Abstract

A four-wave difference mixing signal has been observed for what is, to our knowledge, the first time, in sodium in a methane–air flame. The experimental conditions used to observe the signal in the flame are reported. An explanation of the observed signal in terms of near two photon resonant difference four-wave mixing is proposed.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, D. Cotter, Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1979), pp. 117–269.
  2. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 242–285.
  3. W. Hartig, “Two-photon resonant four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. 15, 427–432 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. G. Wang, H. Schmidt, B. Wellegehausen, “Two-photon excited parametric emission from sodium atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 41–44 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Krasinski, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 54, 241–245 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Han, Z. Lu, Z. Ma, “Raman-resonant spontaneous four-wave parametric process in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 67, 383–386 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Ewart, P. Snowdon, I. Magnusson, “Two-dimensional phase-conjugation imaging of atomic distributions in flames by degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Lett. 14, 563–565 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. T. de Araujo, S. S. Vianna, G. Grynberg, “Phase conjugation by nondegenerate four-wave mixing in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 80, 79–83 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Yamada, H. Takahashi, “Optical anisotropy induced by two intense laser fields in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 75, 307–310 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Trebino, L. A. Rahn, “Subharmonic resonances in higher-order collision-enhanced wave mixing in a sodium-seeded flame,” Opt. Lett. 12, 912–914 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostic for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988), pp. 220–300.
  12. J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, J. J. Lee, J. T. Lineberry, “CARS temperature measurements in an MHD diffuser,” AIAA paper 91-0211 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).
  13. J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, “CARS, in Diagnostic Development and Support of MHD Test Facilities,” DIAL Quarterly Technical Progress Report FE-15601-43 (Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1990).
  14. G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287–296 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. J. Beiting, J. P. Singh, “Simple particle injection system for laboratory burners,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 377–379 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. T. de Araujo, S. S. Vianna, G. Grynberg, “Phase conjugation by nondegenerate four-wave mixing in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 80, 79–83 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, H. Takahashi, “Optical anisotropy induced by two intense laser fields in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 75, 307–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

X. Han, Z. Lu, Z. Ma, “Raman-resonant spontaneous four-wave parametric process in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 67, 383–386 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

Z. G. Wang, H. Schmidt, B. Wellegehausen, “Two-photon excited parametric emission from sodium atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 41–44 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, L. A. Rahn, “Subharmonic resonances in higher-order collision-enhanced wave mixing in a sodium-seeded flame,” Opt. Lett. 12, 912–914 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

E. J. Beiting, J. P. Singh, “Simple particle injection system for laboratory burners,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 377–379 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. Krasinski, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 54, 241–245 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. Hartig, “Two-photon resonant four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. 15, 427–432 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Beiting, E. J.

E. J. Beiting, J. P. Singh, “Simple particle injection system for laboratory burners,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 377–379 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

J. Krasinski, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 54, 241–245 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cook, R. L.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, J. J. Lee, J. T. Lineberry, “CARS temperature measurements in an MHD diffuser,” AIAA paper 91-0211 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Cotter, D.

D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, D. Cotter, Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1979), pp. 117–269.

de Araujo, M. T.

M. T. de Araujo, S. S. Vianna, G. Grynberg, “Phase conjugation by nondegenerate four-wave mixing in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 80, 79–83 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostic for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988), pp. 220–300.

Ewart, P.

Gauthier, D. J.

J. Krasinski, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 54, 241–245 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grynberg, G.

M. T. de Araujo, S. S. Vianna, G. Grynberg, “Phase conjugation by nondegenerate four-wave mixing in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 80, 79–83 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Han, X.

X. Han, Z. Lu, Z. Ma, “Raman-resonant spontaneous four-wave parametric process in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 67, 383–386 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, D. Cotter, Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1979), pp. 117–269.

Hartig, W.

W. Hartig, “Two-photon resonant four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. 15, 427–432 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Krasinski, J.

J. Krasinski, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 54, 241–245 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, J. J. Lee, J. T. Lineberry, “CARS temperature measurements in an MHD diffuser,” AIAA paper 91-0211 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Lineberry, J. T.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, J. J. Lee, J. T. Lineberry, “CARS temperature measurements in an MHD diffuser,” AIAA paper 91-0211 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Lu, Z.

