Abstract

The diffractive multifocal intraocular lens is implanted in the eye to replace a cataractous crystalline lens. Axially separated images from two diffraction orders provide near and distance vision. Overall image quality is affected by both the quality of the in-focus component and the energy distribution between images. Modulation transfer function and energy distribution data are presented. Measurement accuracy is limited by the diameter of the point spread function and by the difficulty in separating the focused and defocused components.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Simpson, “The diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” Eur. J. Implant Refract. Surg. 1, 115–121 (1989).
  2. J. A. Futhey, “Diffractive bifocal intraocular lens,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1052, 142–149 (1989).
  3. G. J. Burton, “Contrast discrimination by the human visual system,” Biol. Cybern. 40, 27–38 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. P. Lehmann, “Experience with 3M diffractive multifocal IOL: Follow up on a small series,” Implants Ophthalmol. 3, 74–76 (1989).
  5. P. Percival, “Indications for the multizone bifocal implants,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 193–197 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  6. T. Olson, L. Corydon, “Contrast sensitivity as a function of focus in patients with diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 703–706 (1990).
  7. T. Olson, L. Corydon, “Contrast sensitivity in patients with a new type of multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 42–46 (1990).
  8. T. Hansen, L. Corydon, S. Krag, K. Thim, “New multifocal intraocular lens design,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 38–41 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  9. H. V. Gimbel, D. R. Sanders, M. G. Raanan, “Visual and rafractive results of multifocal intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 98, 881–888 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  10. F. Goes, “Personal results with the 3M diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 17, 577–582 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Duffey, R. W. Zabel, R. L. Lindstrom, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 423–429 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  12. F. A. B. Hodd, “A design study of bifocal corneal contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Optician450–469 (3May1969); 588–600 (31 May 1969); 644–653 (14 June 1969); 700–702 (28 June 1969).
  13. W. N. Charman, G. Walsh, “Retinal image quality with different designs of bifocal contact lens,” presented at the British Contact Lens Association Conference, 1986.
  14. I. M. Borish, S. Soni, “Bifocal contact lenses,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 53, 219–229 (1982).
    [PubMed]
  15. G. Young, C. P. Grey, E. B. Papas, “Simultaneous vision bifocal contact lenses: A comparative assessment of the in vitro optical performance,” Opt. Vision Sci. 67, 339–345 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. A. Klein, Z. Y. Ho, “Multizone bifocal contact lens design,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Diffraction Phenomena, R. E. Fischer, J. E. Harvey, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.679, 25–35 (1986).
  17. L. W. Grossman, W. B. Knight, “Resolution testing of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 17, 84–90 (1991).
    [PubMed]
  18. M. J. Simpson, “Optical quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 18, 86–94 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  19. J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990). The spatial frequency axis in Fig. 2 must be multiplied by 0.49 in this paper (information is available from the authors).
    [PubMed]
  20. A. G. Bennett, R. B. Rabbetts, Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass., 1984).
  21. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), p. 123.
  22. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

1992 (1)

M. J. Simpson, “Optical quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 18, 86–94 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (3)

L. W. Grossman, W. B. Knight, “Resolution testing of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 17, 84–90 (1991).
[PubMed]

H. V. Gimbel, D. R. Sanders, M. G. Raanan, “Visual and rafractive results of multifocal intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 98, 881–888 (1991).
[PubMed]

F. Goes, “Personal results with the 3M diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 17, 577–582 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (7)

R. J. Duffey, R. W. Zabel, R. L. Lindstrom, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 423–429 (1990).
[PubMed]

P. Percival, “Indications for the multizone bifocal implants,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 193–197 (1990).
[PubMed]

T. Olson, L. Corydon, “Contrast sensitivity as a function of focus in patients with diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 703–706 (1990).

T. Olson, L. Corydon, “Contrast sensitivity in patients with a new type of multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 42–46 (1990).

