Abstract

We report a reproducible technique of making side-polished fibers by embedding fibers in silicon V grooves and by polishing them mechanically. Details of V grooves and polishing techniques are described. The attenuation characteristics of polished fibers were measured by a liquid-drop method; the results are in excellent agreement with existing theoretical predictions. To facilitate comparisons, we cast expressions for the attenuation constant in terms of three generalized parameters: the V and b parameters for the fiber and a new generalized parameter Vex for the external medium. By using these generalized parameters, we can study the effects of the external medium on the attenuation constant of side-polished fibers in great detail, including in particular the region where the attenuation changes precipitously.

© 1992 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746–754 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “Single-mode fiber-optic polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 5, 479–481 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Z. K. Ioannidis, I. P. Giles, “Liquid crystal all-fiber optical polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1453–1455 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Kumar, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, “Relative transmission loss of TE- and TM-like modes in metal-coated coupler halves,” Electron. Lett. 25, 301–302 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Markatos, S. Ayres, D. Kreit, A. Kerr, R. C. Youngquist, I. P. Giles, “Optical fiber switch,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng798, 376–380 (1987).
  6. B. F. Lamouroux, A. G. Orszag, B. S. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, “Continuous laser amplification in a monomode fiber longitudinally pumped by evanescent field coupling,” Opt. Lett. 8, 504–505 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. A. Newton, K. P. Jackson, H. J. Shaw, “Optical fiber V-groove transversal filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 149–151 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. J. F. Digonnet, J. R. Feth, L. F. Stokes, H. J. Shaw, “Measurement of the core proximity in polished fiber substrates and couplers,” Opt. Lett. 10, 463–465 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. J. Severin, “Multipurpose single-mode fiber-optic coupling substrate made with silicon etch and polish technique,” Electron. Lett. 25, 969–970 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. D. Hussey, J. D. Minelly, “Optical fiber polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel,” Electron. Lett. 24, 805–807 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. A. Arnaud, “Transverse coupling in fiber optics, part I: coupling between trapped modes,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 217–224 (1974).
  12. J. A. Arnaud, “Transverse coupling in fiber optics, part II: coupling to mode sinks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 675–696 (1974).
  13. D. Marcuse, “Electrooptic coupling between TE and TM modes in anisotropic slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 759–767 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Lamouroux, P. Morel, B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, “Evanescent-field coupling between a monomode fiber and a high-index medium of limited thickness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 759–764 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  15. O. G. Leminger, R. Zengerle, “Determination of single-mode fiber coupler design parameters from loss measurements,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 864–867 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Marcuse, “Investigation of coupling between a fiber and an infinite slab,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 122–130 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Vassallo, “Perturbation of a LP mode of an optical fiber by a quasi-degenerate field: a simple formula,” Quantum Electron. 17, 201–205 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. Vassallo, “Rigorous theory for modes of optical fibers with cladding limited by a plane,” Electron. Lett. 22, 944–945 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Sharma, J. Kompella, P. K. Mishra, “Analysis of fiber directional couplers and coupler half-blocks using a new simple model for single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143–151 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  20. O. Leminger, R. Zengerle, “Determination of the variable core-to-surface spacing of single-mode fiber-coupler blocks,” Opt. Lett. 12, 211–213 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983).
  22. R. M. Finne, D. L. Klein, “A water-amine-complexing agent system for etching silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 965–970 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. B. Angell, S. C. Terry, P. W. Barth, “Silicon micromechanical devices,” Sci. Am. 248(4), 44–55 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. Thyagarajan, S. Diggavi, A. K. Ghatak, “Analytical investigations of leaky and absorbing planar structures,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 131–137 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, S. R. Mallinson, “Exposed-core single-mode-fiber channel-dropping filter using a high-index overlay waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 12, 284–286 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. E. W. Washburn, ed., International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962), Vol. VII.
  27. R. C. Weast, M. J. Astle, W. H. Beyer, Eds., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 69th ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1988).
  28. C. M. Wheeler, F. S. Jones, “Refractive indices of some cyclohexanol solutions,” Ann. Chem. 24, 1991–1992 (1952).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. W. Tilton, “Standard conditions for precise prism refractometry,” Precision Measurement and Calibration: Selected Papers on Optics, Metrology, and Radiation, Handbook 77 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1961), Vol. III, pp. 432–457.
  30. G. B. Hocker, “Fiber-optic sensing of pressure and temperature,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1445–1448 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensor applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624–1633 (1982).
    [Crossref]

1990 (1)

