Abstract

The principal optical constants no, κo, ne, and κe of the hexagonal crystal CdSe are determined in the wavelength region between 380 and 950 nm at room temperature. The minimum reflectivities and the corresponding Brewster angles of parallel polarized light are measured for ordinary and extraordinary rays in the wavelength region between 380 and 728 nm. At longer wavelengths (κo < 10−3) Brewster-angle measurements and transmission measurements were applied. A plot of the absorption coefficients αo and αe versus wavelength indicates deviations from a direct band-gap parabolic absorption dependence.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. D’Ans Lax, “Makroskopische Physikalisch-Chemische Eigenschaften,” in Taschenbuch für Chemiker und Physiker, E. Lax, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967), Vol. 1, p. 1–270.
  2. I. Broser, R. Broser, A. Hoffmann, “Cadmium selenide (CdSe),” in Landolt–Börnstein Tables, New Series, Group III: Crystals and Solid State Physics, Vol. 17: Semiconductors: Subvolume b: Physics of II–VI and I–VII Compounds, Semi-magnetic Semiconductors, O. Madelang, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982), pp. 202–224, 409–410, 442–457.
  3. V. V. Sobolev, V. I. Donetskina, E. F. Zagainov, “Direct precision method for detection of excitons in II–VI and III–V crystals at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 646–652 (1978).
  4. W. L. Bond, “Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674–1677 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. P. Lisitsa, L. F. Gudymenko, V. N. Malinko, S. F. Terekhova, “Dispersion of the refractive indices and birefringence of CdSxSe1−x single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 31, 389–399 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Efficient parametric mixing in CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 527–530 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. Geidur, A. D. Yas’kov, “Dispersion of refractive index and photoelastic effect in semiconductors with a wurtzite structure,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 48, 618–622 (1980).
  8. A. N. Pikhtin, A. D. Yaskov, “Refractive index and birefringence of semiconductors with the wurtzite structure,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 15, 8–12 (1981).
  9. B. Jensen, A. Torabi, “Refractive index of hexagonal II–VI compounds CdSe, CdS, and CdSexS1−x,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 857–863 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. C. Bhar, “Refractive index interpolation in phase-matching,” Appl. Opt. 15, 305–307 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. F. Gross, V. V. Sobolev, “Fine structure of the fundamental absorption edge in single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 379–385 (1960).
  12. R. B. Parsons, W. Wardzynski, A. P. Yoffe, “The optical properties of single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 262, 120–131 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Wardzynski, “A method of measurement of a small birefringence,” Acta. Phys. Pol. A 39, 21–27 (1971).
  14. I. V. Baranets, A. Kh. Zilbershtein, L. E. Solovev, “Birefringence in crystals with isotropic points and determination of oscillator strengths for excitons in CdS by the Rozhdestvenskii hook method,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 37, 164–165 (1974).
  15. S. P. Keller, G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of CdSe single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 1974–1977 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Wardzynski, “Dichroism and birefringence of single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Proc. R. Soc. London 260, 370–377 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. E. McCarthy, “The reflection and transmission of infrared materials: III, spectra from 2 μ to 50 μ,” Appl. Opt. 4, 317–320 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Č. Koňák, J. Dillinger, J. Prosser, “The structure of the optical absorption edge in CdSe and CdTe,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on II–VI Semiconducting Compounds, D. G. Thomas, ed. (Benjamin, New York, 1967), pp. 850–862.
  19. N. R. Kulish, A. F. Maznichenko, B. M. Bulakh, “Influence of laser radiation intensity on the edge absorption spectrum of CdSe,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 14, 409–411 (1980).
  20. M. Cardona, G. Harbeke, “Optical properties and band structure of wurtzite-type crystals and rutile,” Phys. Rev. 137, A1467–A1476 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, “Exciton structure and Zeeman effects in cadmium selenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, Suppl. 10, 2271–2277 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Cardona, “Band parameters of semiconductors with zincblende, wurtzite, and germanium structure,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 1543–1555 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. Dolocan, “Electrical, photoelectrical, and optical properties of CdSe thin films,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 28, 647–654 (1983).
  24. R. C. Kainthla, D. K. Pandya, K. L. Chopra, “Photo-electronic properties of solution-grown CdSe films,” Solid-State Electron. 25, 73–76 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. A. El-Shazly, L. M. El-Nady, M. M. El-Nahars, H. T. El-Shair, A. Y. Morsy, “Absorption of light in polycrystalline CdSe thin films in the region of the fundamental absorption edge,” Opt. Pura Apl. 19, 23–26 (1986).
  26. Y. Lu, A. Penzkofer, “Optical constants measurements of strongly absorbing media,” Appl. Opt. 25, 221–225 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Penzkofer, M. Schäffner, X. Bao, “Two-photon absorption and resonant non-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in CdSe,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 22, 351–367 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. König, “Elektromagnetische Lichttheorie,” in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 20, Licht als Wellenbewegung, H. Geiger, K. Scheel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1928), pp. 141–262.
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. J. Eichler, “Dispersion und Absorption des Lichtes,” in Bergmann–Schaefer, Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik, Band III: Optik, H. Gobrecht, ed. (Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 1987), pp. 207–324.
  30. R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Academic, London, 1976), Chap. 15.
  31. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 13.
  32. M. V. Klein, T. E. Furtak, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 2.
  33. J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Theoretical and experimental effects of spatial dispersion on the optical properties of crystals,” Phys. Rev. 132, 563–572 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  34. W. Leupacher, A. Penzkofer, “Refractive-index measurement of absorbing condensed media,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1554–1558 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. H. Rank, “The index of refraction of air,” in Advances in Spectroscopy, H. W. Thompson, ed. (Interscience, New York, 1959), Vol. 1, pp. 76–78.
  36. D. L. Greenaway, G. Harbeke, Optical Properties and Band Structure of Semiconductors (Pergamon, Oxford, 1968).
  37. B. Smandek, G. Chmiel, H. Gerischer, “Photoluminescence as an in-situ technique to determine solid state and surface properties of semiconductors in an electrochemical cell—application of the ‘dead layer model’,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 93, 1094–1103 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  38. B. Segall, D. T. F. Marple, “Intrinsic exciton absorption,” in Physics and Chemistry of II–VI Compounds, M. Aven, J. S. Prener, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), Chap. 7, pp. 317–381.
  39. D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, T. C. Collins, “Some optical properties of group II–VI semiconductors (I),” Phys. Status Solidi 9, 645–684 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  40. R. G. Wheeler, J. O. Dimmock, “Exciton structure and Zeeman effects in cadmium selenide,” Phys. Rev. 125, 1805–1815 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  41. F. Urbach, “The long-wavelength edge of photographic sensitivity and of the electronic absorption of solids,” Phys. Rev. 92, 1324–0000 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  42. J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover, New York, 1971), Chap. 3.
  43. R. E. Dietz, J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and the absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2282–2286 (1961).
    [CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Penzkofer, M. Schäffner, X. Bao, “Two-photon absorption and resonant non-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in CdSe,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 22, 351–367 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