T. Hansen, L. Corydon, S. Krag, K. Thim, “New multifocal intraocular lens design,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 38–41 (1990).
[PubMed]

G. Young, C. P. Grey, E. B. Papas, “Simultaneous vision bifocal contact lenses: A comparative assessment of the in vitro optical performance,” Opt. Vision Sci. 67, 339–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990). The spatial frequency axis in Fig. 2 must be multiplied by 0.49 in this paper (information is available from the authors).
[PubMed]

1989 (2)

M. J. Simpson, “The diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” Eur. J. Implant Refract. Surg. 1, 115–121 (1989).

R. P. Lehmann, “Experience with 3M diffractive multifocal IOL: Follow up on a small series,” Implants Ophthalmol. 3, 74–76 (1989).

1982 (1)

I. M. Borish, S. Soni, “Bifocal contact lenses,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 53, 219–229 (1982).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

G. J. Burton, “Contrast discrimination by the human visual system,” Biol. Cybern. 40, 27–38 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

F. A. B. Hodd, “A design study of bifocal corneal contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Optician450–469 (3May1969); 588–600 (31 May 1969); 644–653 (14 June 1969); 700–702 (28 June 1969).

Bennett, A. G.

A. G. Bennett, R. B. Rabbetts, Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass., 1984).

Borish, I. M.

I. M. Borish, S. Soni, “Bifocal contact lenses,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 53, 219–229 (1982).
[PubMed]

Burton, G. J.

G. J. Burton, “Contrast discrimination by the human visual system,” Biol. Cybern. 40, 27–38 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charman, W. N.

W. N. Charman, G. Walsh, “Retinal image quality with different designs of bifocal contact lens,” presented at the British Contact Lens Association Conference, 1986.

Corydon, L.

T. Olson, L. Corydon, “Contrast sensitivity as a function of focus in patients with diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 703–706 (1990).

T. Olson, L. Corydon, “Contrast sensitivity in patients with a new type of multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 42–46 (1990).

T. Hansen, L. Corydon, S. Krag, K. Thim, “New multifocal intraocular lens design,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 38–41 (1990).
[PubMed]

Duffey, R. J.

R. J. Duffey, R. W. Zabel, R. L. Lindstrom, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 423–429 (1990).
[PubMed]

Futhey, J. A.

J. A. Futhey, “Diffractive bifocal intraocular lens,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1052, 142–149 (1989).

Gimbel, H. V.

H. V. Gimbel, D. R. Sanders, M. G. Raanan, “Visual and rafractive results of multifocal intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 98, 881–888 (1991).
[PubMed]

Goes, F.

F. Goes, “Personal results with the 3M diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 17, 577–582 (1991).
[PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

Grey, C. P.

G. Young, C. P. Grey, E. B. Papas, “Simultaneous vision bifocal contact lenses: A comparative assessment of the in vitro optical performance,” Opt. Vision Sci. 67, 339–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, L. W.

L. W. Grossman, W. B. Knight, “Resolution testing of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 17, 84–90 (1991).
[PubMed]

Hansen, T.

T. Hansen, L. Corydon, S. Krag, K. Thim, “New multifocal intraocular lens design,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 38–41 (1990).
[PubMed]

Ho, Z. Y.

S. A. Klein, Z. Y. Ho, “Multizone bifocal contact lens design,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Diffraction Phenomena, R. E. Fischer, J. E. Harvey, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.679, 25–35 (1986).

Hodd, F. A. B.

F. A. B. Hodd, “A design study of bifocal corneal contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Optician450–469 (3May1969); 588–600 (31 May 1969); 644–653 (14 June 1969); 700–702 (28 June 1969).

Holladay, J. T.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990). The spatial frequency axis in Fig. 2 must be multiplied by 0.49 in this paper (information is available from the authors).
[PubMed]

Klein, S. A.

S. A. Klein, Z. Y. Ho, “Multizone bifocal contact lens design,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Diffraction Phenomena, R. E. Fischer, J. E. Harvey, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.679, 25–35 (1986).

Knight, W. B.

L. W. Grossman, W. B. Knight, “Resolution testing of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 17, 84–90 (1991).
[PubMed]

Krag, S.

