Abstract

The edge technique is a new and powerful method for measuring small frequency shifts. With the edge technique a laser is located on the steep slope of a high-resolution spectral filter, which produces large changes in transmission for small frequency shifts. A differential technique renders the frequency shift measurement insensitive to both laser and filter frequency jitter and drift. The measurement is shown to be insensitive to the laser width and shape for widths that are less than the half-width of the edge filter. The theory of the measurement is given with application to the lidar measurement of wind. The edge technique can be used to measure wind with a lidar by using either the aerosol or molecular backscattered signal. Examples of both measurements are presented. Simulations for a ground-based lidar at 1.06 μm using reasonable instrumental parameters are used to show an accuracy for the vector components of the wind that is better than 0.5 m/s from the ground to an altitude of 20 km for a 100-m vertical resolution and a 100-shot average. For a 20-m vertical resolution and a 10-shot average, simulations show an accuracy of better than 0.2 m/s in the first 2 km and better than 0.5 m/s to 5 km.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  3. R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, W. Baker, J. Susskind, D. Reuter, M. Halem, “Observing system simulation experiments at GSFC,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 65–71.
  4. M. Halem, R. Dlouhy, “Observing system simulation experiments related to spaceborne lidar wind profiling. Part I: Forecast impacts of highly idealized observing systems,” presented at the American Meteorological Society Conference on Satellite Remote Sensing and Applications, Clearwater, Fla., 1984.
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    [CrossRef]
  6. F. F. Hall, R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, M. Jackson, T. R. Lawrence, M. Post, R. Richter, B. F. Weber, “Wind measurement accuracy of the NOAA pulsed infrared Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2503–2506 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. S. W. Henderson, C. P. Hale, J. R. Magee, M. J. Kavaya, A. V. Huffaker, “Eye-safe coherent laser radar system at 2.1 μm using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16, 773–775 (1991).
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  19. I. McDermid, J. Laudenslager, D. Rees, “Ultraviolet-excimer laser-based incoherent Doppler lidar system,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 149–155.
  20. V. J. Abreu, J. Barnes, P. B. Hays, W. R. Skinner, presented at the Second Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling Needs and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1991.
  21. M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. Gentry, C. L. Korb, “Doppler velocimetry with sub-meter-per-second accuracy using the edge technique,” in 1991 Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 66–67.
  23. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1980), Chap. 7, pp. 323–329.
  24. G. Hernandez, “Analytical description of a Fabry–Perot photoelectric spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1745–1748 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Bayer-Helms, “Analyse von Linienprofilen. I. Grundlagen und Messeinrichtungen,” Z. Angew. Phys. 15, 330–338 (1963).
  26. C. L. Korb, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. Y. Weng, “Airborne and ground based lidar measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3015–3020 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. T. H. Collis, Lidar, vol.. 13 of Advances in Geophysics (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 113–139.
  28. R. A. McClatchey, R. Fenn, J. Selby, F. Volz, J. Garing, in “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., Environmental Research Paper 72–0479 (1972).
  29. S. T. Shipley, D. Tracy, E. Eloranta, J. Trauger, J. Sroga, F. Roesler, J. Weinman, “High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. 1: Theory and instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3716–3732 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
  31. J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 9–75.
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    [CrossRef]
  33. A. T. Young, G. Kattawar, “Rayleigh-scattering line profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3668–3670 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (4)

M. Kavaya, S. Henderson, J. Magee, C. Hale, R. M. Huffaker, “Remote wind profiling with a solid-state Nd:YAG coherent lidar system,” Opt. Lett. 14, 776–778 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields,” Proc. IEEE 77, 449–462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Korb, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. Y. Weng, “Airborne and ground based lidar measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3015–3020 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, M. Halem, “Impact of satellite temperature sounding and wind data on numerical weather prediction,” Opt. Eng. 24, 341–346 (1985).

1984 (2)

J. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, M. Krause, R. Lee, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc. 65, 348–259 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Kane, B. Zhou, R. Byer, “Potential for coherent Doppler wind velocity lidar using neodymium lasers,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2477–2481 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (3)

1979 (1)

1967 (1)

1963 (1)

F. Bayer-Helms, “Analyse von Linienprofilen. I. Grundlagen und Messeinrichtungen,” Z. Angew. Phys. 15, 330–338 (1963).

1954 (1)

Abreu, V.