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, P. K. Mishra, “Analysis of fiber directional couplers and coupler half-blocks using a new simple model for single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143–151 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

A. Kumar, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, “Relative transmission loss of TE- and TM-like modes in metal-coated coupler halves,” Electron. Lett. 25, 301–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. J. Severin, “Multipurpose single-mode fiber-optic coupling substrate made with silicon etch and polish technique,” Electron. Lett. 25, 969–970 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. Marcuse, “Investigation of coupling between a fiber and an infinite slab,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 122–130 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

Z. K. Ioannidis, I. P. Giles, “Liquid crystal all-fiber optical polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1453–1455 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. D. Hussey, J. D. Minelly, “Optical fiber polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel,” Electron. Lett. 24, 805–807 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (3)

1986 (1)

C. Vassallo, “Rigorous theory for modes of optical fibers with cladding limited by a plane,” Electron. Lett. 22, 944–945 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (4)

C. Vassallo, “Perturbation of a LP mode of an optical fiber by a quasi-degenerate field: a simple formula,” Quantum Electron. 17, 201–205 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. J. F. Digonnet, J. R. Feth, L. F. Stokes, H. J. Shaw, “Measurement of the core proximity in polished fiber substrates and couplers,” Opt. Lett. 10, 463–465 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lamouroux, P. Morel, B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, “Evanescent-field coupling between a monomode fiber and a high-index medium of limited thickness,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 759–764 (1985).
[Crossref]

O. G. Leminger, R. Zengerle, “Determination of single-mode fiber coupler design parameters from loss measurements,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 864–867 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (3)

B. F. Lamouroux, A. G. Orszag, B. S. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, “Continuous laser amplification in a monomode fiber longitudinally pumped by evanescent field coupling,” Opt. Lett. 8, 504–505 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Newton, K. P. Jackson, H. J. Shaw, “Optical fiber V-groove transversal filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 149–151 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. B. Angell, S. C. Terry, P. W. Barth, “Silicon micromechanical devices,” Sci. Am. 248(4), 44–55 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensor applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624–1633 (1982).
[Crossref]

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746–754 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1975 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Electrooptic coupling between TE and TM modes in anisotropic slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 759–767 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

J. A. Arnaud, “Transverse coupling in fiber optics, part I: coupling between trapped modes,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 217–224 (1974).

J. A. Arnaud, “Transverse coupling in fiber optics, part II: coupling to mode sinks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 675–696 (1974).

1967 (1)

R. M. Finne, D. L. Klein, “A water-amine-complexing agent system for etching silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 965–970 (1967).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

C. M. Wheeler, F. S. Jones, “Refractive indices of some cyclohexanol solutions,” Ann. Chem. 24, 1991–1992 (1952).
[Crossref]

Angell, J. B.

J. B. Angell, S. C. Terry, P. W. Barth, “Silicon micromechanical devices,” Sci. Am. 248(4), 44–55 (1983).
[Crossref]

Arnaud, J. A.

J. A. Arnaud, “Transverse coupling in fiber optics, part I: coupling between trapped modes,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 217–224 (1974).

J. A. Arnaud, “Transverse coupling in fiber optics, part II: coupling to mode sinks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 675–696 (1974).

Ayres, S.

S. Markatos, S. Ayres, D. Kreit, A. Kerr, R. C. Youngquist, I. P. Giles, “Optical fiber switch,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng798, 376–380 (1987).

Barth, P. W.

J. B. Angell, S. C. Terry, P. W. Barth, “Silicon micromechanical devices,” Sci. Am. 248(4), 44–55 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bergh, R. A.

Brierley, M. C.

Culshaw, B.

A. Kumar, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, “Relative transmission loss of TE- and TM-like modes in metal-coated coupler halves,” Electron. Lett. 25, 301–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

Diggavi, S.

K. Thyagarajan, S. Diggavi, A. K. Ghatak, “Analytical investigations of leaky and absorbing planar structures,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 131–137 (1987).
[Crossref]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, J. R. Feth, L. F. Stokes, H. J. Shaw, “Measurement of the core proximity in polished fiber substrates and couplers,” Opt. Lett. 10, 463–465 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746–754 (1982).
[Crossref]

Feth, J. R.

Finne, R. M.

R. M. Finne, D. L. Klein, “A water-amine-complexing agent system for etching silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 965–970 (1967).
[Crossref]

Ghatak, A. K.

K. Thyagarajan, S. Diggavi, A. K. Ghatak, “Analytical investigations of leaky and absorbing planar structures,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 131–137 (1987).
[Crossref]

Giles, I. P.

