Abstract

Silver halide sensitized gelatin processing is optimized to increase the spatial frequency response in Agfa-Gevaert 8E75 HD emulsion; therefore a diffraction efficiency of 55% in reflection gratings of 5000 lines/mm is achieved.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Chang, K. Winick, “Silver-halide gelatin holograms,” in Optical Alignment I, R. N. Shagam, W. C. Sweatt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.251, 172–177 (1980).
  2. P. Hariharan, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms: mechanism of hologram formation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2040–2042 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Fimia, I. Pascual, C. Vázquez, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized holograms and their applications,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. N. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 53–57 (1989).
  4. A. Fimia, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “Silver halide (sensitized) gelatin in Agfa-Gevaert plates: the optimized procedure,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2043–2051 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. K. Angell, “Improved diffraction efficiency of silver halide (sensitized) gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4692–4702 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated gelatin for the fabrication of holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407–2417 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Red sensitivity of dichromated gelatin films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1189–1192 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, A. Fimia, “Holographic collimator of 200 mm diameter in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” J. Opt. 21, 211–215 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Ferrante, “Silver halide gelatin spatial frequency response,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4180–4181 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Hariharan, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms. 3: Mechanism of material transfer,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2983–2985 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Oliva, P. J. Boj, M. Pardo, “Dichromated gelatin holograms derived from Agfa 8E75 HD plates,” Appl. Opt. 23, 196 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. R. Graver, J. W. Gladden, J. W. Eastes, “Phase holograms formed by silver halide (sensitized) gelatin processing,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1529–1536 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms: the influence of halide type and concentration on diffraction efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3895–3898 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Kosar, Light-Sensitive Systems: Chemistry and Applications of Nonsilver Halide Photographic Processes (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2.
  15. R. K. Kostuk, “Factorial optimization of bleach constituents for silver halide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1611–1616 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Crespo, A. Fimia, J. A. Quintana, “Fixation-free methods in bleached reflection holography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1642–1645 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. K. Angell, “Controlling emulsion thickness variations in silver halide (sensitized) gelatin,” in Holographic Optics: Design and Applications, I. Cindrich, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.883, 106–113 (1988).

1991 (1)

A. Fimia, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “Silver halide (sensitized) gelatin in Agfa-Gevaert plates: the optimized procedure,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2043–2051 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, A. Fimia, “Holographic collimator of 200 mm diameter in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” J. Opt. 21, 211–215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. Hariharan, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms. 3: Mechanism of material transfer,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2983–2985 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (3)

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

Angell, D. K.

D. K. Angell, “Improved diffraction efficiency of silver halide (sensitized) gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4692–4702 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Angell, “Controlling emulsion thickness variations in silver halide (sensitized) gelatin,” in Holographic Optics: Design and Applications, I. Cindrich, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.883, 106–113 (1988).

Beléndez, A.

A. Fimia, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “Silver halide (sensitized) gelatin in Agfa-Gevaert plates: the optimized procedure,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2043–2051 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, A. Fimia, “Holographic collimator of 200 mm diameter in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” J. Opt. 21, 211–215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, C. Vázquez, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized holograms and their applications,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. N. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 53–57 (1989).

Boj, P. J.

Chang, B. J.

B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated gelatin for the fabrication of holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407–2417 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Chang, K. Winick, “Silver-halide gelatin holograms,” in Optical Alignment I, R. N. Shagam, W. C. Sweatt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.251, 172–177 (1980).

Chidley, C. M.

Crespo, J.

Eastes, J. W.

Ferrante, R. A.

Fimia, A.

A. Fimia, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “Silver halide (sensitized) gelatin in Agfa-Gevaert plates: the optimized procedure,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2043–2051 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, A. Fimia, “Holographic collimator of 200 mm diameter in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” J. Opt. 21, 211–215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Crespo, A. Fimia, J. A. Quintana, “Fixation-free methods in bleached reflection holography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1642–1645 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, C. Vázquez, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized holograms and their applications,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. N. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 53–57 (1989).