B. Smandek, G. Chmiel, H. Gerischer, “Photoluminescence as an in-situ technique to determine solid state and surface properties of semiconductors in an electrochemical cell—application of the ‘dead layer model’,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 93, 1094–1103 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

A. A. El-Shazly, L. M. El-Nady, M. M. El-Nahars, H. T. El-Shair, A. Y. Morsy, “Absorption of light in polycrystalline CdSe thin films in the region of the fundamental absorption edge,” Opt. Pura Apl. 19, 23–26 (1986).

Y. Lu, A. Penzkofer, “Optical constants measurements of strongly absorbing media,” Appl. Opt. 25, 221–225 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jensen, A. Torabi, “Refractive index of hexagonal II–VI compounds CdSe, CdS, and CdSexS1−x,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 857–863 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

W. Leupacher, A. Penzkofer, “Refractive-index measurement of absorbing condensed media,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1554–1558 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

V. Dolocan, “Electrical, photoelectrical, and optical properties of CdSe thin films,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 28, 647–654 (1983).

1982 (1)

R. C. Kainthla, D. K. Pandya, K. L. Chopra, “Photo-electronic properties of solution-grown CdSe films,” Solid-State Electron. 25, 73–76 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. N. Pikhtin, A. D. Yaskov, “Refractive index and birefringence of semiconductors with the wurtzite structure,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 15, 8–12 (1981).

1980 (2)

S. A. Geidur, A. D. Yas’kov, “Dispersion of refractive index and photoelastic effect in semiconductors with a wurtzite structure,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 48, 618–622 (1980).

N. R. Kulish, A. F. Maznichenko, B. M. Bulakh, “Influence of laser radiation intensity on the edge absorption spectrum of CdSe,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 14, 409–411 (1980).

1978 (1)

V. V. Sobolev, V. I. Donetskina, E. F. Zagainov, “Direct precision method for detection of excitons in II–VI and III–V crystals at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 646–652 (1978).

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

I. V. Baranets, A. Kh. Zilbershtein, L. E. Solovev, “Birefringence in crystals with isotropic points and determination of oscillator strengths for excitons in CdS by the Rozhdestvenskii hook method,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 37, 164–165 (1974).

1971 (2)

R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Efficient parametric mixing in CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 527–530 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. Wardzynski, “A method of measurement of a small birefringence,” Acta. Phys. Pol. A 39, 21–27 (1971).

