Abstract

A retinal laser ellipsometer has been developed by coupling a Fourier ellipsometer to a laser scanning system. The instrument has been used to assess the origin and the amount of change in the state of polarization of a laser beam that has double passed the retina around the optic nerve head of postmortem human eyes. Eight eyes with no history of glaucoma were studied. At 200 points around the optic nerve head of each eye the Mueller matrices of the retina were examined for the amount of retardation, the orientation of the optic axis, and the amount of dichroism. The degree of polarization preservation of the detected light varied between 50% and 87%. Little dichroism was found, and there was no obvious correlation to the physical arrangement of any retinal structure. However, there was a substantial amount of linear uniaxial birefringence with the optic axis perpendicular to the incident laser beam. Furthermore the calculated optic axis direction showed a strong correlation with the physical orientation of the radial symmetrically arranged retinal nerve fiber axons around the optic nerve head. The local distribution of the corresponding retardation values showed two maxima that coincided with the areas of the thickest retinal nerve fiber layer. These results support the hypothesis that the thickness of the form birefringent retinal nerve fiber layer can be assessed by ellipsometric methods.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. B. Shields, J. F. Martone, A. R. Ollie, J. F. Martone, J. McMillian, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements with the optic nerve head analyzer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 104, 581–586 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  3. R. N. Weinreb, M. R. Nelson, M. H. Goldbaum, S. I. Brown, B. Katz, “Digital image analysis of optic disc topography,” in Acta XXV Concilium Ophthalmologicum, F. Blodi, R. Brancato, G. Cristini, eds. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 216–221.
  4. R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, J. Bille, “Quantitative assessment of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 125–129 (1989).
  5. F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558 (1966).
  6. J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1035–1039 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Dandona, H. A. Quigley, H. D. Jampel, “Variability of depth measurements of the optic nerve head and peripapillary retina with computerized image analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1786–1792 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. W. Dreher, P. C. Tso, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements of the normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 111, 221–229 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  9. A. W. Dreher, J. F. Bille, R. N. Weinreb, “Active-optical depth resolution improvement of the laser tomographic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 28, 804–808 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Bone, “The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light,” Vision Res. 20, 213–219 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, J. Bille, “Assessment of nerve fiber layer thickness with the LTS laser tomographic scanner,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 355 (1988).
  15. A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, “Nerve fiber layer assessment with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 154–157.
  16. O. Wiener, “Die Theorie des Mischkörpers für das Feld der Stationären Strömung,” Abh. Sächs. Ges. Akad. Wiss. Math. Phys. Kl. No. 6 32, 507–604 (1912).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  23. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1987), pp. 31–32.
  24. K. Reiter, A. W. Dreher, R. N. Weinreb, “Accuracy and reproducibility of a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 812 (1991).
  25. R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Opthalmol. 108, 557–560 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. L. Radius, “Anatomy and pathophysiology of the retina and optic nerve,” in The Glaucomas, R. Ritch, M. B. Shields, T. Krupin, eds. (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1989), p. 95.
  27. A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, R. N. Weinreb, “Measurement of the circumpapillary nerve fiber layer distribution by polarimetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 811 (1991).
  28. G. J. van Blokland, S. C. Verhelst, “Corneal polarization in the living human eye explained with a biaxial model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 82–90 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

A. W. Dreher, P. C. Tso, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements of the normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 111, 221–229 (1991).
[PubMed]

K. Reiter, A. W. Dreher, R. N. Weinreb, “Accuracy and reproducibility of a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 812 (1991).

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, R. N. Weinreb, “Measurement of the circumpapillary nerve fiber layer distribution by polarimetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 811 (1991).

1990 (1)

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Opthalmol. 108, 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (4)

W. R. Knighton, S. C. Jacobson, M. K. Kemp, “The spectral reflectance of the nerve fiber layer of the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 2393–2402 (1989).

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, J. Bille, “Quantitative assessment of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 125–129 (1989).

L. Dandona, H. A. Quigley, H. D. Jampel, “Variability of depth measurements of the optic nerve head and peripapillary retina with computerized image analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1786–1792 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Hemenger, “Birefringence of a medium of tenuous parallel cylinders,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4030–4034 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, J. Bille, “Assessment of nerve fiber layer thickness with the LTS laser tomographic scanner,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 355 (1988).

