Abstract

Er:YAG 2.94-μm lasers and Er:YLF 2.81-μm lasers were actively mode locked, with TeO2 as the acousto-optic modulator. The Er:YLF crystal generated shorter and more stable pulses, whereas the Er:YAG had a higher slope efficiency of 0.8% in free-running operation. Mode-locked pulse durations of < 700 ps were obtained with Er:YLF by applying 4 W of electrical driving power to the LiNbO3 transducer.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Frauchiger, W. Lüthy, “Interaction of 3 μm radiation with matter,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 231–235 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (Oxford U. Press, London, 1986).
  3. B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limited divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2204–2206 (1980)].
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Bandwidth-limited picosecond pulses from a YSGG:Cr3+:Er3+ laser (λ = 2.79μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 776–779 (1987) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 14, 1219–1224 (1987)].
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Active mode locking in a yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser (λ = 2.94μ),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 541–544 (1982) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 9, 853–858 (1982)].
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. I. Andreeva, K. L. Vodop’yanov, S. A. Kaidalov, Yu. M. Kalinin, M. E. Karasev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. V. Lukashev, “Picosecond erbium-doped YAG Laser (λ = 2.94 μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 326–333 (1986) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 13, 499–509 (1986)].
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Auzel, S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, “Multi frequency room-temperature continuous diode and Ar* laser-pumped Er+ laser emission between 2.66 and 2.85 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 681–683 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustooptic deflection materials and techniques,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1073–1092 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Gradstein, I. Ryzhik, Tables of Series, Products and Integrals (Harri Deutsch, Frankfurt/M, Germany, 1981), formula (3.753.1), p. 466.
  10. A. E. Siegman, D. J. Kuizenga, “Active mode-coupling phenomena in pulsed and continuous lasers,” Opto-electronics 6, 1061–1083 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. V. Petrov, A. M. Tkachuk, “Optical spectra and multifrequency stimulated emission of LiYFd4-Er3+ crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 45, 81–85 (1978) [Opt. Spektrosk. 45, 147–155 (1978)].

1989 (1)

F. Auzel, S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, “Multi frequency room-temperature continuous diode and Ar* laser-pumped Er+ laser emission between 2.66 and 2.85 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 681–683 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

J. Frauchiger, W. Lüthy, “Interaction of 3 μm radiation with matter,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 231–235 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Bandwidth-limited picosecond pulses from a YSGG:Cr3+:Er3+ laser (λ = 2.79μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 776–779 (1987) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 14, 1219–1224 (1987)].
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. I. Andreeva, K. L. Vodop’yanov, S. A. Kaidalov, Yu. M. Kalinin, M. E. Karasev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. V. Lukashev, “Picosecond erbium-doped YAG Laser (λ = 2.94 μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 326–333 (1986) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 13, 499–509 (1986)].
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Active mode locking in a yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser (λ = 2.94μ),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 541–544 (1982) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 9, 853–858 (1982)].
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limited divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2204–2206 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. V. Petrov, A. M. Tkachuk, “Optical spectra and multifrequency stimulated emission of LiYFd4-Er3+ crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 45, 81–85 (1978) [Opt. Spektrosk. 45, 147–155 (1978)].

1974 (1)

A. E. Siegman, D. J. Kuizenga, “Active mode-coupling phenomena in pulsed and continuous lasers,” Opto-electronics 6, 1061–1083 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustooptic deflection materials and techniques,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1073–1092 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Andreeva, L. I.

L. I. Andreeva, K. L. Vodop’yanov, S. A. Kaidalov, Yu. M. Kalinin, M. E. Karasev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. V. Lukashev, “Picosecond erbium-doped YAG Laser (λ = 2.94 μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 326–333 (1986) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 13, 499–509 (1986)].
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, “Multi frequency room-temperature continuous diode and Ar* laser-pumped Er+ laser emission between 2.66 and 2.85 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 681–683 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bareika, B.

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limited divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2204–2206 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

Dikchyus, G.

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limited divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2204–2206 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

Frauchiger, J.

J. Frauchiger, W. Lüthy, “Interaction of 3 μm radiation with matter,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 231–235 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gradstein, I.

I. Gradstein, I. Ryzhik, Tables of Series, Products and Integrals (Harri Deutsch, Frankfurt/M, Germany, 1981), formula (3.753.1), p. 466.

Hubert, S.