1969 (1)

M. P. Lisitsa, L. F. Gudymenko, V. N. Malinko, S. F. Terekhova, “Dispersion of the refractive indices and birefringence of CdSxSe1−x single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 31, 389–399 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965 (4)

D. E. McCarthy, “The reflection and transmission of infrared materials: III, spectra from 2 μ to 50 μ,” Appl. Opt. 4, 317–320 (1965).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Bond, “Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674–1677 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, T. C. Collins, “Some optical properties of group II–VI semiconductors (I),” Phys. Status Solidi 9, 645–684 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. Cardona, G. Harbeke, “Optical properties and band structure of wurtzite-type crystals and rutile,” Phys. Rev. 137, A1467–A1476 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (2)

J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Theoretical and experimental effects of spatial dispersion on the optical properties of crystals,” Phys. Rev. 132, 563–572 (1963).
[CrossRef]

M. Cardona, “Band parameters of semiconductors with zincblende, wurtzite, and germanium structure,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 1543–1555 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

R. G. Wheeler, J. O. Dimmock, “Exciton structure and Zeeman effects in cadmium selenide,” Phys. Rev. 125, 1805–1815 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (4)

J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, “Exciton structure and Zeeman effects in cadmium selenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, Suppl. 10, 2271–2277 (1961).
[CrossRef]

W. Wardzynski, “Dichroism and birefringence of single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Proc. R. Soc. London 260, 370–377 (1961).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Dietz, J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and the absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2282–2286 (1961).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Parsons, W. Wardzynski, A. P. Yoffe, “The optical properties of single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 262, 120–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (2)

E. F. Gross, V. V. Sobolev, “Fine structure of the fundamental absorption edge in single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 379–385 (1960).

S. P. Keller, G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of CdSe single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 1974–1977 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

F. Urbach, “The long-wavelength edge of photographic sensitivity and of the electronic absorption of solids,” Phys. Rev. 92, 1324–0000 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

A. Penzkofer, M. Schäffner, X. Bao, “Two-photon absorption and resonant non-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in CdSe,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 22, 351–367 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Baranets, I. V.

I. V. Baranets, A. Kh. Zilbershtein, L. E. Solovev, “Birefringence in crystals with isotropic points and determination of oscillator strengths for excitons in CdS by the Rozhdestvenskii hook method,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 37, 164–165 (1974).

Bhar, G. C.

Bond, W. L.

W. L. Bond, “Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674–1677 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 13.

Broser, I.

I. Broser, R. Broser, A. Hoffmann, “Cadmium selenide (CdSe),” in Landolt–Börnstein Tables, New Series, Group III: Crystals and Solid State Physics, Vol. 17: Semiconductors: Subvolume b: Physics of II–VI and I–VII Compounds, Semi-magnetic Semiconductors, O. Madelang, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982), pp. 202–224, 409–410, 442–457.

Broser, R.

I. Broser, R. Broser, A. Hoffmann, “Cadmium selenide (CdSe),” in Landolt–Börnstein Tables, New Series, Group III: Crystals and Solid State Physics, Vol. 17: Semiconductors: Subvolume b: Physics of II–VI and I–VII Compounds, Semi-magnetic Semiconductors, O. Madelang, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982), pp. 202–224, 409–410, 442–457.

Bulakh, B. M.

N. R. Kulish, A. F. Maznichenko, B. M. Bulakh, “Influence of laser radiation intensity on the edge absorption spectrum of CdSe,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 14, 409–411 (1980).

Byer, R. L.

R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Efficient parametric mixing in CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 527–530 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cardona, M.

M. Cardona, G. Harbeke, “Optical properties and band structure of wurtzite-type crystals and rutile,” Phys. Rev. 137, A1467–A1476 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. Cardona, “Band parameters of semiconductors with zincblende, wurtzite, and germanium structure,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 1543–1555 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Chmiel, G.

B. Smandek, G. Chmiel, H. Gerischer, “Photoluminescence as an in-situ technique to determine solid state and surface properties of semiconductors in an electrochemical cell—application of the ‘dead layer model’,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 93, 1094–1103 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chopra, K. L.

R. C. Kainthla, D. K. Pandya, K. L. Chopra, “Photo-electronic properties of solution-grown CdSe films,” Solid-State Electron. 25, 73–76 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Collins, T. C.

D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, T. C. Collins, “Some optical properties of group II–VI semiconductors (I),” Phys. Status Solidi 9, 645–684 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, R. E.

R. E. Dietz, J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and the absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2282–2286 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Dillinger, J.

Č. Koňák, J. Dillinger, J. Prosser, “The structure of the optical absorption edge in CdSe and CdTe,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on II–VI Semiconducting Compounds, D. G. Thomas, ed. (Benjamin, New York, 1967), pp. 850–862.

