Abstract

The first results of a new approach to ground-based stellar coronagraphy are reported. A coronagraph has been equipped with an image-motion compensation system for the stabilization of the telescope field, permitting both improved image resolution and contrast at optical wavelengths. By stopping the telescope aperture D to ~ 4 r0, where r0 is Fried’s parameter, the maximum attainable resolution gain factor of 2.2 was achieved. Gains measured for D/r0 > 14 were below the theoretical value of 1.3 theory and were indicative of centroid anisoplanatism, a small spatial coherence outer scale, or both. These effects are also evidenced by diminished power at low frequencies in the power spectrum of image motion over the full telescope aperture. A comparison of stabilized and unstabilized images shows that this coronagraph may detect circumstellar objects 2 magnitudes fainter than those detectable with a conventional coronagraph.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  24. L. A. Thompson, H. R. Ryerson, “An active mirror image stabilizing instrument system (ISIS) for use on Mauna Kea,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy V, A. Boksenberg, D. L. Crawford, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.445, 560–568 (1983).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  27. A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, M. G. Thompson, “Stellar image stabilisation using piezo-driven active mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 179–192 (1990).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  30. F. F. Forbes, N. J. Woolf, “Atmospheric turbulence effects on large telescope image motion and size,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes II, L. D. Barr ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.444, 175–182 (1983).
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1990 (3)

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

J. Borgnino, “Estimation of the spatial coherence outer scale relevant to long baseline interferometry and imaging in optical astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1863–1865 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1174–1180 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

R. Racine, R. D. McClure, “An image stabilization experiment at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 731–736 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. C. Smithson, M. L. Peri, “Partial correction of astronomical images with active mirrors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6, 92–97 (1989).
[Crossref]

I. N. Evans, H. C. Ford, X. Hui, “Maximum entropy deconvolution of the jet of 3C 273,” Astrophys. J. 347, 68–73 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

1987 (3)

J. Coté, “B and A type stars with unexpectedly large colour excesses at IRAS wavelengths,” Astron. Astrophys. 181, 77–84 (1987).

J. E. Gunn, E. B. Emory, F. H. Harris, J. B. Oke, “The Palomar Observatory CCD camera,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 518–534 (1987).
[Crossref]

H. M. Martin, “Image motion as a measure of seeing quality,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 1360–1370 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

B. A. Smith, R. J. Terrile, “A circumstellar disk around Pictoris,” Science 226, 1421–1424 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1971 (1)

I. R. King, “The profile of a star image,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 83, 199–201 (1971).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

1939 (1)

B. Lyot, “A study of the solar corona and prominences without eclipses,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580–594 (1939).

Angel, J. R. P.

N. J. Woolf, D. W. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, “Performance of the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) VII. Image shrinking in sub-arc second seeing at the MMT and 2.3 m telescopes,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.332, 50–56 (1982).
[Crossref]

Barkhouser, R.

M. Clampin, S. T. Durrance, D. A. Golimowski, R. Barkhouser, J. A. Westphal, D. L. Heidtmann, M. M. Blouke, “High speed quadrant-CCDs for adaptive optics,” in CCDs in Astronomy, G. H. Jacoby, ed., Vol. 8 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1989), pp. 367–373.

Beckers, J. M.

F. Merkle, J. M. Beckers, “Application of adaptive optics to astronomy,” in Active Telescope Systems, F. J. Roddier, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1114, 36–42 (1989).

Blouke, M. M.

M. Clampin, S. T. Durrance, D. A. Golimowski, R. Barkhouser, J. A. Westphal, D. L. Heidtmann, M. M. Blouke, “High speed quadrant-CCDs for adaptive optics,” in CCDs in Astronomy, G. H. Jacoby, ed., Vol. 8 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1989), pp. 367–373.

Borgnino, J.

Bortoletto, F.

F. Maaswinkel, F. Bortoletto, R. Buonanno, B. Buzzoni, S. D’Odorico, B. Gilli, G. Huster, W. Nees, “Image stabilization with DISCO: results of first observing run,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching be: München, Germany, 1988), pp. 751–760.

Boyer, C.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Buonanno, R.