T. Hansen, L. Corydon, S. Krag, K. Thim, “New multifocal intraocular lens design,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 38–41 (1990).
[PubMed]

Lang, A.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990). The spatial frequency axis in Fig. 2 must be multiplied by 0.49 in this paper (information is available from the authors).
[PubMed]

Lehmann, R. P.

R. P. Lehmann, “Experience with 3M diffractive multifocal IOL: Follow up on a small series,” Implants Ophthalmol. 3, 74–76 (1989).

Lindstrom, R. L.

R. J. Duffey, R. W. Zabel, R. L. Lindstrom, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 423–429 (1990).
[PubMed]

Oksman, H. C.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990). The spatial frequency axis in Fig. 2 must be multiplied by 0.49 in this paper (information is available from the authors).
[PubMed]

Olson, T.

T. Olson, L. Corydon, “Contrast sensitivity in patients with a new type of multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 42–46 (1990).

T. Olson, L. Corydon, “Contrast sensitivity as a function of focus in patients with diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 703–706 (1990).

Papas, E. B.

G. Young, C. P. Grey, E. B. Papas, “Simultaneous vision bifocal contact lenses: A comparative assessment of the in vitro optical performance,” Opt. Vision Sci. 67, 339–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Percival, P.

P. Percival, “Indications for the multizone bifocal implants,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 193–197 (1990).
[PubMed]

Portney, V.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990). The spatial frequency axis in Fig. 2 must be multiplied by 0.49 in this paper (information is available from the authors).
[PubMed]

Raanan, M. G.

H. V. Gimbel, D. R. Sanders, M. G. Raanan, “Visual and rafractive results of multifocal intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 98, 881–888 (1991).
[PubMed]

Rabbetts, R. B.

A. G. Bennett, R. B. Rabbetts, Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass., 1984).

Sanders, D. R.

H. V. Gimbel, D. R. Sanders, M. G. Raanan, “Visual and rafractive results of multifocal intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 98, 881–888 (1991).
[PubMed]

Simpson, M. J.

M. J. Simpson, “Optical quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 18, 86–94 (1992).
[PubMed]

M. J. Simpson, “The diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” Eur. J. Implant Refract. Surg. 1, 115–121 (1989).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), p. 123.

Soni, S.

I. M. Borish, S. Soni, “Bifocal contact lenses,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 53, 219–229 (1982).
[PubMed]

Sun, R.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990). The spatial frequency axis in Fig. 2 must be multiplied by 0.49 in this paper (information is available from the authors).
[PubMed]

Thim, K.

T. Hansen, L. Corydon, S. Krag, K. Thim, “New multifocal intraocular lens design,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 38–41 (1990).
[PubMed]

van Dijk, H.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990). The spatial frequency axis in Fig. 2 must be multiplied by 0.49 in this paper (information is available from the authors).
[PubMed]

Walsh, G.

W. N. Charman, G. Walsh, “Retinal image quality with different designs of bifocal contact lens,” presented at the British Contact Lens Association Conference, 1986.

Willis, T. R.

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990). The spatial frequency axis in Fig. 2 must be multiplied by 0.49 in this paper (information is available from the authors).
[PubMed]

Young, G.

G. Young, C. P. Grey, E. B. Papas, “Simultaneous vision bifocal contact lenses: A comparative assessment of the in vitro optical performance,” Opt. Vision Sci. 67, 339–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zabel, R. W.

R. J. Duffey, R. W. Zabel, R. L. Lindstrom, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 423–429 (1990).
[PubMed]

Biol. Cybern. (1)

G. J. Burton, “Contrast discrimination by the human visual system,” Biol. Cybern. 40, 27–38 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Implant Refract. Surg. (1)

M. J. Simpson, “The diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” Eur. J. Implant Refract. Surg. 1, 115–121 (1989).

Implants Ophthalmol. (1)

R. P. Lehmann, “Experience with 3M diffractive multifocal IOL: Follow up on a small series,” Implants Ophthalmol. 3, 74–76 (1989).