Dimmock, J. O.

R. G. Wheeler, J. O. Dimmock, “Exciton structure and Zeeman effects in cadmium selenide,” Phys. Rev. 125, 1805–1815 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, “Exciton structure and Zeeman effects in cadmium selenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, Suppl. 10, 2271–2277 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Academic, London, 1976), Chap. 15.

Dolocan, V.

V. Dolocan, “Electrical, photoelectrical, and optical properties of CdSe thin films,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 28, 647–654 (1983).

Donetskina, V. I.

V. V. Sobolev, V. I. Donetskina, E. F. Zagainov, “Direct precision method for detection of excitons in II–VI and III–V crystals at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 646–652 (1978).

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, “Dispersion und Absorption des Lichtes,” in Bergmann–Schaefer, Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik, Band III: Optik, H. Gobrecht, ed. (Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 1987), pp. 207–324.

El-Nady, L. M.

A. A. El-Shazly, L. M. El-Nady, M. M. El-Nahars, H. T. El-Shair, A. Y. Morsy, “Absorption of light in polycrystalline CdSe thin films in the region of the fundamental absorption edge,” Opt. Pura Apl. 19, 23–26 (1986).

El-Nahars, M. M.

A. A. El-Shazly, L. M. El-Nady, M. M. El-Nahars, H. T. El-Shair, A. Y. Morsy, “Absorption of light in polycrystalline CdSe thin films in the region of the fundamental absorption edge,” Opt. Pura Apl. 19, 23–26 (1986).

El-Shair, H. T.

A. A. El-Shazly, L. M. El-Nady, M. M. El-Nahars, H. T. El-Shair, A. Y. Morsy, “Absorption of light in polycrystalline CdSe thin films in the region of the fundamental absorption edge,” Opt. Pura Apl. 19, 23–26 (1986).

El-Shazly, A. A.

A. A. El-Shazly, L. M. El-Nady, M. M. El-Nahars, H. T. El-Shair, A. Y. Morsy, “Absorption of light in polycrystalline CdSe thin films in the region of the fundamental absorption edge,” Opt. Pura Apl. 19, 23–26 (1986).

Furtak, T. E.

M. V. Klein, T. E. Furtak, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 2.

Geidur, S. A.

S. A. Geidur, A. D. Yas’kov, “Dispersion of refractive index and photoelastic effect in semiconductors with a wurtzite structure,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 48, 618–622 (1980).

Gerischer, H.

B. Smandek, G. Chmiel, H. Gerischer, “Photoluminescence as an in-situ technique to determine solid state and surface properties of semiconductors in an electrochemical cell—application of the ‘dead layer model’,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 93, 1094–1103 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, D. L.

D. L. Greenaway, G. Harbeke, Optical Properties and Band Structure of Semiconductors (Pergamon, Oxford, 1968).

Gross, E. F.

E. F. Gross, V. V. Sobolev, “Fine structure of the fundamental absorption edge in single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 379–385 (1960).

Gudymenko, L. F.

M. P. Lisitsa, L. F. Gudymenko, V. N. Malinko, S. F. Terekhova, “Dispersion of the refractive indices and birefringence of CdSxSe1−x single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 31, 389–399 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Harbeke, G.

M. Cardona, G. Harbeke, “Optical properties and band structure of wurtzite-type crystals and rutile,” Phys. Rev. 137, A1467–A1476 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Greenaway, G. Harbeke, Optical Properties and Band Structure of Semiconductors (Pergamon, Oxford, 1968).

Herbst, R. L.

R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Efficient parametric mixing in CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 527–530 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, A.

I. Broser, R. Broser, A. Hoffmann, “Cadmium selenide (CdSe),” in Landolt–Börnstein Tables, New Series, Group III: Crystals and Solid State Physics, Vol. 17: Semiconductors: Subvolume b: Physics of II–VI and I–VII Compounds, Semi-magnetic Semiconductors, O. Madelang, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982), pp. 202–224, 409–410, 442–457.

Hopfield, J. J.

J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Theoretical and experimental effects of spatial dispersion on the optical properties of crystals,” Phys. Rev. 132, 563–572 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Dietz, J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and the absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2282–2286 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, B.

Kainthla, R. C.

R. C. Kainthla, D. K. Pandya, K. L. Chopra, “Photo-electronic properties of solution-grown CdSe films,” Solid-State Electron. 25, 73–76 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S. P.

S. P. Keller, G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of CdSe single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 1974–1977 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. V.

M. V. Klein, T. E. Furtak, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 2.

Konák, C.

Č. Koňák, J. Dillinger, J. Prosser, “The structure of the optical absorption edge in CdSe and CdTe,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on II–VI Semiconducting Compounds, D. G. Thomas, ed. (Benjamin, New York, 1967), pp. 850–862.

