Abstract

Two-dimensional fluorescence, lasing, and stimulated Raman scattering images of a hollow-cone nozzle spray are observed. The various constituents of the spray, such as vapor, liquid ligaments, small droplets, and large droplets, are distinguished by selectively imaging different colors associated with the inelastic light-scattering processes.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Dombrowski, R. P. Fraser, “A photographic investigation into the disintegration of liquid sheets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 247, 101–130 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Kamimoto, H. Kobayashi, S. Matsuoka, “A big size rapid compression machine for fundamental studies of diesel combustion,” SAE paper 811004 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1981).
  3. K. R. Browne, I. M. Partridge, G. Greeves, “Fuel property effects on fuel/air mixing in an experimental diesel engine,” SAE paper 860223 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1986).
  4. L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/liquid visualization for fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217–222 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. A. Melton, “Spectrally separated fluorescence emissions for diesel fuel droplets and vapor,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2224–2226 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. L. A. Melton, A. M. Murray, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser fluorescence measurements for fuel sprays,” in Remote Sensing, R. T. Menzies, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.644, 40–47 (1986).
  7. R. R. Maly, G. W. Mayer, B. Reck, R. A. Schaudt, “Optical diagnostic for diesel-sprays with μs-time resolution,” SAE paper 910727 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).
  8. K. Bauckhage, M. Dannehl, U. Fritsching, F. Schöne, G. Schulte, “Phase Doppler measurements of drop size and velocity in the spray cone of a pressure nozzle and a pneumatic atomizer,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Laser Anemometry Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), pp. 325–334.
  9. M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Droplet sizing in fuel injections by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 15, 872–874 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Droplet evaporation measured by nonlinear Raman method,” J. Phys. D 23, 1103–1108 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Simulation of stimulated Raman scattering in droplets,” J. Phys. D 23, 1109–1113 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. P. Acker, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, “Stimulated Raman scattering of fuel droplets: chemical concentration and size determination,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 9–16 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. S. Kwok, C. F. Wood, R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence imaging of CO2 laser-heated droplets,” Opt. Lett. 15, 664–666 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351–1354 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. K. Chang, “Micrometer-size droplets as optical cavities: lasing and other nonlinear effects,” in Advances in Laser Science II, M. Lapp, W. C. Stwalley, G. A. Kenney–Wallace, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1987), pp. 509–515.
  17. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 93–104.
  18. D. S. Benincasa, P. W. Barber, J.-Z. Zhang, W.-F. Hsieh, R. K. Chang, “Spatial distribution of the internal and near-field intensities of large cylindrical and spherical scatterers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1348–1356 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
  20. S. C. Ching, H. M. Lai, K. Young, “Dielectric microspheres as optical cavities: thermal spectrum and density of states,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1995–2003 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  21. H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, A. J. Campillo, “Some characteristics of a droplet whispering-gallery-mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 614–616 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S.-X. Qian, J.B. Snow, R. K. Chang, “Coherent Raman mixing and coherent anti-strokes Raman scattering from individual micrometer-size droplets,” Opt. Lett. 10, 499–501 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J.-Z. Zhang, R. K. Chang, “Generation and suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single liquid droplets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 151–153 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  27. W. P. Acker, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Third-order optical sum frequency generation in micrometer-sized liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 14, 402–404 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. D. H. Leach, W. P. Acker, R. K. Chang, “Effect of the phase velocity and spatial overlap of spherical resonances on sum-frequency generation in droplets,” Opt. Lett. 15, 894–896 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances,” in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.
  30. S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances associated with stimulated processes in microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 3, 1509–1514 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  31. J.-Z. Zhang, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Photon lifetime within a droplet: temporal determination of elastic and stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 270–272 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. P. R. Conwell, C. K. Rushforth, R. E. Benner, S. C. Hill, “Efficient automated algorithm for the sizing of dielectric microspheres using the resonance spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1181–1186 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  33. H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, “Identification of morphology dependent resonances in stimulated Raman scattering from microdroplets,” Opt. Commun. 77, 407–410 (1990).
    [Crossref]

1990 (7)