Z. K. Ioannidis, I. P. Giles, “Liquid crystal all-fiber optical polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1453–1455 (1988).
[Crossref]

S. Markatos, S. Ayres, D. Kreit, A. Kerr, R. C. Youngquist, I. P. Giles, “Optical fiber switch,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng798, 376–380 (1987).

Hocker, G. B.

Hussey, C. D.

C. D. Hussey, J. D. Minelly, “Optical fiber polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel,” Electron. Lett. 24, 805–807 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ioannidis, Z. K.

Z. K. Ioannidis, I. P. Giles, “Liquid crystal all-fiber optical polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1453–1455 (1988).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensor applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624–1633 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jackson, K. P.

S. A. Newton, K. P. Jackson, H. J. Shaw, “Optical fiber V-groove transversal filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 149–151 (1983).
[Crossref]

Jones, F. S.

C. M. Wheeler, F. S. Jones, “Refractive indices of some cyclohexanol solutions,” Ann. Chem. 24, 1991–1992 (1952).
[Crossref]

Kerr, A.

S. Markatos, S. Ayres, D. Kreit, A. Kerr, R. C. Youngquist, I. P. Giles, “Optical fiber switch,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng798, 376–380 (1987).

Klein, D. L.

R. M. Finne, D. L. Klein, “A water-amine-complexing agent system for etching silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 965–970 (1967).
[Crossref]

Kompella, J.

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, P. K. Mishra, “Analysis of fiber directional couplers and coupler half-blocks using a new simple model for single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143–151 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kreit, D.

S. Markatos, S. Ayres, D. Kreit, A. Kerr, R. C. Youngquist, I. P. Giles, “Optical fiber switch,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng798, 376–380 (1987).

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, “Relative transmission loss of TE- and TM-like modes in metal-coated coupler halves,” Electron. Lett. 25, 301–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kurosawa, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensor applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624–1633 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, B.

Lamouroux, B. F.

Lefevre, H. C.

Leminger, O.

Leminger, O. G.

O. G. Leminger, R. Zengerle, “Determination of single-mode fiber coupler design parameters from loss measurements,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 864–867 (1985).
[Crossref]

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983).

Mallinson, S. R.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Investigation of coupling between a fiber and an infinite slab,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 122–130 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. Marcuse, “Electrooptic coupling between TE and TM modes in anisotropic slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 759–767 (1975).
[Crossref]

Markatos, S.

S. Markatos, S. Ayres, D. Kreit, A. Kerr, R. C. Youngquist, I. P. Giles, “Optical fiber switch,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng798, 376–380 (1987).

Millar, C. A.

Minelly, J. D.

C. D. Hussey, J. D. Minelly, “Optical fiber polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel,” Electron. Lett. 24, 805–807 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mishra, P. K.

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, P. K. Mishra, “Analysis of fiber directional couplers and coupler half-blocks using a new simple model for single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143–151 (1990).
[Crossref]

Morel, P.

Newton, S. A.

S. A. Newton, K. P. Jackson, H. J. Shaw, “Optical fiber V-groove transversal filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 149–151 (1983).
[Crossref]

Orszag, A. G.

Ose, T.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensor applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624–1633 (1982).
[Crossref]

Prade, B.

Prade, B. S.

Severin, P. J.

P. J. Severin, “Multipurpose single-mode fiber-optic coupling substrate made with silicon etch and polish technique,” Electron. Lett. 25, 969–970 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sharma, A.

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, P. K. Mishra, “Analysis of fiber directional couplers and coupler half-blocks using a new simple model for single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143–151 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shaw, H. J.

M. J. F. Digonnet, J. R. Feth, L. F. Stokes, H. J. Shaw, “Measurement of the core proximity in polished fiber substrates and couplers,” Opt. Lett. 10, 463–465 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Newton, K. P. Jackson, H. J. Shaw, “Optical fiber V-groove transversal filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 149–151 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746–754 (1982).
[Crossref]

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, H. J. Shaw, “Single-mode fiber-optic polarizer,” Opt. Lett. 5, 479–481 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983).

Stokes, L. F.

Terry, S. C.

J. B. Angell, S. C. Terry, P. W. Barth, “Silicon micromechanical devices,” Sci. Am. 248(4), 44–55 (1983).
[Crossref]

Thyagarajan, K.

K. Thyagarajan, S. Diggavi, A. K. Ghatak, “Analytical investigations of leaky and absorbing planar structures,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 131–137 (1987).
[Crossref]

Tilton, L. W.