X. Han, Z. Lu, Z. Ma, “Raman-resonant spontaneous four-wave parametric process in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 67, 383–386 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

X. Han, Z. Lu, Z. Ma, “Raman-resonant spontaneous four-wave parametric process in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 67, 383–386 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, I.

Malcuit, M. S.

J. Krasinski, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 54, 241–245 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, L. A.

Schmidt, H.

Z. G. Wang, H. Schmidt, B. Wellegehausen, “Two-photon excited parametric emission from sodium atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 41–44 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 242–285.

Singh, J. P.

E. J. Beiting, J. P. Singh, “Simple particle injection system for laboratory burners,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 377–379 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, J. J. Lee, J. T. Lineberry, “CARS temperature measurements in an MHD diffuser,” AIAA paper 91-0211 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, “CARS, in Diagnostic Development and Support of MHD Test Facilities,” DIAL Quarterly Technical Progress Report FE-15601-43 (Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1990).

Snowdon, P.

Takahashi, H.

K. Yamada, H. Takahashi, “Optical anisotropy induced by two intense laser fields in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 75, 307–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Vianna, S. S.

M. T. de Araujo, S. S. Vianna, G. Grynberg, “Phase conjugation by nondegenerate four-wave mixing in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 80, 79–83 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. G.

Z. G. Wang, H. Schmidt, B. Wellegehausen, “Two-photon excited parametric emission from sodium atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 41–44 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wellegehausen, B.

Z. G. Wang, H. Schmidt, B. Wellegehausen, “Two-photon excited parametric emission from sodium atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 41–44 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Takahashi, “Optical anisotropy induced by two intense laser fields in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 75, 307–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, F. Y.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, “CARS, in Diagnostic Development and Support of MHD Test Facilities,” DIAL Quarterly Technical Progress Report FE-15601-43 (Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1990).

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, J. J. Lee, J. T. Lineberry, “CARS temperature measurements in an MHD diffuser,” AIAA paper 91-0211 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

Yuratich, M. A.

D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, D. Cotter, Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1979), pp. 117–269.

Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Hartig, “Two-photon resonant four-wave mixing in atomic sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. 15, 427–432 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Z. G. Wang, H. Schmidt, B. Wellegehausen, “Two-photon excited parametric emission from sodium atoms,” Appl. Phys. B 44, 41–44 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes in isotropic media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

J. Krasinski, D. J. Gauthier, M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, “Two-photon conical emission,” Opt. Commun. 54, 241–245 (1985).
[CrossRef]

X. Han, Z. Lu, Z. Ma, “Raman-resonant spontaneous four-wave parametric process in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 67, 383–386 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. T. de Araujo, S. S. Vianna, G. Grynberg, “Phase conjugation by nondegenerate four-wave mixing in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 80, 79–83 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, H. Takahashi, “Optical anisotropy induced by two intense laser fields in sodium vapor,” Opt. Commun. 75, 307–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. J. Beiting, J. P. Singh, “Simple particle injection system for laboratory burners,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 377–379 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. C. Hanna, M. A. Yuratich, D. Cotter, Nonlinear Optics of Free Atoms and Molecules (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1979), pp. 117–269.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), pp. 242–285.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostic for Combustion Temperature and Species (Abacus, Cambridge, Mass., 1988), pp. 220–300.

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, R. L. Cook, J. J. Lee, J. T. Lineberry, “CARS temperature measurements in an MHD diffuser,” AIAA paper 91-0211 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1991).

J. P. Singh, F. Y. Yueh, “CARS, in Diagnostic Development and Support of MHD Test Facilities,” DIAL Quarterly Technical Progress Report FE-15601-43 (Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Miss., 1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy-level diagram of atomic Na and a schematic of the proposed FWDM process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FWDM spectrum observed in a Na-seeded CH4–air flame with energies E1 = 90 mJ and E2 = 120 μJ. A 50-mg/mL Na2CO3 solution was aspirated into the flame. Two minima marked in the figure correspond to the probe frequency at Na D lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The dependence of the FWDM signal with (a) probe laser intensity and (b) pump laser intensity: △, first peak; ⊙, second peak of Fig. 3.

Equations (1)

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I S χ ( 3 ) 2 I 1 2 I 2 l 2 F ( b , l , Δ k ) ,

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