König, W.

W. König, “Elektromagnetische Lichttheorie,” in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 20, Licht als Wellenbewegung, H. Geiger, K. Scheel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1928), pp. 141–262.
[CrossRef]

Kulish, N. R.

N. R. Kulish, A. F. Maznichenko, B. M. Bulakh, “Influence of laser radiation intensity on the edge absorption spectrum of CdSe,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 14, 409–411 (1980).

Lax, D’Ans

D’Ans Lax, “Makroskopische Physikalisch-Chemische Eigenschaften,” in Taschenbuch für Chemiker und Physiker, E. Lax, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967), Vol. 1, p. 1–270.

Leupacher, W.

W. Leupacher, A. Penzkofer, “Refractive-index measurement of absorbing condensed media,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1554–1558 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisitsa, M. P.

M. P. Lisitsa, L. F. Gudymenko, V. N. Malinko, S. F. Terekhova, “Dispersion of the refractive indices and birefringence of CdSxSe1−x single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 31, 389–399 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Litton, C. W.

D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, T. C. Collins, “Some optical properties of group II–VI semiconductors (I),” Phys. Status Solidi 9, 645–684 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, A. Penzkofer, “Optical constants measurements of strongly absorbing media,” Appl. Opt. 25, 221–225 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malinko, V. N.

M. P. Lisitsa, L. F. Gudymenko, V. N. Malinko, S. F. Terekhova, “Dispersion of the refractive indices and birefringence of CdSxSe1−x single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 31, 389–399 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Marple, D. T. F.

B. Segall, D. T. F. Marple, “Intrinsic exciton absorption,” in Physics and Chemistry of II–VI Compounds, M. Aven, J. S. Prener, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), Chap. 7, pp. 317–381.

Maznichenko, A. F.

N. R. Kulish, A. F. Maznichenko, B. M. Bulakh, “Influence of laser radiation intensity on the edge absorption spectrum of CdSe,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 14, 409–411 (1980).

McCarthy, D. E.

Morsy, A. Y.

A. A. El-Shazly, L. M. El-Nady, M. M. El-Nahars, H. T. El-Shair, A. Y. Morsy, “Absorption of light in polycrystalline CdSe thin films in the region of the fundamental absorption edge,” Opt. Pura Apl. 19, 23–26 (1986).

Pandya, D. K.

R. C. Kainthla, D. K. Pandya, K. L. Chopra, “Photo-electronic properties of solution-grown CdSe films,” Solid-State Electron. 25, 73–76 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pankove, J. I.

J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover, New York, 1971), Chap. 3.

Parsons, R. B.

R. B. Parsons, W. Wardzynski, A. P. Yoffe, “The optical properties of single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 262, 120–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Penzkofer, A.

A. Penzkofer, M. Schäffner, X. Bao, “Two-photon absorption and resonant non-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in CdSe,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 22, 351–367 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, A. Penzkofer, “Optical constants measurements of strongly absorbing media,” Appl. Opt. 25, 221–225 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Leupacher, A. Penzkofer, “Refractive-index measurement of absorbing condensed media,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1554–1558 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pettit, G. D.

S. P. Keller, G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of CdSe single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 1974–1977 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Pikhtin, A. N.

A. N. Pikhtin, A. D. Yaskov, “Refractive index and birefringence of semiconductors with the wurtzite structure,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 15, 8–12 (1981).

Prosser, J.

Č. Koňák, J. Dillinger, J. Prosser, “The structure of the optical absorption edge in CdSe and CdTe,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on II–VI Semiconducting Compounds, D. G. Thomas, ed. (Benjamin, New York, 1967), pp. 850–862.

Rank, D. H.

D. H. Rank, “The index of refraction of air,” in Advances in Spectroscopy, H. W. Thompson, ed. (Interscience, New York, 1959), Vol. 1, pp. 76–78.

Reynolds, D. C.

D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, T. C. Collins, “Some optical properties of group II–VI semiconductors (I),” Phys. Status Solidi 9, 645–684 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Schäffner, M.

A. Penzkofer, M. Schäffner, X. Bao, “Two-photon absorption and resonant non-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in CdSe,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 22, 351–367 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Segall, B.

B. Segall, D. T. F. Marple, “Intrinsic exciton absorption,” in Physics and Chemistry of II–VI Compounds, M. Aven, J. S. Prener, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), Chap. 7, pp. 317–381.

Smandek, B.

B. Smandek, G. Chmiel, H. Gerischer, “Photoluminescence as an in-situ technique to determine solid state and surface properties of semiconductors in an electrochemical cell—application of the ‘dead layer model’,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 93, 1094–1103 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sobolev, V. V.