L. W. Tilton, “Standard conditions for precise prism refractometry,” Precision Measurement and Calibration: Selected Papers on Optics, Metrology, and Radiation, Handbook 77 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1961), Vol. III, pp. 432–457.

Uttamchandani, D.

A. Kumar, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, “Relative transmission loss of TE- and TM-like modes in metal-coated coupler halves,” Electron. Lett. 25, 301–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

Vassallo, C.

C. Vassallo, “Rigorous theory for modes of optical fibers with cladding limited by a plane,” Electron. Lett. 22, 944–945 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. Vassallo, “Perturbation of a LP mode of an optical fiber by a quasi-degenerate field: a simple formula,” Quantum Electron. 17, 201–205 (1985).
[Crossref]

Vinet, J. Y.

Wheeler, C. M.

C. M. Wheeler, F. S. Jones, “Refractive indices of some cyclohexanol solutions,” Ann. Chem. 24, 1991–1992 (1952).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, T.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensor applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624–1633 (1982).
[Crossref]

Youngquist, R. C.

S. Markatos, S. Ayres, D. Kreit, A. Kerr, R. C. Youngquist, I. P. Giles, “Optical fiber switch,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng798, 376–380 (1987).

Zengerle, R.

O. Leminger, R. Zengerle, “Determination of the variable core-to-surface spacing of single-mode fiber-coupler blocks,” Opt. Lett. 12, 211–213 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Leminger, R. Zengerle, “Determination of single-mode fiber coupler design parameters from loss measurements,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 864–867 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ann. Chem. (1)

C. M. Wheeler, F. S. Jones, “Refractive indices of some cyclohexanol solutions,” Ann. Chem. 24, 1991–1992 (1952).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. A. Newton, K. P. Jackson, H. J. Shaw, “Optical fiber V-groove transversal filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 149–151 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

J. A. Arnaud, “Transverse coupling in fiber optics, part I: coupling between trapped modes,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 217–224 (1974).

J. A. Arnaud, “Transverse coupling in fiber optics, part II: coupling to mode sinks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 675–696 (1974).

Electron. Lett. (5)

C. Vassallo, “Rigorous theory for modes of optical fibers with cladding limited by a plane,” Electron. Lett. 22, 944–945 (1986).
[Crossref]

P. J. Severin, “Multipurpose single-mode fiber-optic coupling substrate made with silicon etch and polish technique,” Electron. Lett. 25, 969–970 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. D. Hussey, J. D. Minelly, “Optical fiber polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel,” Electron. Lett. 24, 805–807 (1988).
[Crossref]

Z. K. Ioannidis, I. P. Giles, “Liquid crystal all-fiber optical polarizer,” Electron. Lett. 24, 1453–1455 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, D. Uttamchandani, B. Culshaw, “Relative transmission loss of TE- and TM-like modes in metal-coated coupler halves,” Electron. Lett. 25, 301–302 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, P. K. Mishra, “Analysis of fiber directional couplers and coupler half-blocks using a new simple model for single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 143–151 (1990).
[Crossref]

O. G. Leminger, R. Zengerle, “Determination of single-mode fiber coupler design parameters from loss measurements,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 864–867 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. Marcuse, “Investigation of coupling between a fiber and an infinite slab,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 122–130 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, T. Ose, “Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot interferometer and its sensor applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1624–1633 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. Marcuse, “Electrooptic coupling between TE and TM modes in anisotropic slabs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 759–767 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 746–754 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

R. M. Finne, D. L. Klein, “A water-amine-complexing agent system for etching silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 114, 965–970 (1967).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Thyagarajan, S. Diggavi, A. K. Ghatak, “Analytical investigations of leaky and absorbing planar structures,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 131–137 (1987).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Vassallo, “Perturbation of a LP mode of an optical fiber by a quasi-degenerate field: a simple formula,” Quantum Electron. 17, 201–205 (1985).
[Crossref]

Sci. Am. (1)

J. B. Angell, S. C. Terry, P. W. Barth, “Silicon micromechanical devices,” Sci. Am. 248(4), 44–55 (1983).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

E. W. Washburn, ed., International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962), Vol. VII.

R. C. Weast, M. J. Astle, W. H. Beyer, Eds., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 69th ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1988).

L. W. Tilton, “Standard conditions for precise prism refractometry,” Precision Measurement and Calibration: Selected Papers on Optics, Metrology, and Radiation, Handbook 77 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1961), Vol. III, pp. 432–457.