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Droplet evaporation measured by nonlinear Raman method,” J. Phys. D 23, 1103–1108 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Simulation of stimulated Raman scattering in droplets,” J. Phys. D 23, 1109–1113 (1990).
[Crossref]

W. P. Acker, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, “Stimulated Raman scattering of fuel droplets: chemical concentration and size determination,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 9–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, “Identification of morphology dependent resonances in stimulated Raman scattering from microdroplets,” Opt. Commun. 77, 407–410 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. S. Kwok, C. F. Wood, R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence imaging of CO2 laser-heated droplets,” Opt. Lett. 15, 664–666 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Droplet sizing in fuel injections by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 15, 872–874 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Leach, W. P. Acker, R. K. Chang, “Effect of the phase velocity and spatial overlap of spherical resonances on sum-frequency generation in droplets,” Opt. Lett. 15, 894–896 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

1986 (3)

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, A. J. Campillo, “Some characteristics of a droplet whispering-gallery-mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 614–616 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances associated with stimulated processes in microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 3, 1509–1514 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (3)

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351–1354 (1977).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

N. Dombrowski, R. P. Fraser, “A photographic investigation into the disintegration of liquid sheets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 247, 101–130 (1954).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Acker, W. P.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351–1354 (1977).
[Crossref]

Barber, P. W.

D. S. Benincasa, P. W. Barber, J.-Z. Zhang, W.-F. Hsieh, R. K. Chang, “Spatial distribution of the internal and near-field intensities of large cylindrical and spherical scatterers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1348–1356 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[Crossref]

Bauckhage, K.

K. Bauckhage, M. Dannehl, U. Fritsching, F. Schöne, G. Schulte, “Phase Doppler measurements of drop size and velocity in the spray cone of a pressure nozzle and a pneumatic atomizer,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Laser Anemometry Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), pp. 325–334.

Benincasa, D. S.

Benner, R. E.

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances associated with stimulated processes in microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 3, 1509–1514 (1986).
[Crossref]

P. R. Conwell, C. K. Rushforth, R. E. Benner, S. C. Hill, “Efficient automated algorithm for the sizing of dielectric microspheres using the resonance spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1181–1186 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[Crossref]

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances,” in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 93–104.

Browne, K. R.

K. R. Browne, I. M. Partridge, G. Greeves, “Fuel property effects on fuel/air mixing in an experimental diesel engine,” SAE paper 860223 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1986).

Campillo, A. J.

H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, “Identification of morphology dependent resonances in stimulated Raman scattering from microdroplets,” Opt. Commun. 77, 407–410 (1990).
[Crossref]

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, A. J. Campillo, “Some characteristics of a droplet whispering-gallery-mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 614–616 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

A. S. Kwok, C. F. Wood, R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence imaging of CO2 laser-heated droplets,” Opt. Lett. 15, 664–666 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. P. Acker, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, “Stimulated Raman scattering of fuel droplets: chemical concentration and size determination,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 9–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. H. Leach, W. P. Acker, R. K. Chang, “Effect of the phase velocity and spatial overlap of spherical resonances on sum-frequency generation in droplets,” Opt. Lett. 15, 894–896 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-Z. Zhang, R. K. Chang, “Generation and suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in single liquid droplets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 151–153 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. P. Acker, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Third-order optical sum frequency generation in micrometer-sized liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 14, 402–404 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-Z. Zhang, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Photon lifetime within a droplet: temporal determination of elastic and stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 270–272 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Benincasa, P. W. Barber, J.-Z. Zhang, W.-F. Hsieh, R. K. Chang, “Spatial distribution of the internal and near-field intensities of large cylindrical and spherical scatterers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1348–1356 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-X. Qian, J.B. Snow, R. K. Chang, “Coherent Raman mixing and coherent anti-strokes Raman scattering from individual micrometer-size droplets,” Opt. Lett. 10, 499–501 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. K. Chang, “Micrometer-size droplets as optical cavities: lasing and other nonlinear effects,” in Advances in Laser Science II, M. Lapp, W. C. Stwalley, G. A. Kenney–Wallace, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1987), pp. 509–515.