J. Am. Optom. Assoc. (1)

I. M. Borish, S. Soni, “Bifocal contact lenses,” J. Am. Optom. Assoc. 53, 219–229 (1982).
[PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (9)

L. W. Grossman, W. B. Knight, “Resolution testing of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 17, 84–90 (1991).
[PubMed]

M. J. Simpson, “Optical quality of intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 18, 86–94 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. T. Holladay, H. van Dijk, A. Lang, V. Portney, T. R. Willis, R. Sun, H. C. Oksman, “Optical performance of multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 413–422 (1990). The spatial frequency axis in Fig. 2 must be multiplied by 0.49 in this paper (information is available from the authors).
[PubMed]

P. Percival, “Indications for the multizone bifocal implants,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 193–197 (1990).
[PubMed]

T. Olson, L. Corydon, “Contrast sensitivity as a function of focus in patients with diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 703–706 (1990).

T. Olson, L. Corydon, “Contrast sensitivity in patients with a new type of multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 42–46 (1990).

T. Hansen, L. Corydon, S. Krag, K. Thim, “New multifocal intraocular lens design,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 38–41 (1990).
[PubMed]

F. Goes, “Personal results with the 3M diffractive multifocal intraocular lens,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 17, 577–582 (1991).
[PubMed]

R. J. Duffey, R. W. Zabel, R. L. Lindstrom, “Multifocal intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 16, 423–429 (1990).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmic Optician (1)

F. A. B. Hodd, “A design study of bifocal corneal contact lenses,” Ophthalmic Optician450–469 (3May1969); 588–600 (31 May 1969); 644–653 (14 June 1969); 700–702 (28 June 1969).

Ophthalmology (1)

H. V. Gimbel, D. R. Sanders, M. G. Raanan, “Visual and rafractive results of multifocal intraocular lenses,” Ophthalmology 98, 881–888 (1991).
[PubMed]

Opt. Vision Sci. (1)

G. Young, C. P. Grey, E. B. Papas, “Simultaneous vision bifocal contact lenses: A comparative assessment of the in vitro optical performance,” Opt. Vision Sci. 67, 339–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

S. A. Klein, Z. Y. Ho, “Multizone bifocal contact lens design,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Diffraction Phenomena, R. E. Fischer, J. E. Harvey, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.679, 25–35 (1986).

J. A. Futhey, “Diffractive bifocal intraocular lens,” in Holographic Optics: Optically and Computer Generated, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.1052, 142–149 (1989).

A. G. Bennett, R. B. Rabbetts, Clinical Visual Optics (Butterworth, Stoneham, Mass., 1984).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), p. 123.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).

W. N. Charman, G. Walsh, “Retinal image quality with different designs of bifocal contact lens,” presented at the British Contact Lens Association Conference, 1986.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distant object is imaged onto the retina by the base power of the multifocal implant. The add power simultaneously forms an image in front of the retina, but this is highly defocused at the retina. Near vision operates in a manner that is similar, with the near object location causing the add image to be in focus on the retina.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Limiting aperture and image distances determining the geometrical diameters of the primary halos. The base power provides distance vision. The add power provides near vision.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) IOL measurement in a parallel-sided wet cell with the object at infinity. (b) IOL measurement in the converging beam eye model, A reversed collimator is used to provide a converging beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The LSF and MTF data measured from a 20/+3.5-D biconvex IOL in a wet cell by using an object at infinity. A 3-mm diam aperture, a 550-nm illumination. (a), (b) Distance power. (c), (d) Near power. The dotted curve represents the perfect monofocal MTF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Standard solid-state EROS software produces MTF values (dotted curve) that are ~ 40% higher than those calculated directly from the raw data (solid curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Mean halo intensity over the regions between the cursor pairs is used to identify the in-focus component of the LSF. (b) The focused LSF component.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

MTF curves for the in-focus component of (a) the distance image and (b) the near image. The dotted curve shows the perfect monofocal MTF for comparison.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

LSF and MTF curves for an IOL in an eye model. The aperture is 3 mm. There is narrow-band illumination. (a), (b) The centered IOL. (c), (d) The IOL decentered by 1 mm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h base = d × P add / P base ,
h add = d × P add / ( P base + P add ) ,
h base = d × X × P add / ( P base × X + 1336 ) ,
h add = d × X × P add / [ ( P base + P add ) × X + 1336 ] .

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