F. Auzel, S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, “Multi frequency room-temperature continuous diode and Ar* laser-pumped Er+ laser emission between 2.66 and 2.85 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 681–683 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kaidalov, S. A.

L. I. Andreeva, K. L. Vodop’yanov, S. A. Kaidalov, Yu. M. Kalinin, M. E. Karasev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. V. Lukashev, “Picosecond erbium-doped YAG Laser (λ = 2.94 μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 326–333 (1986) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 13, 499–509 (1986)].
[CrossRef]

Kalinin, Yu. M.

L. I. Andreeva, K. L. Vodop’yanov, S. A. Kaidalov, Yu. M. Kalinin, M. E. Karasev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. V. Lukashev, “Picosecond erbium-doped YAG Laser (λ = 2.94 μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 326–333 (1986) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 13, 499–509 (1986)].
[CrossRef]

Karasev, M. E.

L. I. Andreeva, K. L. Vodop’yanov, S. A. Kaidalov, Yu. M. Kalinin, M. E. Karasev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. V. Lukashev, “Picosecond erbium-doped YAG Laser (λ = 2.94 μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 326–333 (1986) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 13, 499–509 (1986)].
[CrossRef]

Kuizenga, D. J.

A. E. Siegman, D. J. Kuizenga, “Active mode-coupling phenomena in pulsed and continuous lasers,” Opto-electronics 6, 1061–1083 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kulevskii, L. A.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Bandwidth-limited picosecond pulses from a YSGG:Cr3+:Er3+ laser (λ = 2.79μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 776–779 (1987) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 14, 1219–1224 (1987)].
[CrossRef]

L. I. Andreeva, K. L. Vodop’yanov, S. A. Kaidalov, Yu. M. Kalinin, M. E. Karasev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. V. Lukashev, “Picosecond erbium-doped YAG Laser (λ = 2.94 μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 326–333 (1986) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 13, 499–509 (1986)].
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Active mode locking in a yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser (λ = 2.94μ),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 541–544 (1982) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 9, 853–858 (1982)].
[CrossRef]

Lukashev, A. V.

L. I. Andreeva, K. L. Vodop’yanov, S. A. Kaidalov, Yu. M. Kalinin, M. E. Karasev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. V. Lukashev, “Picosecond erbium-doped YAG Laser (λ = 2.94 μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 326–333 (1986) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 13, 499–509 (1986)].
[CrossRef]

Lüthy, W.

J. Frauchiger, W. Lüthy, “Interaction of 3 μm radiation with matter,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 231–235 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Malyutin, A. A.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Active mode locking in a yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser (λ = 2.94μ),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 541–544 (1982) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 9, 853–858 (1982)].
[CrossRef]

Meichenin, D.

F. Auzel, S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, “Multi frequency room-temperature continuous diode and Ar* laser-pumped Er+ laser emission between 2.66 and 2.85 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 681–683 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Niizeki, N.

N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustooptic deflection materials and techniques,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1073–1092 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Pashinin, P. P.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Bandwidth-limited picosecond pulses from a YSGG:Cr3+:Er3+ laser (λ = 2.79μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 776–779 (1987) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 14, 1219–1224 (1987)].
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Active mode locking in a yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser (λ = 2.94μ),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 541–544 (1982) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 9, 853–858 (1982)].
[CrossRef]

Petrov, M. V.

M. V. Petrov, A. M. Tkachuk, “Optical spectra and multifrequency stimulated emission of LiYFd4-Er3+ crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 45, 81–85 (1978) [Opt. Spektrosk. 45, 147–155 (1978)].

Piskarskas, A.

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limited divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2204–2206 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Active mode locking in a yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser (λ = 2.94μ),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 541–544 (1982) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 9, 853–858 (1982)].
[CrossRef]

Ryzhik, I.

I. Gradstein, I. Ryzhik, Tables of Series, Products and Integrals (Harri Deutsch, Frankfurt/M, Germany, 1981), formula (3.753.1), p. 466.

Shcherbakov, I. A.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Bandwidth-limited picosecond pulses from a YSGG:Cr3+:Er3+ laser (λ = 2.79μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 776–779 (1987) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 14, 1219–1224 (1987)].
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, D. J. Kuizenga, “Active mode-coupling phenomena in pulsed and continuous lasers,” Opto-electronics 6, 1061–1083 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (Oxford U. Press, London, 1986).

Sirutkaitis, V.