V. Abreu, “Wind measurements from an orbital platform using a lidar system with incoherent detection: an analysis,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2992–2997 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hays, V. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” presented at the American Meteorological Society Conference on Satellite Remote Sensing and Applications, Clearwater, Fla., 1984.

Abreu, V. J.

V. J. Abreu, J. Barnes, P. B. Hays, W. R. Skinner, presented at the Second Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling Needs and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1991.

Atlas, R.

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, M. Halem, “Impact of satellite temperature sounding and wind data on numerical weather prediction,” Opt. Eng. 24, 341–346 (1985).

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, W. Baker, J. Susskind, D. Reuter, M. Halem, “Observing system simulation experiments at GSFC,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 65–71.

Baker, W.

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, W. Baker, J. Susskind, D. Reuter, M. Halem, “Observing system simulation experiments at GSFC,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 65–71.

Barnes, J.

V. J. Abreu, J. Barnes, P. B. Hays, W. R. Skinner, presented at the Second Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling Needs and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1991.

Bayer-Helms, F.

F. Bayer-Helms, “Analyse von Linienprofilen. I. Grundlagen und Messeinrichtungen,” Z. Angew. Phys. 15, 330–338 (1963).

Bilbro, J.

J. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, M. Krause, R. Lee, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc. 65, 348–259 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1980), Chap. 7, pp. 323–329.

Byer, R.

Byvik, C.

Chanin, M. L.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, Lidar, vol.. 13 of Advances in Geophysics (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 113–139.

Cupp, R. E.

Dlouhy, R.

M. Halem, R. Dlouhy, “Observing system simulation experiments related to spaceborne lidar wind profiling. Part I: Forecast impacts of highly idealized observing systems,” presented at the American Meteorological Society Conference on Satellite Remote Sensing and Applications, Clearwater, Fla., 1984.

Dombrowski, M.

Eloranta, E.

Fenn, R.

R. A. McClatchey, R. Fenn, J. Selby, F. Volz, J. Garing, in “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., Environmental Research Paper 72–0479 (1972).

Fichtl, G.

J. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, M. Krause, R. Lee, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc. 65, 348–259 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fitzjarrald, D.

J. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, M. Krause, R. Lee, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc. 65, 348–259 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Garing, J.

R. A. McClatchey, R. Fenn, J. Selby, F. Volz, J. Garing, in “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., Environmental Research Paper 72–0479 (1972).

Garnier, A.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gentry, B.

B. Gentry, C. L. Korb, “Doppler velocimetry with sub-meter-per-second accuracy using the edge technique,” in 1991 Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 66–67.

Gentry, B. M.

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, “New Doppler lidar methods for atmospheric wind measurements—the edge technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 322–324.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 9–75.

Hale, C.

Hale, C. P.

Halem, M.

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, M. Halem, “Impact of satellite temperature sounding and wind data on numerical weather prediction,” Opt. Eng. 24, 341–346 (1985).

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, W. Baker, J. Susskind, D. Reuter, M. Halem, “Observing system simulation experiments at GSFC,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 65–71.

M. Halem, R. Dlouhy, “Observing system simulation experiments related to spaceborne lidar wind profiling. Part I: Forecast impacts of highly idealized observing systems,” presented at the American Meteorological Society Conference on Satellite Remote Sensing and Applications, Clearwater, Fla., 1984.

Hall, F. F.

Hardesty, R. M.

Hauchecorne, A.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P.

P. Hays, V. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” presented at the American Meteorological Society Conference on Satellite Remote Sensing and Applications, Clearwater, Fla., 1984.

Hays, P. B.

V. J. Abreu, J. Barnes, P. B. Hays, W. R. Skinner, presented at the Second Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling Needs and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1991.

Henderson, S.

Henderson, S. W.

Hernandez, G.

Huffaker, A. V.

Huffaker, R. M.

Jackson, M.

Jacquinot, P.

Kalnay, E.

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, M. Halem, “Impact of satellite temperature sounding and wind data on numerical weather prediction,” Opt. Eng. 24, 341–346 (1985).

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, W. Baker, J. Susskind, D. Reuter, M. Halem, “Observing system simulation experiments at GSFC,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 65–71.

Kane, T.

Kattawar, G.

Kavaya, M.

Kavaya, M. J.

Kingston, R. H.

R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).

Korb, C. L.

C. L. Korb, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. Y. Weng, “Airborne and ground based lidar measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3015–3020 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, “New Doppler lidar methods for atmospheric wind measurements—the edge technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 322–324.