F. Maaswinkel, F. Bortoletto, R. Buonanno, B. Buzzoni, S. D’Odorico, B. Gilli, G. Huster, W. Nees, “Image stabilization with DISCO: results of first observing run,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching be: München, Germany, 1988), pp. 751–760.

Buzzoni, B.

F. Maaswinkel, F. Bortoletto, R. Buonanno, B. Buzzoni, S. D’Odorico, B. Gilli, G. Huster, W. Nees, “Image stabilization with DISCO: results of first observing run,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching be: München, Germany, 1988), pp. 751–760.

Caccia, J. L.

Clampin, M.

M. Clampin, S. T. Durrance, D. A. Golimowski, R. Barkhouser, J. A. Westphal, D. L. Heidtmann, M. M. Blouke, “High speed quadrant-CCDs for adaptive optics,” in CCDs in Astronomy, G. H. Jacoby, ed., Vol. 8 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1989), pp. 367–373.

Coqueugniot, Y.

Coté, J.

J. Coté, “B and A type stars with unexpectedly large colour excesses at IRAS wavelengths,” Astron. Astrophys. 181, 77–84 (1987).

Coulman, C. E.

D’Odorico, S.

F. Maaswinkel, F. Bortoletto, R. Buonanno, B. Buzzoni, S. D’Odorico, B. Gilli, G. Huster, W. Nees, “Image stabilization with DISCO: results of first observing run,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching be: München, Germany, 1988), pp. 751–760.

Doel, A. P.

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, M. G. Thompson, “Stellar image stabilisation using piezo-driven active mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 179–192 (1990).

Dunlop, C. N.

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, M. G. Thompson, “Stellar image stabilisation using piezo-driven active mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 179–192 (1990).

Durrance, S. T.

M. Clampin, S. T. Durrance, D. A. Golimowski, R. Barkhouser, J. A. Westphal, D. L. Heidtmann, M. M. Blouke, “High speed quadrant-CCDs for adaptive optics,” in CCDs in Astronomy, G. H. Jacoby, ed., Vol. 8 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1989), pp. 367–373.

Emory, E. B.

J. E. Gunn, E. B. Emory, F. H. Harris, J. B. Oke, “The Palomar Observatory CCD camera,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 518–534 (1987).
[Crossref]

Evans, I. N.

I. N. Evans, H. C. Ford, X. Hui, “Maximum entropy deconvolution of the jet of 3C 273,” Astrophys. J. 347, 68–73 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fastie, W. G.

W. G. Fastie, “Study of fine guidance systems for the Hubble Space Telescope,” Rep. NAS8-35348 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1989).

Fontanella, J. C.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Forbes, F.

F. Forbes, “Dome induced image motion,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbridge, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.332, 185–192 (1982).
[Crossref]

Forbes, F. F.

F. F. Forbes, N. J. Woolf, “Atmospheric turbulence effects on large telescope image motion and size,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes II, L. D. Barr ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.444, 175–182 (1983).

Ford, H. C.

I. N. Evans, H. C. Ford, X. Hui, “Maximum entropy deconvolution of the jet of 3C 273,” Astrophys. J. 347, 68–73 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fried, D. L.

Gaffard, J. P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Gigan, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Gilli, B.

F. Maaswinkel, F. Bortoletto, R. Buonanno, B. Buzzoni, S. D’Odorico, B. Gilli, G. Huster, W. Nees, “Image stabilization with DISCO: results of first observing run,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching be: München, Germany, 1988), pp. 751–760.

Golimowski, D. A.

M. Clampin, S. T. Durrance, D. A. Golimowski, R. Barkhouser, J. A. Westphal, D. L. Heidtmann, M. M. Blouke, “High speed quadrant-CCDs for adaptive optics,” in CCDs in Astronomy, G. H. Jacoby, ed., Vol. 8 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1989), pp. 367–373.

Gunn, J. E.

J. E. Gunn, E. B. Emory, F. H. Harris, J. B. Oke, “The Palomar Observatory CCD camera,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 518–534 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hardy, J. W.

Harris, F. H.

