα x-ray lines and several KLL Auger lines,” J. Phys. Chem Ref. Data 8, 329–338 (1979).
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M. O. Krause, “Atomic radiative and radiationless yields for K and L shells,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 307–327 (1979).
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J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kryala, R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: the effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kuhnle, G.

Kyrala, G. A.

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454–457 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Main-fray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, A. S. Gomes, “Multiterawatt picosecond Nd-glass laser system at 1053 nm,” Opt. Commun. 75, 278–282 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. W.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Lee, R. W. Falcone, “Observation of a short-wavelength laser pumped by Auger decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2939–2942 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T. N.

R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, T. N. Lee, R. C. Elton, “Solid neon sources for plasmas and x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum 56, 471–472 (1985).
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J. J. Yeh, I. Lindau, “Atomic subshell photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters: 1 ≤ Z ≤ 103,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 32, 1–155 (1986).
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D. J. G. Irwin, A. E. Livingston, J. A. Kernahan, “Radiative mean-life measurements in neon below 1000 Å,” Can. J. Phys. 51, 1948–1955 (1973).
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Lompré, L. A.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Main-fray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, A. S. Gomes, “Multiterawatt picosecond Nd-glass laser system at 1053 nm,” Opt. Commun. 75, 278–282 (1990).
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M. Pessot, P. Maine, G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419–421 (1987).
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Main-fray, G.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Main-fray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, A. S. Gomes, “Multiterawatt picosecond Nd-glass laser system at 1053 nm,” Opt. Commun. 75, 278–282 (1990).
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F. T. Arecchi, G. P. Banfi, A. M. Malvezzi, “Threshold evaluations for an x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 10, 214–218 (1974).
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S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099–3106 (1976).
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Mansfield, W.

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

Manus, C.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Main-fray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, A. S. Gomes, “Multiterawatt picosecond Nd-glass laser system at 1053 nm,” Opt. Commun. 75, 278–282 (1990).
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O. E. Martinez, “Design of high-power ultrashort pulse amplifiers by expansion and recompression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1385–1387 (1987).
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Mourou, G.

P. Maine, G. Mourou, “Amplification of 1-nsec pulses in Nd:glass followed by compression to 1 psec,” Opt. Lett. 13, 467–469 (1988).
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M. Pessot, P. Maine, G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419–421 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

M. Murnane, “Sub-picosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1989).

Murnane, M. M.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, R. W. Falcone, “Ultrafast x-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas,” Science 251, 531–536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155–158 (1989).
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M. M. Murnane, R. W. Falcone, “High-power femtosecond dye-laser system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1573–1575 (1988).
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R. W. Falcone, M. M. Murnane, “Proposal for a femtosecond x-ray light source,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. AIP Conf. Proc.147. 81–85. (1986).

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. Szoke, A. Hawryluk, R. W. Falcone, “Enhanced absorption and ASE pedestal suppression in the generation of ultrashort-pulse solid-density plasmas,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 53 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 122–123.
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Musinski, D. L.

D. L. Musinski, T. M. Henderson, R. J. Simms, T. R. Pattinson, R. B. Jacobs, “Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1394–1402 (1980).
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Nathel, H.

Nordgren, J.

L. O. Werme, B. Grennberg, J. Nordgren, C. Nordling, K. Siegbahn, “Observation of vibrational fine structure in x-ray emission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 523–524 (1973).
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Nordling, C.

L. O. Werme, B. Grennberg, J. Nordgren, C. Nordling, K. Siegbahn, “Observation of vibrational fine structure in x-ray emission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 523–524 (1973).
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Oliver, J. H.

M. O. Krause, J. H. Oliver, “Natural widths of atomic K and L levels, Kα x-ray lines and several KLL Auger lines,” J. Phys. Chem Ref. Data 8, 329–338 (1979).
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Patterson, F. G.

Pattinson, T. R.

D. L. Musinski, T. M. Henderson, R. J. Simms, T. R. Pattinson, R. B. Jacobs, “Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1394–1402 (1980).
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Perera, R. C. C.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Perry, M. D.

Pessot, M.

M. Pessot, P. Maine, G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419–421 (1987).
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Pianetta, P.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

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Y. B. Zeldovich, Y. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1966), p. 408.

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J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Rosen, M. D.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, R. W. Falcone, “Ultrafast x-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas,” Science 251, 531–536 (1991).
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M. D. Rosen, “Scaling laws for femtosecond laser plasma interactions,” in Femtosecond to Nanosecond High-Intensity Lasers and Applications, E. M. Campbell, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng.1229, 160–167 (1990).

Sanchez, A.

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Main-fray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, A. S. Gomes, “Multiterawatt picosecond Nd-glass laser system at 1053 nm,” Opt. Commun. 75, 278–282 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schappert, G. T.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kryala, R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: the effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454–457 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scofield, J. H.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Sevier, K. D.

K. D. Sevier, Low Energy Electron Spectrometry (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1972).

Sher, M. H.

Shimabukuro, R. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shiraga, H.

Siegbahn, K.