V. V. Sobolev, V. I. Donetskina, E. F. Zagainov, “Direct precision method for detection of excitons in II–VI and III–V crystals at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 646–652 (1978).

E. F. Gross, V. V. Sobolev, “Fine structure of the fundamental absorption edge in single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 379–385 (1960).

Solovev, L. E.

I. V. Baranets, A. Kh. Zilbershtein, L. E. Solovev, “Birefringence in crystals with isotropic points and determination of oscillator strengths for excitons in CdS by the Rozhdestvenskii hook method,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 37, 164–165 (1974).

Terekhova, S. F.

M. P. Lisitsa, L. F. Gudymenko, V. N. Malinko, S. F. Terekhova, “Dispersion of the refractive indices and birefringence of CdSxSe1−x single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 31, 389–399 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, D. G.

J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Theoretical and experimental effects of spatial dispersion on the optical properties of crystals,” Phys. Rev. 132, 563–572 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Dietz, J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and the absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2282–2286 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Torabi, A.

Urbach, F.

F. Urbach, “The long-wavelength edge of photographic sensitivity and of the electronic absorption of solids,” Phys. Rev. 92, 1324–0000 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Wardzynski, W.

W. Wardzynski, “A method of measurement of a small birefringence,” Acta. Phys. Pol. A 39, 21–27 (1971).

W. Wardzynski, “Dichroism and birefringence of single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Proc. R. Soc. London 260, 370–377 (1961).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Parsons, W. Wardzynski, A. P. Yoffe, “The optical properties of single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 262, 120–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, R. G.

R. G. Wheeler, J. O. Dimmock, “Exciton structure and Zeeman effects in cadmium selenide,” Phys. Rev. 125, 1805–1815 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, “Exciton structure and Zeeman effects in cadmium selenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, Suppl. 10, 2271–2277 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 13.

Yas’kov, A. D.

S. A. Geidur, A. D. Yas’kov, “Dispersion of refractive index and photoelastic effect in semiconductors with a wurtzite structure,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 48, 618–622 (1980).

Yaskov, A. D.

A. N. Pikhtin, A. D. Yaskov, “Refractive index and birefringence of semiconductors with the wurtzite structure,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 15, 8–12 (1981).

Yoffe, A. P.

R. B. Parsons, W. Wardzynski, A. P. Yoffe, “The optical properties of single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 262, 120–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Zagainov, E. F.

V. V. Sobolev, V. I. Donetskina, E. F. Zagainov, “Direct precision method for detection of excitons in II–VI and III–V crystals at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 646–652 (1978).

Zilbershtein, A. Kh.

I. V. Baranets, A. Kh. Zilbershtein, L. E. Solovev, “Birefringence in crystals with isotropic points and determination of oscillator strengths for excitons in CdS by the Rozhdestvenskii hook method,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 37, 164–165 (1974).

Acta. Phys. Pol. A (1)

W. Wardzynski, “A method of measurement of a small birefringence,” Acta. Phys. Pol. A 39, 21–27 (1971).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Y. Lu, A. Penzkofer, “Optical constants measurements of strongly absorbing media,” Appl. Opt. 25, 221–225 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Leupacher, A. Penzkofer, “Refractive-index measurement of absorbing condensed media,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1554–1558 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Efficient parametric mixing in CdSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 527–530 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. (1)

B. Smandek, G. Chmiel, H. Gerischer, “Photoluminescence as an in-situ technique to determine solid state and surface properties of semiconductors in an electrochemical cell—application of the ‘dead layer model’,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 93, 1094–1103 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. L. Bond, “Measurement of the refractive indices of several crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674–1677 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. O. Dimmock, R. G. Wheeler, “Exciton structure and Zeeman effects in cadmium selenide,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, Suppl. 10, 2271–2277 (1961).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Dietz, J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Excitons and the absorption edge of ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2282–2286 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

M. Cardona, “Band parameters of semiconductors with zincblende, wurtzite, and germanium structure,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 24, 1543–1555 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Pura Apl. (1)

A. A. El-Shazly, L. M. El-Nady, M. M. El-Nahars, H. T. El-Shair, A. Y. Morsy, “Absorption of light in polycrystalline CdSe thin films in the region of the fundamental absorption edge,” Opt. Pura Apl. 19, 23–26 (1986).

Opt. Quantum. Electron. (1)

A. Penzkofer, M. Schäffner, X. Bao, “Two-photon absorption and resonant non-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in CdSe,” Opt. Quantum. Electron. 22, 351–367 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (2)

S. A. Geidur, A. D. Yas’kov, “Dispersion of refractive index and photoelastic effect in semiconductors with a wurtzite structure,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 48, 618–622 (1980).