H. B. klein Brink, G. J. van Blokland, “Birefringence of the human foveal area assessed in vivo with Müller-matrix ellipsometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 49–57 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (4)

1986 (1)

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1035–1039 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

R. A. Bone, “The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light,” Vision Res. 20, 213–219 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, “Macular birefringence,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 19, 53 (1979).

1978 (2)

1966 (1)

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558 (1966).

1912 (1)

O. Wiener, “Die Theorie des Mischkörpers für das Feld der Stationären Strömung,” Abh. Sächs. Ges. Akad. Wiss. Math. Phys. Kl. No. 6 32, 507–604 (1912).

Azzam, R. M. A.

Bille, J.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, J. Bille, “Quantitative assessment of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 125–129 (1989).

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, J. Bille, “Assessment of nerve fiber layer thickness with the LTS laser tomographic scanner,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 355 (1988).

Bille, J. F.

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone, “The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light,” Vision Res. 20, 213–219 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1987), pp. 31–32.

Brown, S. I.

R. N. Weinreb, M. R. Nelson, M. H. Goldbaum, S. I. Brown, B. Katz, “Digital image analysis of optic disc topography,” in Acta XXV Concilium Ophthalmologicum, F. Blodi, R. Brancato, G. Cristini, eds. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 216–221.

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558 (1966).

Caprioli, J.

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1035–1039 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, A.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Opthalmol. 108, 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dandona, L.

L. Dandona, H. A. Quigley, H. D. Jampel, “Variability of depth measurements of the optic nerve head and peripapillary retina with computerized image analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1786–1792 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, “Macular birefringence,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 19, 53 (1979).

Dreher, A. W.

A. W. Dreher, P. C. Tso, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements of the normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 111, 221–229 (1991).
[PubMed]

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, R. N. Weinreb, “Measurement of the circumpapillary nerve fiber layer distribution by polarimetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 811 (1991).

K. Reiter, A. W. Dreher, R. N. Weinreb, “Accuracy and reproducibility of a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 812 (1991).

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Opthalmol. 108, 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, J. Bille, “Quantitative assessment of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 125–129 (1989).

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, J. Bille, “Assessment of nerve fiber layer thickness with the LTS laser tomographic scanner,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 355 (1988).

A. W. Dreher, J. F. Bille, R. N. Weinreb, “Active-optical depth resolution improvement of the laser tomographic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 28, 804–808 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, “Nerve fiber layer assessment with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 154–157.

Goldbaum, M. H.

R. N. Weinreb, M. R. Nelson, M. H. Goldbaum, S. I. Brown, B. Katz, “Digital image analysis of optic disc topography,” in Acta XXV Concilium Ophthalmologicum, F. Blodi, R. Brancato, G. Cristini, eds. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 216–221.

Gubisch, R. W.

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558 (1966).

Gullstrand, A.

A. Gullstrand, “The optical system of the eye,” in Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics, J. P. C. Southall, ed. (Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., 1924), Vol. 1, pp. 350–358.

Hauge, P. S.

P. S. Hauge, “Müller matrix ellipsometry with imperfect compensators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 68, 1519–1528 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hemenger, R. P.

Hochheimer, B. F.

Hughes, G. W.

Jacobson, S. C.

W. R. Knighton, S. C. Jacobson, M. K. Kemp, “The spectral reflectance of the nerve fiber layer of the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 2393–2402 (1989).

Jampel, H. D.

L. Dandona, H. A. Quigley, H. D. Jampel, “Variability of depth measurements of the optic nerve head and peripapillary retina with computerized image analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1786–1792 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, B.

R. N. Weinreb, M. R. Nelson, M. H. Goldbaum, S. I. Brown, B. Katz, “Digital image analysis of optic disc topography,” in Acta XXV Concilium Ophthalmologicum, F. Blodi, R. Brancato, G. Cristini, eds. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 216–221.

Kemp, M. K.

W. R. Knighton, S. C. Jacobson, M. K. Kemp, “The spectral reflectance of the nerve fiber layer of the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 2393–2402 (1989).

klein Brink, H. B.

Klingbeil, U.

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1035–1039 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Knighton, W. R.

W. R. Knighton, S. C. Jacobson, M. K. Kemp, “The spectral reflectance of the nerve fiber layer of the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 2393–2402 (1989).

Kues, H. A.

Martone, J. F.

M. B. Shields, J. F. Martone, A. R. Ollie, J. F. Martone, J. McMillian, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements with the optic nerve head analyzer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 104, 581–586 (1987).
[PubMed]

M. B. Shields, J. F. Martone, A. R. Ollie, J. F. Martone, J. McMillian, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements with the optic nerve head analyzer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 104, 581–586 (1987).
[PubMed]

McMillian, J.