B. Gentry, C. L. Korb, “Doppler velocimetry with sub-meter-per-second accuracy using the edge technique,” in 1991 Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 66–67.

Kozlovksy, W.

Krause, M.

J. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, M. Krause, R. Lee, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc. 65, 348–259 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Laudenslager, J.

I. McDermid, J. Laudenslager, D. Rees, “Ultraviolet-excimer laser-based incoherent Doppler lidar system,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 149–155.

Lawrence, T. R.

F. F. Hall, R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, M. Jackson, T. R. Lawrence, M. Post, R. Richter, B. F. Weber, “Wind measurement accuracy of the NOAA pulsed infrared Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2503–2506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Petheram, J. Shanley, J. Sroga, R. Vitz, A. Wissinger, T. R. Lawrence, “The laser atmospheric wind sounder—preliminary design,” in Fifth Conference on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, C. Werner, J. Bilbro, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1181, 66–78 (1989).

Lee, R.

J. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, M. Krause, R. Lee, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc. 65, 348–259 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Magee, J.

Magee, J. R.

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. Fenn, J. Selby, F. Volz, J. Garing, in “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., Environmental Research Paper 72–0479 (1972).

McDermid, I.

I. McDermid, J. Laudenslager, D. Rees, “Ultraviolet-excimer laser-based incoherent Doppler lidar system,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 149–155.

Menzies, R. T.

Petheram, J. C.

J. C. Petheram, J. Shanley, J. Sroga, R. Vitz, A. Wissinger, T. R. Lawrence, “The laser atmospheric wind sounder—preliminary design,” in Fifth Conference on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, C. Werner, J. Bilbro, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1181, 66–78 (1989).

Porteneuve, J.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Post, M.

Post, M. J.

Rees, D.

I. McDermid, J. Laudenslager, D. Rees, “Ultraviolet-excimer laser-based incoherent Doppler lidar system,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 149–155.

Reuter, D.

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, W. Baker, J. Susskind, D. Reuter, M. Halem, “Observing system simulation experiments at GSFC,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 65–71.

Richter, R.

Roesler, F.

Rosenberg, A.

P. Hays, V. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” presented at the American Meteorological Society Conference on Satellite Remote Sensing and Applications, Clearwater, Fla., 1984.

Schwemmer, G. K.

Selby, J.

R. A. McClatchey, R. Fenn, J. Selby, F. Volz, J. Garing, in “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., Environmental Research Paper 72–0479 (1972).

Shanley, J.

J. C. Petheram, J. Shanley, J. Sroga, R. Vitz, A. Wissinger, T. R. Lawrence, “The laser atmospheric wind sounder—preliminary design,” in Fifth Conference on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, C. Werner, J. Bilbro, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1181, 66–78 (1989).

Shipley, S. T.

Skinner, W. R.

V. J. Abreu, J. Barnes, P. B. Hays, W. R. Skinner, presented at the Second Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling Needs and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1991.

Sroga, J.

S. T. Shipley, D. Tracy, E. Eloranta, J. Trauger, J. Sroga, F. Roesler, J. Weinman, “High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. 1: Theory and instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3716–3732 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hays, V. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” presented at the American Meteorological Society Conference on Satellite Remote Sensing and Applications, Clearwater, Fla., 1984.

J. C. Petheram, J. Shanley, J. Sroga, R. Vitz, A. Wissinger, T. R. Lawrence, “The laser atmospheric wind sounder—preliminary design,” in Fifth Conference on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, C. Werner, J. Bilbro, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1181, 66–78 (1989).

Susskind, J.

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, W. Baker, J. Susskind, D. Reuter, M. Halem, “Observing system simulation experiments at GSFC,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 65–71.

Tracy, D.

Trauger, J.

Vitz, R.

J. C. Petheram, J. Shanley, J. Sroga, R. Vitz, A. Wissinger, T. R. Lawrence, “The laser atmospheric wind sounder—preliminary design,” in Fifth Conference on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, C. Werner, J. Bilbro, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1181, 66–78 (1989).

Volz, F.

R. A. McClatchey, R. Fenn, J. Selby, F. Volz, J. Garing, in “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., Environmental Research Paper 72–0479 (1972).

Weber, B. F.

Weinman, J.

Weng, C. Y.

Wissinger, A.

J. C. Petheram, J. Shanley, J. Sroga, R. Vitz, A. Wissinger, T. R. Lawrence, “The laser atmospheric wind sounder—preliminary design,” in Fifth Conference on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, C. Werner, J. Bilbro, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1181, 66–78 (1989).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1980), Chap. 7, pp. 323–329.