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limited divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2204–2206 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A. M.

M. V. Petrov, A. M. Tkachuk, “Optical spectra and multifrequency stimulated emission of LiYFd4-Er3+ crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 45, 81–85 (1978) [Opt. Spektrosk. 45, 147–155 (1978)].

Uchida, N.

N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustooptic deflection materials and techniques,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1073–1092 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Umyskov, A. F.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Bandwidth-limited picosecond pulses from a YSGG:Cr3+:Er3+ laser (λ = 2.79μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 776–779 (1987) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 14, 1219–1224 (1987)].
[CrossRef]

Vodop’yanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Bandwidth-limited picosecond pulses from a YSGG:Cr3+:Er3+ laser (λ = 2.79μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 776–779 (1987) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 14, 1219–1224 (1987)].
[CrossRef]

L. I. Andreeva, K. L. Vodop’yanov, S. A. Kaidalov, Yu. M. Kalinin, M. E. Karasev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. V. Lukashev, “Picosecond erbium-doped YAG Laser (λ = 2.94 μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 326–333 (1986) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 13, 499–509 (1986)].
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Active mode locking in a yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser (λ = 2.94μ),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 541–544 (1982) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 9, 853–858 (1982)].
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Auzel, S. Hubert, D. Meichenin, “Multi frequency room-temperature continuous diode and Ar* laser-pumped Er+ laser emission between 2.66 and 2.85 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 681–683 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Frauchiger, W. Lüthy, “Interaction of 3 μm radiation with matter,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 231–235 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

M. V. Petrov, A. M. Tkachuk, “Optical spectra and multifrequency stimulated emission of LiYFd4-Er3+ crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 45, 81–85 (1978) [Opt. Spektrosk. 45, 147–155 (1978)].

Opto-electronics (1)

A. E. Siegman, D. J. Kuizenga, “Active mode-coupling phenomena in pulsed and continuous lasers,” Opto-electronics 6, 1061–1083 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

N. Uchida, N. Niizeki, “Acoustooptic deflection materials and techniques,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1073–1092 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (4)

B. Bareika, G. Dikchyus, A. Piskarskas, V. Sirutkaitis, “Parametric generation of picosecond radiation with high spectral Q factor and diffraction-limited divergence in a resonator by mode-locked pumping,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1277–1279 (1980) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2204–2206 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, P. P. Pashinin, A. F. Umyskov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Bandwidth-limited picosecond pulses from a YSGG:Cr3+:Er3+ laser (λ = 2.79μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 17, 776–779 (1987) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 14, 1219–1224 (1987)].
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodop’yanov, L. A. Kulevskii, A. A. Malyutin, P. P. Pashinin, A. M. Prokhorov, “Active mode locking in a yttrium erbium aluminum garnet crystal laser (λ = 2.94μ),” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 541–544 (1982) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 9, 853–858 (1982)].
[CrossRef]

L. I. Andreeva, K. L. Vodop’yanov, S. A. Kaidalov, Yu. M. Kalinin, M. E. Karasev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. V. Lukashev, “Picosecond erbium-doped YAG Laser (λ = 2.94 μ) with active mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 326–333 (1986) [Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 13, 499–509 (1986)].
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

I. Gradstein, I. Ryzhik, Tables of Series, Products and Integrals (Harri Deutsch, Frankfurt/M, Germany, 1981), formula (3.753.1), p. 466.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (Oxford U. Press, London, 1986).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser output energy as a function of electrical lamp input energy for spiking Er:YAG and Er:YLF lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mode-locked pulse train of an Er:YLF laser in the center of a spike. The FWHM duration of the spike is 2.5 μs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mode-locked pulse of an Er:YAG laser in the center of a spike. The FWHM duration of the spike is 1 μs.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ AM = π ( l 2 λ 2 d M 2 P ac ) 1 / 2 .
T ( t ) = T 0 cos 2 [ δ AM sin ( 4 π f AM t ) ] ,
T t = [ 1 + J 0 ( 2 δ AM ) ] / 2 ,
Q = 2 π λ l f AM 2 / v 2
t p { 2 ln ( 2 ) ( 2 g L / δ AM ) 1 / 2 π 2 f AM Δ coth [ 2 t b f AM 2 ( 2 g L δ AM ) 1 / 2 / Δ ] } 1 / 2 ,
t b ~ Δ f AM ( g L ) 1 / 2 .

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