J. E. Gunn, E. B. Emory, F. H. Harris, J. B. Oke, “The Palomar Observatory CCD camera,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 518–534 (1987).
[Crossref]

Heidtmann, D. L.

M. Clampin, S. T. Durrance, D. A. Golimowski, R. Barkhouser, J. A. Westphal, D. L. Heidtmann, M. M. Blouke, “High speed quadrant-CCDs for adaptive optics,” in CCDs in Astronomy, G. H. Jacoby, ed., Vol. 8 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1989), pp. 367–373.

Hui, X.

I. N. Evans, H. C. Ford, X. Hui, “Maximum entropy deconvolution of the jet of 3C 273,” Astrophys. J. 347, 68–73 (1989).
[Crossref]

Huster, G.

F. Maaswinkel, F. Bortoletto, R. Buonanno, B. Buzzoni, S. D’Odorico, B. Gilli, G. Huster, W. Nees, “Image stabilization with DISCO: results of first observing run,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching be: München, Germany, 1988), pp. 751–760.

Jagourel, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Kern, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

King, I. R.

I. R. King, “The profile of a star image,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 83, 199–201 (1971).
[Crossref]

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Lefebvre, J. E.

Léna, P.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Lyot, B.

B. Lyot, “A study of the solar corona and prominences without eclipses,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580–594 (1939).

Maaswinkel, F.

F. Maaswinkel, F. Bortoletto, R. Buonanno, B. Buzzoni, S. D’Odorico, B. Gilli, G. Huster, W. Nees, “Image stabilization with DISCO: results of first observing run,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching be: München, Germany, 1988), pp. 751–760.

Major, J. V.

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, M. G. Thompson, “Stellar image stabilisation using piezo-driven active mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 179–192 (1990).

Markey, J. K.

Martin, H. M.

H. M. Martin, “Image motion as a measure of seeing quality,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 1360–1370 (1987).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, D. W.

N. J. Woolf, D. W. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, “Performance of the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) VII. Image shrinking in sub-arc second seeing at the MMT and 2.3 m telescopes,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.332, 50–56 (1982).
[Crossref]

McClure, R. D.

R. Racine, R. D. McClure, “An image stabilization experiment at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 731–736 (1989).
[Crossref]

Merkle, F.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

F. Merkle, J. M. Beckers, “Application of adaptive optics to astronomy,” in Active Telescope Systems, F. J. Roddier, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1114, 36–42 (1989).

Myers, R. M.

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, M. G. Thompson, “Stellar image stabilisation using piezo-driven active mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 179–192 (1990).

Nees, W.

F. Maaswinkel, F. Bortoletto, R. Buonanno, B. Buzzoni, S. D’Odorico, B. Gilli, G. Huster, W. Nees, “Image stabilization with DISCO: results of first observing run,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching be: München, Germany, 1988), pp. 751–760.

Nisenson, P.

P. Nisenson, “Speckle imaging with the PAPA detector and the Knox-Thompson algorithm,” in Proceedings of the NATO ASI Diffraction Limited Imaging with Very Large Telescopes, D. M. Alloin, J. P. Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 157–169.

Oke, J. B.

J. E. Gunn, E. B. Emory, F. H. Harris, J. B. Oke, “The Palomar Observatory CCD camera,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 99, 518–534 (1987).
[Crossref]

Peri, M. L.

Purvis, A.

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, M. G. Thompson, “Stellar image stabilisation using piezo-driven active mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 179–192 (1990).

Racine, R.

R. Racine, R. D. McClure, “An image stabilization experiment at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 731–736 (1989).
[Crossref]

Rigaut, F.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, “Curvature sensing and compensation: a new concept in adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1223–1225 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), pp. 281–376.
[Crossref]

Roddier, N.

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29, 1174–1180 (1990).
[Crossref]

Rousset, G.

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

Ryerson, H. R.

L. A. Thompson, H. R. Ryerson, “An active mirror image stabilizing instrument system (ISIS) for use on Mauna Kea,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy V, A. Boksenberg, D. L. Crawford, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.445, 560–568 (1983).
[Crossref]

Smith, B. A.