M. B. Shields, J. F. Martone, A. R. Ollie, J. F. Martone, J. McMillian, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements with the optic nerve head analyzer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 104, 581–586 (1987).
[PubMed]

Nelson, M. R.

R. N. Weinreb, M. R. Nelson, M. H. Goldbaum, S. I. Brown, B. Katz, “Digital image analysis of optic disc topography,” in Acta XXV Concilium Ophthalmologicum, F. Blodi, R. Brancato, G. Cristini, eds. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 216–221.

Ollie, A. R.

M. B. Shields, J. F. Martone, A. R. Ollie, J. F. Martone, J. McMillian, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements with the optic nerve head analyzer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 104, 581–586 (1987).
[PubMed]

Parker, J. S.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, “Macular birefringence,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 19, 53 (1979).

Pope, B.

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1035–1039 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Quigley, H.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Opthalmol. 108, 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Quigley, H. A.

L. Dandona, H. A. Quigley, H. D. Jampel, “Variability of depth measurements of the optic nerve head and peripapillary retina with computerized image analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1786–1792 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radius, R. L.

R. L. Radius, “Anatomy and pathophysiology of the retina and optic nerve,” in The Glaucomas, R. Ritch, M. B. Shields, T. Krupin, eds. (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1989), p. 95.

Reiter, K.

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, R. N. Weinreb, “Measurement of the circumpapillary nerve fiber layer distribution by polarimetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 811 (1991).

K. Reiter, A. W. Dreher, R. N. Weinreb, “Accuracy and reproducibility of a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 812 (1991).

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Opthalmol. 108, 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, J. Bille, “Assessment of nerve fiber layer thickness with the LTS laser tomographic scanner,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 355 (1988).

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, “Nerve fiber layer assessment with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 154–157.

Sears, M.

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1035–1039 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, B.

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Opthalmol. 108, 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shields, M. B.

M. B. Shields, J. F. Martone, A. R. Ollie, J. F. Martone, J. McMillian, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements with the optic nerve head analyzer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 104, 581–586 (1987).
[PubMed]

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1962), pp. 165–171.

Tso, P. C.

A. W. Dreher, P. C. Tso, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements of the normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 111, 221–229 (1991).
[PubMed]

van Blokland, G. J.

Verhelst, S. C.

Webb, R. H.

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, F. C. Delori, “Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1492–1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, “Macular birefringence,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 19, 53 (1979).

Weinreb, R. N.

A. W. Dreher, P. C. Tso, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements of the normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 111, 221–229 (1991).
[PubMed]

K. Reiter, A. W. Dreher, R. N. Weinreb, “Accuracy and reproducibility of a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 812 (1991).

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, R. N. Weinreb, “Measurement of the circumpapillary nerve fiber layer distribution by polarimetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 811 (1991).

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Opthalmol. 108, 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, J. Bille, “Quantitative assessment of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 125–129 (1989).

A. W. Dreher, J. F. Bille, R. N. Weinreb, “Active-optical depth resolution improvement of the laser tomographic scanner,” Appl. Opt. 28, 804–808 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Weinreb, M. R. Nelson, M. H. Goldbaum, S. I. Brown, B. Katz, “Digital image analysis of optic disc topography,” in Acta XXV Concilium Ophthalmologicum, F. Blodi, R. Brancato, G. Cristini, eds. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 216–221.

Wiener, O.

O. Wiener, “Die Theorie des Mischkörpers für das Feld der Stationären Strömung,” Abh. Sächs. Ges. Akad. Wiss. Math. Phys. Kl. No. 6 32, 507–604 (1912).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1987), pp. 31–32.

Abh. Sächs. Ges. Akad. Wiss. Math. Phys. Kl. No. 6 (1)

O. Wiener, “Die Theorie des Mischkörpers für das Feld der Stationären Strömung,” Abh. Sächs. Ges. Akad. Wiss. Math. Phys. Kl. No. 6 32, 507–604 (1912).

