Abstract

We have developed a Fabry–Perot interferometer and image-plane detector system to be used as a receiver for a Doppler lidar. This system incorporates the latest technology in multichannel detectors, and it is an important step toward the development of operational wind profiler systems for the atmosphere (troposphere, stratosphere, and lower mesosphere). The instrumentation includes a stable high-resolution optically contacted plane étalon and a multiring anode detector to scan the image plane of the Fabry–Perot interferometer spatially. The high wavelength resolution provided by the interferometer permits the aerosol and molecular components of the backscattered signal to be distinguished, and the Doppler shift of either component can then be used to determine the wind altitude profile. The receiver performance has been tested by measuring the wind profile in the boundary layer. The Fabry–Perot interferometer and image-plane detector characteristics are described and sample measurements are presented. The potential of the system as a wind profiler in the troposphere, the stratosphere, and the mesosphere is also considered.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Measurement of aerosol motion and wind velocity in the lower troposphere by Doppler optical lidar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 906–910 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Determination of vertical eddy diffusion parameters by Doppler optical radar,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 793–799 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauthecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).
  5. T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image plane detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3515 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Hernandez, Fabry–Perot Interferometers, Cambridge Studies in Modern Physics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986), Chap. 2, p. 15.
  7. P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” in Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing and Applications, Proceedings of the (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1984), pp. 266–271.
  8. F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” Rep. 687, AFGL-TR-80-0067 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 23–25.

1989 (1)

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauthecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

1974 (1)

G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Determination of vertical eddy diffusion parameters by Doppler optical radar,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 793–799 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Measurement of aerosol motion and wind velocity in the lower troposphere by Doppler optical lidar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 906–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” Rep. 687, AFGL-TR-80-0067 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 23–25.

Abreu, V. J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” in Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing and Applications, Proceedings of the (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1984), pp. 266–271.

Benedetti-Michelangeli, G.

G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Determination of vertical eddy diffusion parameters by Doppler optical radar,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 793–799 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Measurement of aerosol motion and wind velocity in the lower troposphere by Doppler optical lidar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 906–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ceckowski, D. H.

Chanin, M. L.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauthecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chetwynd, J. H.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” Rep. 687, AFGL-TR-80-0067 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 23–25.

Congedati, F.

G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Determination of vertical eddy diffusion parameters by Doppler optical radar,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 793–799 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Measurement of aerosol motion and wind velocity in the lower troposphere by Doppler optical lidar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 906–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” Rep. 687, AFGL-TR-80-0067 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 23–25.

Fiocco, G.

G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Determination of vertical eddy diffusion parameters by Doppler optical radar,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 793–799 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Measurement of aerosol motion and wind velocity in the lower troposphere by Doppler optical lidar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 906–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gallery, W. O.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” Rep. 687, AFGL-TR-80-0067 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 23–25.

Garnier, A.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauthecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hauthecorne, A.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauthecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image plane detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3515 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” in Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing and Applications, Proceedings of the (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1984), pp. 266–271.

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, Fabry–Perot Interferometers, Cambridge Studies in Modern Physics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986), Chap. 2, p. 15.

Kennedy, B. C.

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image plane detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3515 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Killeen, T. L.

T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, P. B. Hays, D. A. Symanow, D. H. Ceckowski, “Image plane detector for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3503–3515 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Kneizys, F. X.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” Rep. 687, AFGL-TR-80-0067 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 23–25.

McClatchey, R. A.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” Rep. 687, AFGL-TR-80-0067 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 23–25.

Porteneuve, J.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauthecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, A.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” in Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing and Applications, Proceedings of the (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1984), pp. 266–271.

Selby, J. E.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” Rep. 687, AFGL-TR-80-0067 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 23–25.

Shettle, E. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” Rep. 687, AFGL-TR-80-0067 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 23–25.

Sroga, J.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” in Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing and Applications, Proceedings of the (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1984), pp. 266–271.

Symanow, D. A.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Determination of vertical eddy diffusion parameters by Doppler optical radar,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 793–799 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauthecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

G. Benedetti-Michelangeli, F. Congedati, G. Fiocco, “Measurement of aerosol motion and wind velocity in the lower troposphere by Doppler optical lidar,” J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 906–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Other (3)

G. Hernandez, Fabry–Perot Interferometers, Cambridge Studies in Modern Physics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1986), Chap. 2, p. 15.

P. B. Hays, V. J. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” in Conference on Satellite/Remote Sensing and Applications, Proceedings of the (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1984), pp. 266–271.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, W. O. Gallery, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, J. E. Selby, R. W. Fenn, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric transmittance/radiance: computer code lowtran 5,” Rep. 687, AFGL-TR-80-0067 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1980), Chap. 3, pp. 23–25.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the lidar system: A/D, analog-to-digital; HV Cntl., high voltage control.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram depicting the lidar’s receiving system: L4–L8, lenses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustrating the operating sequence of the control card: 1, start delay; 2, laser pulse width; 3, IPD gain change; 4, number of laser pulses (n); 5, data rate; 6, atmospheric data collection duration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized 12-channel detector output at selected altitudes obtained on 23 April 1990.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Horizontal wind vector field obtained from observations made on 23 April 1990. The bottom row consists of meteorological tower (30-m) measurements made simultaneously with the lidar observations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Same parameters as in Fig. 5 but for 30 October 1990.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sounding-lidar wind-speed comparison for 29 May 1991.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fabry–Perot Interferometer and Image-Plane Detector Characteristics at 514 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Linewidth Comparisons

Tables Icon

Table 3 Upgraded Lidar Performance Simulation

Equations (3)

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F i ( v ) = F i ( 0 ) + F i ν ν c v ,
v = c ν i = 1 N F i ( v ) - F i ( 0 ) σ i 2 F i v i = 1 N ( F i ν ) 2 1 σ i 2 ,
( δ v ) 2 = c 2 ν 2 i = 1 N ( F i ν ) 2 1 σ i 2 .

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