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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

In this cross-sectional view of an 18-μm OPP pixel, 12 μm are allocated for the open-phase region, and 6 μm for phases 1 and 2. The design is optimized for high QE applications working in the UV, EUV, and soft x ray regions (i.e., the gate insulator has been removed in the open region). (The vertical scale is exaggerated ten times that of the horizontal.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Potential diagram shows how charge is collected within the open phase during integration and transferred during readout as different clock voltages are applied to phases 1 and 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thin-film solar cells, arranged edge to edge on a flexible substrate, are wrapped around equipment. Arrays of discrete solar cells, in contrast, must be individually mounted and interconnected, with significant space between them.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Blocking layer in the DCC-CSP laser increases efficiency over that of the CSP laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

This simple light-meter circuit is used to position the knife edge of a schlieren optical system to block exactly half the light, reducing the inaccuracies caused by the previous subjective technique for the alignment of knife edges.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Magnetic flux is compressed into the gap between the superconductive hollow cylinder and the superconductive rod when the rod is inserted in the hole in the cylinder. The Hall-effect probe measures the flux density before and after compression.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Compression ratio as a function of the initial magnetic field (upper plot) appears to fit the mathematical model with η = 1. The critical current density decreases with the magnetic field according to the model (lower plot). These data were obtained with specimens of sintered YBa2Cu3O7, a high-temperature superconductor.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Laser-speckle images of seed particles are recorded in pairs, with an equal interval within each pair and unequal intervals between successive pairs. A synthesis of the first images of all the pairs is then correlated with a synthesis of the second images to obtain the velocity field.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absolute-pressure relief valve helps to stabilize the temperature of the cold head despite variations in atmospheric pressure. The feedback-controlled electrical heater provides additional stabilization. The demand-flow Joule-Thomson valve requires less nitrogen than does a fixed-orifice Joule-Thomson value that provides the same amount of cooling.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Carbon is evaporated onto the back surface of a solid-state imaging device. The carbon film acts as an antireflection and antistatic coat.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

In the laser-array transmitter, the single-mode diffraction-limited beam from the master laser injection-locks the array of laser diodes to produce a 220-mW high quality beam.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Power dissipation required for a specific gain is plotted for two source followers—one using a CryoFET and the other a comparable MOSFET. The MOSFET consumes ~ 50–100 times as much power to achieve the same gain.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Microelectronic advanced laser scanner probes selected locations on an integrated memory or other circuit for susceptibility to single-event upsets. The probe is a laser beam focused to a small spot to simulate some of the effects of energetic heavy ions by generating electron–hole pairs at that spot.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Light-assisted microelectronic advanced laser scanner adds steady illumination (optical bias) to the probing spot of light on the device under test.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Twyman-Green interferometer illuminated by white light generates a polychromatic interference image of the surface under test.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Spectra at a number of sampling points in the polychromatic image are measured, and the autocorrelation function of the spectrum of each point indicates the height of the surface under test at that point.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Proposed fiber-optic probe head is more compact and, therefore, lighter in weight and more maneuverable.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Focus-shift-measuring instrument is easy to use. It can be operated in a lighted room, without having to make delicate adjustments while peering through a microscope.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Resistivity of Bi1.5Pb0.5Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox is a function of temperature. Samples were annealed in air at 840°C for different times.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

False-color scale in an image of a weld indicates temperature distribution. The bands of color show preheating of the area immediately ahead of the torch, the weld pool, and the cooling of the area behind the torch.

Equations (1)

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ρ ( m , n ) = Σ x Σ y [ f ( x , y ) - f ] { Σ x Σ y [ f ( x , y ) - f ] 2 [ w ( x - m , y - n ) - w ] Σ x Σ y [ w ( x - m , y - n ) w ] 2 } 1 / 2

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