I. V. Baranets, A. Kh. Zilbershtein, L. E. Solovev, “Birefringence in crystals with isotropic points and determination of oscillator strengths for excitons in CdS by the Rozhdestvenskii hook method,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 37, 164–165 (1974).

Phys. Rev. (1)

M. Cardona, G. Harbeke, “Optical properties and band structure of wurtzite-type crystals and rutile,” Phys. Rev. 137, A1467–A1476 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

D. C. Reynolds, C. W. Litton, T. C. Collins, “Some optical properties of group II–VI semiconductors (I),” Phys. Status Solidi 9, 645–684 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (4)

R. G. Wheeler, J. O. Dimmock, “Exciton structure and Zeeman effects in cadmium selenide,” Phys. Rev. 125, 1805–1815 (1962).
[CrossRef]

F. Urbach, “The long-wavelength edge of photographic sensitivity and of the electronic absorption of solids,” Phys. Rev. 92, 1324–0000 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hopfield, D. G. Thomas, “Theoretical and experimental effects of spatial dispersion on the optical properties of crystals,” Phys. Rev. 132, 563–572 (1963).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Keller, G. D. Pettit, “Some optical properties of CdSe single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 120, 1974–1977 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

M. P. Lisitsa, L. F. Gudymenko, V. N. Malinko, S. F. Terekhova, “Dispersion of the refractive indices and birefringence of CdSxSe1−x single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 31, 389–399 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

W. Wardzynski, “Dichroism and birefringence of single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Proc. R. Soc. London 260, 370–377 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

R. B. Parsons, W. Wardzynski, A. P. Yoffe, “The optical properties of single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 262, 120–131 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Roum. Phys. (1)

V. Dolocan, “Electrical, photoelectrical, and optical properties of CdSe thin films,” Rev. Roum. Phys. 28, 647–654 (1983).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

R. C. Kainthla, D. K. Pandya, K. L. Chopra, “Photo-electronic properties of solution-grown CdSe films,” Solid-State Electron. 25, 73–76 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Semicond. (1)

V. V. Sobolev, V. I. Donetskina, E. F. Zagainov, “Direct precision method for detection of excitons in II–VI and III–V crystals at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 12, 646–652 (1978).

Sov. Phys. Semicond. (2)

A. N. Pikhtin, A. D. Yaskov, “Refractive index and birefringence of semiconductors with the wurtzite structure,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 15, 8–12 (1981).

N. R. Kulish, A. F. Maznichenko, B. M. Bulakh, “Influence of laser radiation intensity on the edge absorption spectrum of CdSe,” Sov. Phys. Semicond. 14, 409–411 (1980).

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

E. F. Gross, V. V. Sobolev, “Fine structure of the fundamental absorption edge in single crystals of cadmium selenide,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 379–385 (1960).

Other (12)

D’Ans Lax, “Makroskopische Physikalisch-Chemische Eigenschaften,” in Taschenbuch für Chemiker und Physiker, E. Lax, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967), Vol. 1, p. 1–270.

I. Broser, R. Broser, A. Hoffmann, “Cadmium selenide (CdSe),” in Landolt–Börnstein Tables, New Series, Group III: Crystals and Solid State Physics, Vol. 17: Semiconductors: Subvolume b: Physics of II–VI and I–VII Compounds, Semi-magnetic Semiconductors, O. Madelang, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982), pp. 202–224, 409–410, 442–457.

J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover, New York, 1971), Chap. 3.

Č. Koňák, J. Dillinger, J. Prosser, “The structure of the optical absorption edge in CdSe and CdTe,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on II–VI Semiconducting Compounds, D. G. Thomas, ed. (Benjamin, New York, 1967), pp. 850–862.

W. König, “Elektromagnetische Lichttheorie,” in Handbuch der Physik, Vol. 20, Licht als Wellenbewegung, H. Geiger, K. Scheel, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1928), pp. 141–262.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler, “Dispersion und Absorption des Lichtes,” in Bergmann–Schaefer, Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik, Band III: Optik, H. Gobrecht, ed. (Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 1987), pp. 207–324.

R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Academic, London, 1976), Chap. 15.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Chap. 13.

M. V. Klein, T. E. Furtak, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 2.

B. Segall, D. T. F. Marple, “Intrinsic exciton absorption,” in Physics and Chemistry of II–VI Compounds, M. Aven, J. S. Prener, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1967), Chap. 7, pp. 317–381.

D. H. Rank, “The index of refraction of air,” in Advances in Spectroscopy, H. W. Thompson, ed. (Interscience, New York, 1959), Vol. 1, pp. 76–78.