L. O. Werme, B. Grennberg, J. Nordgren, C. Nordling, K. Siegbahn, “Observation of vibrational fine structure in x-ray emission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 523–524 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Silfvast, W. T.

Simms, R. J.

D. L. Musinski, T. M. Henderson, R. J. Simms, T. R. Pattinson, R. B. Jacobs, “Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1394–1402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P.

Sobelman, I. I.

I. I. Sobelman, L. A. Vainshtein, E. A. Yukov, Excitation of Atoms and Broadening of Spectral Lines (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981). p. 289.

Spitzer, L.

L. Spitzer, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Interscience, New York, 1956), p. 78.

Stankevich, Y. L.

Y. L. Stankevich, “The possibility of induced intensification of characteristic x radiation,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 356–357 (1970).

Stradling, G. L.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Sullivan, A.

Szatmari, S.

Szoke, A.

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. Szoke, A. Hawryluk, R. W. Falcone, “Enhanced absorption and ASE pedestal suppression in the generation of ultrashort-pulse solid-density plasmas,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 53 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 122–123.
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T. J.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tawara, H.

H. Tawara, T. Kato, “Total and partial ionization cross sections of atoms and ions by electron impact,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 36, 167–353 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kryala, R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: the effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454–457 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, A. C.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Thorne, A. P.

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1988), p. 51.

Underwood, J. H.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Vainshtein, L. A.

I. I. Sobelman, L. A. Vainshtein, E. A. Yukov, Excitation of Atoms and Broadening of Spectral Lines (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981). p. 289.

Vaughan, D.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Verghese, S.

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

Walker, D. J.

Werme, L. O.

L. O. Werme, B. Grennberg, J. Nordgren, C. Nordling, K. Siegbahn, “Observation of vibrational fine structure in x-ray emission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 523–524 (1973).
[CrossRef]

White, W.

Williams, G. P.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Winick, H.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

Wood, O. R.

Yamakawa, K.

Yeh, J. J.

J. J. Yeh, I. Lindau, “Atomic subshell photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters: 1 ≤ Z ≤ 103,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 32, 1–155 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Walker, C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “Observation of super Coster–Kronig-pumped gain in Zn iii,” Opt. Lett. 12, 894–896 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, J. F.

Yukov, E. A.

I. I. Sobelman, L. A. Vainshtein, E. A. Yukov, Excitation of Atoms and Broadening of Spectral Lines (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981). p. 289.

Zeldovich, Y. B.

Y. B. Zeldovich, Y. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1966), p. 408.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Duguay, P. M. Rentzepis, “Some approaches to vacuum UV and x-ray lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 350–352 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Astron. J Suppl. (1)

L. L. House, “Theoretical wavelengths for K-α type x-ray lines in the spectra of ionized atoms (carbon to copper),” Astron. J Suppl. 18, 21–45 (1969).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (3)

J. J. Yeh, I. Lindau, “Atomic subshell photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameters: 1 ≤ Z ≤ 103,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 32, 1–155 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low energy x-ray interaction coefficients: photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1–144 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Tawara, T. Kato, “Total and partial ionization cross sections of atoms and ions by electron impact,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 36, 167–353 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

D. J. G. Irwin, A. E. Livingston, J. A. Kernahan, “Radiative mean-life measurements in neon below 1000 Å,” Can. J. Phys. 51, 1948–1955 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

O. E. Martinez, “Design of high-power ultrashort pulse amplifiers by expansion and recompression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1385–1387 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. A. Mani, H. A. Hyman, J. D. Daugherty, “Lithium-ion soft x-ray laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3099–3106 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Musinski, T. M. Henderson, R. J. Simms, T. R. Pattinson, R. B. Jacobs, “Technological aspects of cryogenic laser-fusion targets,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 1394–1402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kryala, R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: the effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Chem Ref. Data (1)

M. O. Krause, J. H. Oliver, “Natural widths of atomic K and L levels, Kα x-ray lines and several KLL Auger lines,” J. Phys. Chem Ref. Data 8, 329–338 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

M. O. Krause, “Atomic radiative and radiationless yields for K and L shells,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8, 307–327 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

M. Pessot, P. Maine, G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419–421 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. T. Arecchi, G. P. Banfi, A. M. Malvezzi, “Threshold evaluations for an x-ray laser,” Opt. Commun. 10, 214–218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, O. Gobert, A. L’Huillier, G. Main-fray, C. Manus, A. Sanchez, A. S. Gomes, “Multiterawatt picosecond Nd-glass laser system at 1053 nm,” Opt. Commun. 75, 278–282 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Fill, “Gain guiding of x-ray laser beams,” Opt. Commun. 67, 441–445 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, “Auger-pumped short-wavelength lasers in xenon and krypton,” Phys. Rev. A 37, 2033–2038 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Axelrod, “Inner-shell photoionization-pumped x-ray lasers. Sulfur,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 376–382 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Bhalla, N. O. Folland, M. A. Hein, “Theoretical K-shell Auger rates, transition energies, and fluorescence yields for multiply ionizaed neon,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 649–657 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Cobble, G. A. Kyrala, A. A. Hauer, A. J. Taylor, C. C. Gomez, N. D. Delamater, G. T. Schappert, “Kilovolt x-ray spectroscopy of a subpicosecond-laser-excited source,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 454–457 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. O. Werme, B. Grennberg, J. Nordgren, C. Nordling, K. Siegbahn, “Observation of vibrational fine structure in x-ray emission lines,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 523–524 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Lee, R. W. Falcone, “Observation of a short-wavelength laser pumped by Auger decay,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2939–2942 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, R. W. Falcone, “High-density plasmas produced by ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 155–158 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasma Phys. (1)