S. Markatos, S. Ayres, D. Kreit, A. Kerr, R. C. Youngquist, I. P. Giles, “Optical fiber switch,” in Fiber Optic Sensors II, A. M. Scheggi, ed., Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng798, 376–380 (1987).

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, New York, 1983).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a side-polished fiber: (a) three-dimensional view, (b) side view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of a fiber embedded in a Si wafer: (a) cross-sectional view, (b) top view, (c) side view.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scratches on side-polished fibers after polishing by 1-μm particles: (a) typical results with ultrasonic cleaning only and (b) results after repeated ultrasonic cleaning and wiping.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Field patterns transmitted through a side-polished fiber for (a) a well-polished fiber and (b) a fiber with scratches.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated results of αa as a function of Vex.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated results of αa as a function of Vex based on the LZ formula.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated results of αmaxa as a function of d/a.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pliq/Pair as a function of nex for a side-polished 125-μm fiber V = 1.986 and d/a = 1.525.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparisons of experimental results with calculated results based on the LZ, Vassallo, and SKM formulas for side-polished 125-μm fibers with V = 1.986 and d/a = 1.525.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Pliq/Pair as a function of Vex for side-polished 125-μm fibers with V = 1.986. The squares and dots are experimental results with various liquids and a temperature-ramping experiment; the solid curves are the calculated results based on the LZ formula.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Maximum Power Attenuation for Various Interaction Lengthsa

Tables Icon

Table II Refractive Indices of Various Liquids at 20°C (Ref. 26)

Equations (18)

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d = w 2 cot θ 2 - b · c s c θ 2 .
V = k a ( n co 2 - n cl 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
b = ( N eff 0 2 - n cl 2 ) / ( n co 2 - n cl 2 ) ,
V ex = k a ( n ex 2 - n cl 2 ) 1 / 2             for             n ex n cl ,
α = 4 ( 2 ) 1 / 2 a 1 - b V [ Δ ( 1 + 2 Δ b ) ] 1 / 2 V ex 2 - b V 2 V ex 2 K 1 2 [ V ( b ) 1 / 2 ] × 0 1 ( 1 - ξ 2 ) 1 / 2 exp { - 2 V d a [ ( V ex 2 V 2 - b ) ξ 2 + b ] 1 / 2 } d ξ ,
Δ = ( n co - n cl ) / n co .
α 4 ( 2 Δ ) 1 / 2 a ( 1 + 2 b Δ ) 1 - b K 1 2 [ V ( b ) 1 / 2 ] [ b ( V ex 2 - b V 2 ) ] 1 / 2 V ex 2 K 0 [ 2 ( b ) 1 / 2 V d / a ] ,
n co , eq = { n co 2 - [ V 2 ( 1 - b ) - p 2 ] / ( k a ) 2 } 1 / 2 ,
n cl , eq = [ n co , eq 2 - p 2 sec 2 ( p σ ) / ( k a ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
p 3 = - 1.3528 + 1.6880 V - 0.1894 V 2 ,
σ = 0.8404 + 0.0251 V - 0.0046 V 2 .
α = 4 ( 2 ) 1 / 2 C 2 C 1 [ Δ eq ( 1 - b eq ) ] 1 / 2 a ( 1 + 2 b eq Δ eq ) V eq ( b eq ) 1 / 2 ( V ex , eq 2 - b eq V eq 2 ) 1 / 2 V ex , eq 2 × exp - 2 ( b eq ) 1 / 2 V eq ( d a - σ ) ,
C 1 = 2 σ { 2 b eq - 1 b eq cos [ 2 σ V eq ( 1 - b eq ) 1 / 2 - 2 ( 1 - b eq b eq ) 1 / 2 sin [ 2 σ V eq ( 1 - b eq ) 1 / 2 ] } + 2 V eq b eq ( b eq ) 1 / 2 cos [ 2 σ V eq ( 1 - b eq ) 1 / 2 - 2 ( 1 - b eq ) 1 / 2 V b eq 2 sin [ 2 σ V eq ( 1 - b eq ) 1 / 2 ] ,
C 2 = sin [ 2 σ V eq ( 1 - b eq ) 1 / 2 ] b eq .
V ex , eq = [ V ex 2 - ( k a ) 2 ( n cl , eq 2 - n cl 2 ) ] 1 / 2 .
V ex ( b ) 1 / 2 V ,
V ex [ b eq V eq 2 + ( k a ) 2 ( n cl , eq 2 - n cl 2 ) ] 1 / 2
n ( ξ ) 1.4638 + 0.00146 ( ξ - 95 ) ,

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