Ching, S. C.

Conwell, P. R.

Dannehl, M.

K. Bauckhage, M. Dannehl, U. Fritsching, F. Schöne, G. Schulte, “Phase Doppler measurements of drop size and velocity in the spray cone of a pressure nozzle and a pneumatic atomizer,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Laser Anemometry Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), pp. 325–334.

Dombrowski, N.

N. Dombrowski, R. P. Fraser, “A photographic investigation into the disintegration of liquid sheets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 247, 101–130 (1954).
[Crossref]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351–1354 (1977).
[Crossref]

Eversole, J. D.

H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, “Identification of morphology dependent resonances in stimulated Raman scattering from microdroplets,” Opt. Commun. 77, 407–410 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fraser, R. P.

N. Dombrowski, R. P. Fraser, “A photographic investigation into the disintegration of liquid sheets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 247, 101–130 (1954).
[Crossref]

Fritsching, U.

K. Bauckhage, M. Dannehl, U. Fritsching, F. Schöne, G. Schulte, “Phase Doppler measurements of drop size and velocity in the spray cone of a pressure nozzle and a pneumatic atomizer,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Laser Anemometry Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), pp. 325–334.

Golombok, M.

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Droplet sizing in fuel injections by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 15, 872–874 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Droplet evaporation measured by nonlinear Raman method,” J. Phys. D 23, 1103–1108 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Simulation of stimulated Raman scattering in droplets,” J. Phys. D 23, 1109–1113 (1990).
[Crossref]

Greeves, G.

K. R. Browne, I. M. Partridge, G. Greeves, “Fuel property effects on fuel/air mixing in an experimental diesel engine,” SAE paper 860223 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1986).

Hill, S. C.

W. P. Acker, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, “Stimulated Raman scattering of fuel droplets: chemical concentration and size determination,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 9–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances associated with stimulated processes in microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 3, 1509–1514 (1986).
[Crossref]

P. R. Conwell, C. K. Rushforth, R. E. Benner, S. C. Hill, “Efficient automated algorithm for the sizing of dielectric microspheres using the resonance spectrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1181–1186 (1984).
[Crossref]

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances,” in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.

Hsieh, W.-F.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 93–104.

Huston, A. L.

Justus, B. L.

Kamimoto, T.

T. Kamimoto, H. Kobayashi, S. Matsuoka, “A big size rapid compression machine for fundamental studies of diesel combustion,” SAE paper 811004 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1981).

Kobayashi, H.

T. Kamimoto, H. Kobayashi, S. Matsuoka, “A big size rapid compression machine for fundamental studies of diesel combustion,” SAE paper 811004 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1981).

Kwok, A. S.

Lai, H. M.

Leach, D. H.

Lin, H.-B.

H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, “Identification of morphology dependent resonances in stimulated Raman scattering from microdroplets,” Opt. Commun. 77, 407–410 (1990).
[Crossref]

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, A. J. Campillo, “Some characteristics of a droplet whispering-gallery-mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 614–616 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, M. B.

Maly, R. R.

R. R. Maly, G. W. Mayer, B. Reck, R. A. Schaudt, “Optical diagnostic for diesel-sprays with μs-time resolution,” SAE paper 910727 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

Matsuoka, S.

T. Kamimoto, H. Kobayashi, S. Matsuoka, “A big size rapid compression machine for fundamental studies of diesel combustion,” SAE paper 811004 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1981).

Mayer, G. W.

R. R. Maly, G. W. Mayer, B. Reck, R. A. Schaudt, “Optical diagnostic for diesel-sprays with μs-time resolution,” SAE paper 910727 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

Melton, L. A.

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/liquid visualization for fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217–222 (1985).
[Crossref]

L. A. Melton, “Spectrally separated fluorescence emissions for diesel fuel droplets and vapor,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2224–2226 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Melton, A. M. Murray, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser fluorescence measurements for fuel sprays,” in Remote Sensing, R. T. Menzies, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.644, 40–47 (1986).

Murray, A. M.

L. A. Melton, A. M. Murray, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser fluorescence measurements for fuel sprays,” in Remote Sensing, R. T. Menzies, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.644, 40–47 (1986).