A. Caruso, R. Gratton, “Interaction of short laser pulses with solid materials,” Plasma Phys. 11, 839–847 (1969).
[CrossRef]

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J. A. Beardon, “X-ray wavelengths,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 39, 78–124 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum (1)

R. H. Dixon, J. L. Ford, T. N. Lee, R. C. Elton, “Solid neon sources for plasmas and x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum 56, 471–472 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, R. W. Falcone, “Ultrafast x-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas,” Science 251, 531–536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

Y. L. Stankevich, “The possibility of induced intensification of characteristic x radiation,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 356–357 (1970).

Z. Phys. (1)

W. Lotz, “An empirical formula for the electron-impact ionization cross-section,” Z. Phys. 206, 205–211 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (17)

J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 469.

H. C. Kapteyn, “Photoionization-pumped short-wavelength lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1989).

L. Spitzer, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Interscience, New York, 1956), p. 78.

M. Murnane, “Sub-picosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., 1989).

M. D. Rosen, “Scaling laws for femtosecond laser plasma interactions,” in Femtosecond to Nanosecond High-Intensity Lasers and Applications, E. M. Campbell, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum Eng.1229, 160–167 (1990).

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Murnane, H. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, S. Verghese, J. Bokor, W. Mansfield, R. Gnall, E. Glytsis, T. Gaylord, R. Falcone, “Efficient coupling of high-intensity sub-picosecond laser pulses into dilute solid targets,” in Short-Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Application, P. H. Bucksbaum, N. M. Ceglio, eds., Vol. 11 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 281–284.

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. Szoke, A. Hawryluk, R. W. Falcone, “Enhanced absorption and ASE pedestal suppression in the generation of ultrashort-pulse solid-density plasmas,” in Ultrafast Phenomena VII, C. B. Harris, E. P. Ippen, G. A. Mourou, A. H. Zewail, eds., Vol. 53 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990), pp. 122–123.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Falcone, M. M. Murnane, “Proposal for a femtosecond x-ray light source,” in Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation: Generation and Applications, D. T. Attwood, J. Bokor, eds. AIP Conf. Proc.147. 81–85. (1986).

J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption, Photoionization, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Academic, New York, 1979), p. 173.

P. L. Hagelstein, “Physics of short wavelength laser design,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1981).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Book, NRL Plasma Formulary (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1983).

Y. B. Zeldovich, Y. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1966), p. 408.

A. P. Thorne, Spectrophysics (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1988), p. 51.

I. I. Sobelman, L. A. Vainshtein, E. A. Yukov, Excitation of Atoms and Broadening of Spectral Lines (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981). p. 289.

J. Kirz, D. T. Attwood, B. L. Henke, M. R. Howells, K. D. Kennedy, K. J. Kim, J. B. Kortright, R. C. C. Perera, P. Pianetta, J. C. Riordan, J. H. Scofield, G. L. Stradling, A. C. Thompson, J. H. Underwood, D. Vaughan, G. P. Williams, H. Winick, X-Ray Data Booklet (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1985).

K. D. Sevier, Low Energy Electron Spectrometry (Wiley–Interscience, New York, 1972).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic energy level diagram of lasers on K-α transitions. The case of neon is shown here. X rays ionize 1s electrons from a neutral atom, and the laser transition is (1s)−1 → (2p)−1. Auger decay results in rapid depletion of the upper level, while electron ionization provides rapid filling of the lower level, limiting the gain lifetime.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation result for the neon system, assuming a density of 1020 cm−3 of neon in solid hydrogen. The pump pulse is assumed to be 50 fs full width at half-maximum, creating a blackbody emitter with a 600-eV peak temperature, as shown by the top curve. The center curve shows the predicted gain γ in cm−1, while the bottom curve shows the densities for the various levels in the simulation in cm−3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Peak plasma temperature and the laser energy that is required (relative to the case in Fig. 2) as a function of plasma emissivity. The result demonstrates that a plasma emissivity of > 0.2 is desired to make the scheme practical. The curve was determined by requiring the same gain per centimeter as in the original case and then increasing the plasma temperature in the simulation as the emissivity was decreased.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser energy requirement as a function of the pulse width of the pump laser relative to the case of Fig. 2. This result demonstrates the necessity for ultrashort pulses to make this scheme practical. The data were determined by optimizing the density of neon for each pulse length and then scaling the energy requirement inversely with the peak gain achievable.

Equations (1)

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T ( t ) = C [ t = - t sech 2 ( 1.76 t / τ ) d t ] 4 / 9 ,

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