D. L. Greenaway, G. Harbeke, Optical Properties and Band Structure of Semiconductors (Pergamon, Oxford, 1968).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of experimental setup: LS, light source (tungsten lamp); L1, collimating optics; L2, lens, A1, A2, apertures; POL, Glan polarizer; R1, R2, aluminum mirrors on rotation stages; S, sample on the translation and tilting stage; SP, spectrometer; DA, diode array system. (b) Ordinary ray tracing. (c) Extraordinary ray tracing. k′ is the wave vector in crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Minimum parallel reflectivities R||,min at the generalized Brewster angle ϕB and transmissions T at normal incidence. The exciton transition edges A, B, and C are indicated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the generalized Brewster angles ϕB on wavelength λ. The absorption band edges E1, E2, E3 and the exciton transition edges A, B, and C are indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Principal refractive indices no and ne of CdSe versus wavelength. The points are taken from Ref. 4 (○, ●), Ref. 5 (△, ▲) and Ref. 9 (▽, ▼). The open symbols belong to no, and the filled symbols belong to ne. The absorption band edges E1, E2, E3 and the exciton transition edges A, B, and C are indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Principal extinction coefficients κo and κe of CdSe versus wavelength. Band edges E1, E2, and E3 are indicated. Solid and long-dashed curves are our own measurements. The dashed–dotted curve κo and the short dashed curve κe are redrawn from Ref. 18. The inset shows part of the energy band structure of CdSe at Γ point (the center of the Brillouin zone): CB, the lowest lying conduction band; VB, the topmost-lying three valence bands; EX, the indication of exciton-binding energy; q, the Brillouin zone coordinate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Principal absorption coefficients αo (a) and αe (b) of CdSe. The solid curves are experimental results. The dashed curves are parabolic direct-gap theoretical fits [Eq. (15)] to the experimental data at 600 and 500 nm. The fit parameters are βo,1′ = βo,2′ = 2.0126 × 106 cm−1 nm1/2, βo,3′ = 7.395 × 105 cm−1 nm1/2, βe,1′ = 0, βe,2′ = 4.977 × 106 cm−1 nm1/2, and βe,3′ = 6.303 × 105 cm−1 nm1/2. The short-dashed curves show contributions of the E1 and E2 band transitions. The dashed–dotted curves indicate the contribution of the E3 band transition. The exciton band edges A, B. and C are indicated.

Equations (16)

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R = | ( n ˜ n A ) 2 cos ϕ - cos χ ( n ˜ n A ) 2 cos ϕ + cos χ | 2 = | ( n ˜ n A ) 2 cos ϕ - ( n ˜ 2 n A 2 - sin 2 ϕ ) 1 / 2 ( n ˜ n A ) 2 cos ϕ + ( n ˜ 2 n A 2 - sin 2 ϕ ) 1 / 2 | 2 = ( C 2 + D 2 ) cos 2 ϕ + A - 2 A 1 / 2 cos ϕ ( C cos B + D sin B ) ( C 2 + D 2 ) cos 2 ϕ + A + 2 A 1 / 2 cos ϕ ( C cos B + D sin B ) ,
ϕ B = arcsin ( n A sin ϕ B n T ) ,
n T = ( n A 2 sin 2 ϕ B + η 2 cos 2 β ) 1 / 2 ,
η 2 cos ( 2 β ) = n a o 2 - κ a o 2 - n A 2 sin 2 ϕ B ,
η 2 sin 2 β = 2 n a o κ a o .
β = 1 / 2 arctan ( 2 n a o κ a o n a o 2 - κ a o 2 - n A 2 sin 2 ϕ B 2 ) ,
η = [ 2 n a o κ a o sin ( 2 β ) ] 1 / 2 .
1 n a o 2 = cos 2 θ B n o 2 + sin 2 θ B n e 2 .
n e = sin ( θ B ) [ 1 n a o 2 - cos 2 θ B n o 2 ] 1 / 2 .
κ a o n a o 2 = k o cos 2 θ B n o 2 + κ e sin 2 θ B n e 2 ,
κ e = ( κ a o n a o 2 - κ o cos 2 θ B n o 2 ) n e 2 sin 2 θ B .
α = 4 π ν ˜ κ = 4 π κ / λ ,
T = ( 1 - R ) 2 exp ( - α l ) ( 1 - κ 2 / n 2 ) 1 - R 2 exp ( - 2 α l ) ,
R = ( n - 1 ) 2 + κ 2 ( n + 1 ) 2 + κ 2 .
α = i β i ( h ν - h ν E , i ) 1 / 2 θ ( ν - ν E , i ) = i β i ( λ - 1 - λ E , i - 1 ) 1 / 2 θ ( λ E , i - λ ) ,
κ = 1 4 π c 0 ν i β i ( h ν - h ν E , i ) 1 / 2 θ ( ν - ν E , i ) = λ 4 π i β i ( λ - 1 - λ E , i - 1 ) 1 / 2 θ ( λ E , i - λ ) ,

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