B. A. Smith, R. J. Terrile, “A circumstellar disk around Pictoris,” Science 226, 1421–1424 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smithson, R. C.

Tavis, M. T.

Terrile, R. J.

B. A. Smith, R. J. Terrile, “A circumstellar disk around Pictoris,” Science 226, 1421–1424 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, L. A.

L. A. Thompson, H. R. Ryerson, “An active mirror image stabilizing instrument system (ISIS) for use on Mauna Kea,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy V, A. Boksenberg, D. L. Crawford, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.445, 560–568 (1983).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. G.

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, M. G. Thompson, “Stellar image stabilisation using piezo-driven active mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 179–192 (1990).

Valley, G. C.

Vernin, J.

Wang, J. Y.

Weigelt, G.

G. Weigelt, “Speckle masking, speckle spectroscopy and optical aperture synthesis,” in Proceedings of the NATO ASI Diffraction Limited Imaging with Very Large Telescopes, D. M. Alloin, J. P. Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 191–200.

Westphal, J. A.

M. Clampin, S. T. Durrance, D. A. Golimowski, R. Barkhouser, J. A. Westphal, D. L. Heidtmann, M. M. Blouke, “High speed quadrant-CCDs for adaptive optics,” in CCDs in Astronomy, G. H. Jacoby, ed., Vol. 8 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1989), pp. 367–373.

Woolf, N. J.

N. J. Woolf, D. W. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, “Performance of the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) VII. Image shrinking in sub-arc second seeing at the MMT and 2.3 m telescopes,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.332, 50–56 (1982).
[Crossref]

F. F. Forbes, N. J. Woolf, “Atmospheric turbulence effects on large telescope image motion and size,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes II, L. D. Barr ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.444, 175–182 (1983).

Yura, H. T.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

G. Rousset, J. C. Fontanella, P. Kern, P. Gigan, F. Rigaut, P. Léna, C. Boyer, P. Jagourel, J. P. Gaffard, F. Merkle, “First diffraction-limited astronomical images with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 230, L29–L32 (1990).

J. Coté, “B and A type stars with unexpectedly large colour excesses at IRAS wavelengths,” Astron. Astrophys. 181, 77–84 (1987).

Astrophys. J. (1)

I. N. Evans, H. C. Ford, X. Hui, “Maximum entropy deconvolution of the jet of 3C 273,” Astrophys. J. 347, 68–73 (1989).
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B. Lyot, “A study of the solar corona and prominences without eclipses,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 99, 580–594 (1939).

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R. Racine, R. D. McClure, “An image stabilization experiment at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 101, 731–736 (1989).
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Science (1)

B. A. Smith, R. J. Terrile, “A circumstellar disk around Pictoris,” Science 226, 1421–1424 (1984).
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F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), pp. 281–376.
[Crossref]

N. J. Woolf, D. W. McCarthy, J. R. P. Angel, “Performance of the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) VII. Image shrinking in sub-arc second seeing at the MMT and 2.3 m telescopes,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.332, 50–56 (1982).
[Crossref]

F. Merkle, J. M. Beckers, “Application of adaptive optics to astronomy,” in Active Telescope Systems, F. J. Roddier, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1114, 36–42 (1989).

P. Nisenson, “Speckle imaging with the PAPA detector and the Knox-Thompson algorithm,” in Proceedings of the NATO ASI Diffraction Limited Imaging with Very Large Telescopes, D. M. Alloin, J. P. Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 157–169.

G. Weigelt, “Speckle masking, speckle spectroscopy and optical aperture synthesis,” in Proceedings of the NATO ASI Diffraction Limited Imaging with Very Large Telescopes, D. M. Alloin, J. P. Mariotti, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 191–200.

M. Clampin, S. T. Durrance, D. A. Golimowski, R. Barkhouser, J. A. Westphal, D. L. Heidtmann, M. M. Blouke, “High speed quadrant-CCDs for adaptive optics,” in CCDs in Astronomy, G. H. Jacoby, ed., Vol. 8 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, Calif., 1989), pp. 367–373.

W. G. Fastie, “Study of fine guidance systems for the Hubble Space Telescope,” Rep. NAS8-35348 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1989).