Owen, J. F.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[Crossref]

Partridge, I. M.

K. R. Browne, I. M. Partridge, G. Greeves, “Fuel property effects on fuel/air mixing in an experimental diesel engine,” SAE paper 860223 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1986).

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Pye, D. B.

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Simulation of stimulated Raman scattering in droplets,” J. Phys. D 23, 1109–1113 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Droplet evaporation measured by nonlinear Raman method,” J. Phys. D 23, 1103–1108 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Droplet sizing in fuel injections by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 15, 872–874 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, S.-X.

Reck, B.

R. R. Maly, G. W. Mayer, B. Reck, R. A. Schaudt, “Optical diagnostic for diesel-sprays with μs-time resolution,” SAE paper 910727 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

Rushforth, C. K.

Schaudt, R. A.

R. R. Maly, G. W. Mayer, B. Reck, R. A. Schaudt, “Optical diagnostic for diesel-sprays with μs-time resolution,” SAE paper 910727 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

Schöne, F.

K. Bauckhage, M. Dannehl, U. Fritsching, F. Schöne, G. Schulte, “Phase Doppler measurements of drop size and velocity in the spray cone of a pressure nozzle and a pneumatic atomizer,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Laser Anemometry Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), pp. 325–334.

Schulte, G.

K. Bauckhage, M. Dannehl, U. Fritsching, F. Schöne, G. Schulte, “Phase Doppler measurements of drop size and velocity in the spray cone of a pressure nozzle and a pneumatic atomizer,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Laser Anemometry Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), pp. 325–334.

Serpengüzel, A.

W. P. Acker, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, “Stimulated Raman scattering of fuel droplets: chemical concentration and size determination,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 9–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

Snow, J. B.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snow, J.B.

Tzeng, H.-M.

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verdieck, J. F.

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/liquid visualization for fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217–222 (1985).
[Crossref]

L. A. Melton, A. M. Murray, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser fluorescence measurements for fuel sprays,” in Remote Sensing, R. T. Menzies, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.644, 40–47 (1986).

Wall, K. F.

Wood, C. F.

Young, K.

Zhang, J.-Z.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. P. Acker, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, “Stimulated Raman scattering of fuel droplets: chemical concentration and size determination,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 9–16 (1990).
[Crossref]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/liquid visualization for fuel sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217–222 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances associated with stimulated processes in microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am B 3, 1509–1514 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. D (2)

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Droplet evaporation measured by nonlinear Raman method,” J. Phys. D 23, 1103–1108 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Simulation of stimulated Raman scattering in droplets,” J. Phys. D 23, 1109–1113 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, “Identification of morphology dependent resonances in stimulated Raman scattering from microdroplets,” Opt. Commun. 77, 407–410 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (9)

J.-Z. Zhang, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Photon lifetime within a droplet: temporal determination of elastic and stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 270–272 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. P. Acker, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, “Third-order optical sum frequency generation in micrometer-sized liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 14, 402–404 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Leach, W. P. Acker, R. K. Chang, “Effect of the phase velocity and spatial overlap of spherical resonances on sum-frequency generation in droplets,” Opt. Lett. 15, 894–896 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, A. J. Campillo, “Some characteristics of a droplet whispering-gallery-mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 11, 614–616 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-X. Qian, J.B. Snow, R. K. Chang, “Coherent Raman mixing and coherent anti-strokes Raman scattering from individual micrometer-size droplets,” Opt. Lett. 10, 499–501 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Kwok, C. F. Wood, R. K. Chang, “Fluorescence imaging of CO2 laser-heated droplets,” Opt. Lett. 15, 664–666 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Golombok, D. B. Pye, “Droplet sizing in fuel injections by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 15, 872–874 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

N. Dombrowski, R. P. Fraser, “A photographic investigation into the disintegration of liquid sheets,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 247, 101–130 (1954).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, “Observation of resonances in the radiation pressure on dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351–1354 (1977).
[Crossref]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, “Observation of structure resonances in the fluorescence spectra from microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475–478 (1980).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S.-X. Qian, J. B. Snow, H.-M. Tzeng, R. K. Chang, “Lasing droplets: highlighting the liquid–air interface by laser emission,” Science 231, 486–488 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

S. C. Hill, R. E. Benner, “Morphology-dependent resonances,” in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), pp. 3–61.