Young, A. T.

Zhou, B.

Appl. Opt. (9)

G. Hernandez, “Analytical description of a Fabry–Perot photoelectric spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1745–1748 (1967).
[CrossRef]

V. Abreu, “Wind measurements from an orbital platform using a lidar system with incoherent detection: an analysis,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2992–2997 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. Young, G. Kattawar, “Rayleigh-scattering line profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3668–3670 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Shipley, D. Tracy, E. Eloranta, J. Trauger, J. Sroga, F. Roesler, J. Weinman, “High spectral resolution lidar to measure optical scattering properties of atmospheric aerosols. 1: Theory and instrumentation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3716–3732 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kane, B. Zhou, R. Byer, “Potential for coherent Doppler wind velocity lidar using neodymium lasers,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2477–2481 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. F. Hall, R. M. Huffaker, R. M. Hardesty, M. Jackson, T. R. Lawrence, M. Post, R. Richter, B. F. Weber, “Wind measurement accuracy of the NOAA pulsed infrared Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2503–2506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors: a comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from Earth orbit,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2546–2552 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, G. K. Schwemmer, M. Dombrowski, C. Y. Weng, “Airborne and ground based lidar measurements of the atmospheric pressure profile,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3015–3020 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Post, R. E. Cupp, “Optimizing a pulsed Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4145 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc. (1)

J. Bilbro, G. Fichtl, D. Fitzjarrald, M. Krause, R. Lee, “Airborne Doppler lidar wind field measurements,” Bull. Am. Meterol. Soc. 65, 348–259 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, M. Halem, “Impact of satellite temperature sounding and wind data on numerical weather prediction,” Opt. Eng. 24, 341–346 (1985).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. T. Menzies, R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields,” Proc. IEEE 77, 449–462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. Angew. Phys. (1)

F. Bayer-Helms, “Analyse von Linienprofilen. I. Grundlagen und Messeinrichtungen,” Z. Angew. Phys. 15, 330–338 (1963).

Other (15)

R. T. H. Collis, Lidar, vol.. 13 of Advances in Geophysics (Academic, New York, 1969), pp. 113–139.

R. A. McClatchey, R. Fenn, J. Selby, F. Volz, J. Garing, in “Optical properties of the atmosphere,” U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Bedford, Mass., Environmental Research Paper 72–0479 (1972).

R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 9–75.

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, “New Doppler lidar methods for atmospheric wind measurements—the edge technique,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 322–324.

R. Atlas, E. Kalnay, W. Baker, J. Susskind, D. Reuter, M. Halem, “Observing system simulation experiments at GSFC,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 65–71.

M. Halem, R. Dlouhy, “Observing system simulation experiments related to spaceborne lidar wind profiling. Part I: Forecast impacts of highly idealized observing systems,” presented at the American Meteorological Society Conference on Satellite Remote Sensing and Applications, Clearwater, Fla., 1984.

B. Gentry, C. L. Korb, “Doppler velocimetry with sub-meter-per-second accuracy using the edge technique,” in 1991 Annual Meeting, Vol. 17 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 66–67.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1980), Chap. 7, pp. 323–329.

J. C. Petheram, J. Shanley, J. Sroga, R. Vitz, A. Wissinger, T. R. Lawrence, “The laser atmospheric wind sounder—preliminary design,” in Fifth Conference on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications, C. Werner, J. Bilbro, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1181, 66–78 (1989).

R. Curran, ed., Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder, EOS Instrument Panel Report, NASA Earth Observing System Rep. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1987), Vol. IIg.

W. Baker, R. J. Curran, eds., Aerosol Measurement Program Strategy for Global Aerosol Backscatter Model Development, NASA Workshop Rep. STC 2081 (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985).

P. Hays, V. Abreu, J. Sroga, A. Rosenberg, “Analysis of a 0.5 micron spaceborne wind sensor,” presented at the American Meteorological Society Conference on Satellite Remote Sensing and Applications, Clearwater, Fla., 1984.

I. McDermid, J. Laudenslager, D. Rees, “Ultraviolet-excimer laser-based incoherent Doppler lidar system,” in Global Wind Measurements, W. Baker, R. Curran, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), pp. 149–155.

V. J. Abreu, J. Barnes, P. B. Hays, W. R. Skinner, presented at the Second Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling Needs and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1991.

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