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

M. B. Shields, J. F. Martone, A. R. Ollie, J. F. Martone, J. McMillian, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements with the optic nerve head analyzer,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 104, 581–586 (1987).
[PubMed]

A. W. Dreher, P. C. Tso, R. N. Weinreb, “Reproducibility of topographic measurements of the normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 111, 221–229 (1991).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (2)

J. Caprioli, U. Klingbeil, M. Sears, B. Pope, “Reproducibility of optic disc measurements with computerized analysis of stereoscopic video images,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 106, 1035–1039 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. Dandona, H. A. Quigley, H. D. Jampel, “Variability of depth measurements of the optic nerve head and peripapillary retina with computerized image analysis,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 107, 1786–1792 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Opthalmol. (1)

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, A. Coleman, H. Quigley, B. Shaw, K. Reiter, “Histopathologic validation of Fourier-ellipsometry measurements of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness,” Arch. Opthalmol. 108, 557–560 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. N. Weinreb, A. W. Dreher, J. Bille, “Quantitative assessment of the optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner,” Int. J. Ophthalmol. 13, 125–129 (1989).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

W. R. Knighton, S. C. Jacobson, M. K. Kemp, “The spectral reflectance of the nerve fiber layer of the macaque retina,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 30, 2393–2402 (1989).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. (4)

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, J. S. Parker, “Macular birefringence,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 19, 53 (1979).

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, J. Bille, “Assessment of nerve fiber layer thickness with the LTS laser tomographic scanner,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 29, 355 (1988).

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, R. N. Weinreb, “Measurement of the circumpapillary nerve fiber layer distribution by polarimetry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 811 (1991).

K. Reiter, A. W. Dreher, R. N. Weinreb, “Accuracy and reproducibility of a retinal laser ellipsometer,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Suppl. 32, 812 (1991).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

F. W. Campbell, R. W. Gubisch, “Optical quality of the human eye,” J. Physiol. (London) 186, 558 (1966).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Vision Res. (1)

R. A. Bone, “The role of the macular pigment in the detection of polarized light,” Vision Res. 20, 213–219 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

R. N. Weinreb, M. R. Nelson, M. H. Goldbaum, S. I. Brown, B. Katz, “Digital image analysis of optic disc topography,” in Acta XXV Concilium Ophthalmologicum, F. Blodi, R. Brancato, G. Cristini, eds. (Kugler, Berkeley, Calif., 1988), pp. 216–221.

A. Gullstrand, “The optical system of the eye,” in Helmholtz’s Treatise on Physiological Optics, J. P. C. Southall, ed. (Optical Society of America, Rochester, N.Y., 1924), Vol. 1, pp. 350–358.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1987), pp. 31–32.

R. L. Radius, “Anatomy and pathophysiology of the retina and optic nerve,” in The Glaucomas, R. Ritch, M. B. Shields, T. Krupin, eds. (Mosby, St. Louis, Mo., 1989), p. 95.

A. W. Dreher, K. Reiter, “Nerve fiber layer assessment with a retinal laser ellipsometer,” in Noninvasive Assessment of the Visual System, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 154–157.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1962), pp. 165–171.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the retinal nerve fiber layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical setup of the retinal laser ellipsometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Poincaré sphere.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fundus photograph of one of the normal eyes obtained through a viewing dish. The measurement locations are indicated by a circle around the optic nerve head. The numbers indicate the angular measuring position, which corresponds to (4b). The superior and inferior arcuate bundles, where the retinal nerve fiber layer is thickest, are indicated by open arrows. The macular region is shown by the dark circular area (filled arrow). (b) Retardation values measured along the circle around the optic nerve head of the postmortem human eye depicted in (a). The curve represents a best-fit approximation of the 200 data points. The absolute error for each individual measurement is ±0.81°.23 Similar retardation distributions were found for all eight normal eyes studied.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Representative measurement of the λ component of the eigenvector direction as a function of the angular measuring position, which corresponds to (4a). The value range of the λ coordinate on the Poincaré sphere is 0 ≤ λ < 180°. Therefore λ components of n × 180° (n = 0, 1, 2, …) are not distinguishable. (b) ω com ponent of the eigenvector direction as a function of the angular measuring position, which corresponds to (a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Amount of dichroism determined at the measuring locations. The angular positions correspond to the values depicted in Fig. 4(a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Degree of preserved polarization as calculated for the 200 measuring locations. The angular positions correspond to the values depicted in Fig. 4(a).

Equations (7)

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S * = M S .
s 0 2 = s 1 2 + s 2 2 + s 3 2 .
s 0 = I p + I n ,
I p = ( s 1 2 + s 2 2 + s 3 2 ) 1 / 2 .
M S = S * ,
M T = T * .
R = I p [ S * ] / I p [ T * ] .

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