R. K. Chang, “Micrometer-size droplets as optical cavities: lasing and other nonlinear effects,” in Advances in Laser Science II, M. Lapp, W. C. Stwalley, G. A. Kenney–Wallace, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1987), pp. 509–515.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983), pp. 93–104.

T. Kamimoto, H. Kobayashi, S. Matsuoka, “A big size rapid compression machine for fundamental studies of diesel combustion,” SAE paper 811004 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1981).

K. R. Browne, I. M. Partridge, G. Greeves, “Fuel property effects on fuel/air mixing in an experimental diesel engine,” SAE paper 860223 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1986).

L. A. Melton, A. M. Murray, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser fluorescence measurements for fuel sprays,” in Remote Sensing, R. T. Menzies, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.644, 40–47 (1986).

R. R. Maly, G. W. Mayer, B. Reck, R. A. Schaudt, “Optical diagnostic for diesel-sprays with μs-time resolution,” SAE paper 910727 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

K. Bauckhage, M. Dannehl, U. Fritsching, F. Schöne, G. Schulte, “Phase Doppler measurements of drop size and velocity in the spray cone of a pressure nozzle and a pneumatic atomizer,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Laser Anemometry Advances and Applications, J. Turner, S. Fraser, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), pp. 325–334.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the rays of the incident beam and the spatial distribution of the internal intensity (shaded areas) of the input-laser and lasing (or SRS) waves in the droplet equatorial plane. The intensity maximum of the input-laser beam is along the principal diameter and is concentrated on the shadow and illuminated sides of the droplet. The generated lasing (or SRS) waves are on MDR’s that are represented as two counterpropagating traveling waves or standing waves around the droplet rim.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Typical spectral profiles of the fluorescence efficiency (light curve) and absorption cross section (heavy curve) of a fluorescent-dye-containing liquid in an optical cell. (b) Comparison of the fluorescence efficiency from the same dye-containing liquid in an optical cell and in the form of a droplet. For the droplet the fluorescence efficiency at discrete wavelengths corresponding to MDR’s is enhanced, while the fluorescence efficiency at other wavelengths is inhibited.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of log10(Q) of MDR’s (with TE and TM polarizations) on the droplet size parameter x = 2πa/λ. The index of refraction of the droplet is assumed to be Re[m(ω)] = 1.35 and Im[m(ω)] = 0. Each curve is for a different MDR mode order . MDR’s with Q > 1027 are clamped at Q = 1027. The Q values between 106 and 108 are highlighted.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the experimental arrangement. The direction of the laser beam is along the horizontal x axis, and the laser polarization is along the vertical z axis. The green laser beam is formed into a sheet with the combination of a diverging spherical lens and a converging cylindrical lens. The spray emerges from the vertically directed nozzle (along the −z axis) and is photographed with a 35-mm camera.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the spray from the nozzle and the image field of view from Regions 1, 2, and 3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Green elastic scattering image of the Rhodamine-6G dye-doped water spray with 2× magnification and a single laser shot (left). Wavelength-shifted fluorescence and lasing image of the Rhodamine-6G dye-doped water spray with 2× magnification and five laser shots (right). Both frames are from Region 1 of Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength-shifted SRS image of an ethanol spray with 2× magnification and ten laser shots (left). The image is from Region 1 of Fig. 5. Lasing image of a linear stream of Rhodamine-6G dye-doped ethanol droplets from a Berglund–Liu piezoelectric vibrating-orifice droplet generator (right).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fluorescence and lasing image of the Rhodamine-6G dye-doped water spray with 8× magnification and four laser shots (left). The frame is from Region 2 of Fig. 5. Fluorescence and lasing image of the Rhodamine-6G dye-doped water spray with 8× magnification and a single laser shot. The frame is from Region 3 of Fig. 5.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Various Images from Spray Constituents

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