Gladden, J. W.

Graver, W. R.

Hariharan, P.

Kosar, J.

J. Kosar, Light-Sensitive Systems: Chemistry and Applications of Nonsilver Halide Photographic Processes (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2.

Kostuk, R. K.

Leonard, C. D.

Lessard, R. A.

Oliva, J.

Pardo, M.

Pascual, I.

A. Fimia, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “Silver halide (sensitized) gelatin in Agfa-Gevaert plates: the optimized procedure,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2043–2051 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, A. Fimia, “Holographic collimator of 200 mm diameter in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” J. Opt. 21, 211–215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, C. Vázquez, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized holograms and their applications,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. N. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 53–57 (1989).

Quintana, J. A.

Roberge, P. C.

Solano, C.

Vázquez, C.

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, C. Vázquez, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized holograms and their applications,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. N. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 53–57 (1989).

Winick, K.

B. J. Chang, K. Winick, “Silver-halide gelatin holograms,” in Optical Alignment I, R. N. Shagam, W. C. Sweatt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.251, 172–177 (1980).

Appl. Opt. (11)

P. Hariharan, “Silver halide sensitized gelatin holograms: mechanism of hologram formation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2040–2042 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Angell, “Improved diffraction efficiency of silver halide (sensitized) gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4692–4702 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated gelatin for the fabrication of holographic optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407–2417 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Red sensitivity of dichromated gelatin films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1189–1192 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Ferrante, “Silver halide gelatin spatial frequency response,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4180–4181 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hariharan, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms. 3: Mechanism of material transfer,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2983–2985 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Oliva, P. J. Boj, M. Pardo, “Dichromated gelatin holograms derived from Agfa 8E75 HD plates,” Appl. Opt. 23, 196 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Graver, J. W. Gladden, J. W. Eastes, “Phase holograms formed by silver halide (sensitized) gelatin processing,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1529–1536 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hariharan, C. M. Chidley, “Rehalogenating bleaches for photographic phase holograms: the influence of halide type and concentration on diffraction efficiency and scattering,” Appl. Opt. 26, 3895–3898 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Kostuk, “Factorial optimization of bleach constituents for silver halide holograms,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1611–1616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Crespo, A. Fimia, J. A. Quintana, “Fixation-free methods in bleached reflection holography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1642–1645 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Fimia, A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, “Silver halide (sensitized) gelatin in Agfa-Gevaert plates: the optimized procedure,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 2043–2051 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

A. Beléndez, I. Pascual, A. Fimia, “Holographic collimator of 200 mm diameter in silver halide sensitized gelatin,” J. Opt. 21, 211–215 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

B. J. Chang, K. Winick, “Silver-halide gelatin holograms,” in Optical Alignment I, R. N. Shagam, W. C. Sweatt, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.251, 172–177 (1980).

A. Fimia, I. Pascual, C. Vázquez, A. Beléndez, “Silver halide sensitized holograms and their applications,” in Holographic Optics II: Principles and Applications, G. N. Morris, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1136, 53–57 (1989).

D. K. Angell, “Controlling emulsion thickness variations in silver halide (sensitized) gelatin,” in Holographic Optics: Design and Applications, I. Cindrich, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.883, 106–113 (1988).

J. Kosar, Light-Sensitive Systems: Chemistry and Applications of Nonsilver Halide Photographic Processes (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Maximum diffraction efficiency as a function of the spatial frequency for unslated holographic transmission gratings developed with D-19 (□) and PAAP (■).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency as a function of exposure for unslated holographic transmission gratings at a spatial frequency of 2000 lines/mm developed with PAAP with (□) and without (■) a stop in the processing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maximum diffraction efficiency as a function of spatial frequency for unslated holographic transmission gratings developed with PAAP with (□) and without (■) a stop in the processing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency (□) and reconstruction wavelength (■) as functions of exposure for holographic reflection gratings processed according to Table 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Processing Schedule and Bleach Formula

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