A. P. Doel, C. N. Dunlop, J. V. Major, R. M. Myers, A. Purvis, M. G. Thompson, “Stellar image stabilisation using piezo-driven active mirrors,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes IV, L. Barr, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1236, 179–192 (1990).

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[Crossref]

F. Maaswinkel, F. Bortoletto, R. Buonanno, B. Buzzoni, S. D’Odorico, B. Gilli, G. Huster, W. Nees, “Image stabilization with DISCO: results of first observing run,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation (European Southern Observatory, Garching be: München, Germany, 1988), pp. 751–760.

F. Forbes, “Dome induced image motion,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbridge, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.332, 185–192 (1982).
[Crossref]

F. F. Forbes, N. J. Woolf, “Atmospheric turbulence effects on large telescope image motion and size,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes II, L. D. Barr ed. Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.444, 175–182 (1983).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The gain in angular resolution when the effects of wave-front tilt are removed. The dashed curve depicts the ratio of Fried’s calculated short- and long-exposure resolutions for various values of D/r0. The symbols represent the gains measured for AOC images obtained with the following telescope apertures: ESO 2.2-m MPI telescope at full aperture (open circles), ESO 2.2-m MPI telescope stopped to 0.6 m (open squares), ESO 2.2-m MPI telescope stopped to 0.5 m (open triangle), 2.54-m DuPont telescope at full aperture (filled square), and the 2.54-m DuPont telescope stopped to 0.7 m (filled triangles). The error bars for each datum reflect the uncertainty in the measurements of the image FWHM’s and the width of the filter bandpass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the JHU AOC configured for image-motion compensation: HV, high-voltage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stellar profiles of AOC images of μ PsA taken with (solid curve) and without (dashed curve) image-motion compensation. The profiles reflect a reduction in image width from 1.06 to 0.49 arcsec and a 149% increase in the Strehl ratio. The images were obtained with the ESO 2.2-m MPI telescope stopped to 0.6 m.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image motion of the star HR 394 recorded at 10-ms intervals for 10.24 s: (a), (b) Change in the image centroid for observations with the 0.7-m subaperture and the 2.54-m aperture, respectively; (c),(d) Computed one-sided power spectral density per unit time for the image centroids of (a) and (b). The long-dashed lines represent the f−2/3 power law for Kolmogorov turbulence. The short-dashed lines indicate the level of the system noise.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Limiting R-band magnitude for detection of a hypothetical star as a function of distance from μ PsA. The curves are based upon radial averages of the 180-s exposures listed in Table 1. The solid curve represents the uncorrected (conventional coronagraph) case, whereas the dashed curve represents the image-motion corrected (AOC) case; μ PsA itself has an R magnitude of 4.45.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three-dimensional surface plots of AOC images of the infrared-excess star ∊ Sgr, obtained with the ESO 2.2-m MPI telescope stopped to 0.6 m and a 4.7-arcsec occulting mask. (a) Plot of the uncorrected image, showing an unresolved feature at the edge of the occulting mask. (b) The corrected image, which reveals the feature to be a star and a likely cause of the measured infrared excess. The two images illustrate the improved contrast in the circumstellar region obtainable with the AOC.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performance of the Image-Motion Compensation System

Equations (11)

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l 0 1 f L 0 ,
r 0 - 5 / 3 = 16.70 λ - 2 0 d h C N 2 ( h ) ,
θ = 0.976 ( λ r 0 )
σ 2 0 d h C N 2 ( h ) L 0 ( h ) - 1 D - 1 d f f - 2 / 3 ,
σ 2 0.36 λ 2 r 0 - 5 / 3 [ D - 1 / 3 - L 0 - 1 / 3 ] ,
L 0 - 1 / 3 = 0 d h L 0 ( h ) - 1 / 3 C N 2 ( h ) 0 d h C N 2 ( h ) ,
σ 2 [ 1 - ( D L 0 ) 1 / 3 ] σ 2 .
τ D v ¯ ,
Ω D h ¯ ,
NEA = 1 T × S / N ,
f 0 0.2 v D .

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